CircRUNX2 through has-miR-203 regulates RUNX2 to prevent osteoporosis.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:We aimed to discover the molecular mechanism of hsa_circ_0076694 (circRUNX2) on osteogenic differentiation. We also explored the interaction between circRUNX2, miR-203 and RUNX2. METHODS:Clinical samples obtained from femoral neck fracture patients' bone tissues were used to collect circRUNX2, miR-203, and RUNX2 expression data, while their expression changes were observed in human bone mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) during osteogenic differentiation. QRT-PCR and Western blot were used to analyse levels of RNAs and proteins. Biotin pull down, RIP, RNA FISH, and Dual-Luciferase Reporter assays demonstrated the relationship between circRUNX2, miR-203, and RUNX2. ALP and ARS staining were used to measure the degree of osteogenic differentiation under the control of circRUNX2, miR-203. RESULTS:CircRUNX2 were down-regulated in osteoporotic patients' bone tissues. CircRUNX2 could inhibit miR-203 expression by sponging miR-203. MiR-203 inhibited osteogenic differentiation by targeting the 3'-UTR of RUNX2 and down-regulate RUNX2 expression. Overexpression of circRUNX2 promoted the expression of osteogenic differentiation-related proteins such as RUNX2, OCN, OPN, BSP, and prevented osteoporosis. CONCLUSION:circRUNX2 could sponge miR-203 and enhance RUNX2 expression, thus circRUNX2 prevents osteoporosis and may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for it.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of small, non-coding RNAs (17-24 nucleotides), which regulate gene expression either by the degradation of the target mRNAs or inhibiting the translation of genes. Recent studies have indicated that miRNA plays an important role in regulating osteoblast differentiation. In this study, we identified miR-203 and miR-320b as important miRNAs modulating osteoblast differentiation. We identified Dlx5 as potential common target by prediction algorithms and confirmed this by knock-down and over expression of the miRNAs and assessing Dlx5 at mRNA and protein levels and specificity was verified by luciferase reporter assays. We examined the effect of miR-203 and miR-320b on osteoblast differentiation by transfecting with pre- and anti-miRs. Over-expression of miR-203 and miR-320b inhibited osteoblast differentiation, whereas inhibition of miR-203 and miR-320b stimulated alkaline phosphatase activity and matrix mineralization. We show that miR-203 and miR-320b negatively regulate BMP-2-induced osteoblast differentiation by suppressing Dlx5, which in turn suppresses the downstream osteogenic master transcription factor Runx2 and Osx and together they suppress osteoblast differentiation. Taken together, we propose a role for miR-203 and miR-320b in modulating bone metabolism.
Project description:Emerging evidence has indicated that dysregulated microRNAs (miRNAs) have an important role in bone formation. However, the pathophysiological role of miRNAs in traumatic heterotopic ossification (HO) remains to be elucidated. Using gene expression profile analyses and subsequent confirmation with real-time PCR assays, we identified the decreased expression of miRNA-203 (miR-203) and increased expression of Runx2 as responses to the development of traumatic HO. We found that miR-203 expression was markedly higher in primary and recurrent HO tissues than in normal bones. The upregulation of miR-203 significantly decreased the level of Runx2 expression, whereas miR-203 downregulation increased Runx2 expression. Mutation of the putative miR-203-binding sites in Runx2 mRNA abolished miR-203-mediated repression of Runx2 3'-untranslated region luciferase reporter activity, indicating that Runx2 is an important target of miR-203 in osteoblasts. We also found that miR-203 is negatively correlated with osteoblast differentiation. Furthermore, in vitro osteoblast activity and matrix mineralization were promoted by antagomir-203 and decreased by agomir-203. We showed that miR-203 suppresses osteoblast activity by inhibiting the ?-catenin and extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathways. Moreover, using a tenotomy mouse HO model, we found an inhibitory role of miR-203 in regulating HO in vivo; pretreatment with antagomiR-203 increased the development of HO. These data suggest that miR-203 has a crucial role in suppressing HO by directly targeting Runx2 and that the therapeutic overexpression of miR-203 may be a potential strategy for treating traumatic HO.
Project description:Progression of breast cancer to metastatic bone disease is linked to deregulated expression of the transcription factor Runx2. Therefore, our goal was to evaluate the potential for clinical use of Runx2-targeting miRNAs to reduce tumor growth and bone metastatic burden. Expression analysis of a panel of miRNAs regulating Runx2 revealed a reciprocal relationship between the abundance of Runx2 protein and two miRNAs, miR-135 and miR-203. These miRNAs are highly expressed in normal breast epithelial cells where Runx2 is not detected, and absent in metastatic breast cancer cells and tissue biopsies that express Runx2. Reconstituting metastatic MDA-MB-231-luc cells with miR-135 and miR-203 reduced the abundance of Runx2 and expression of the metastasis-promoting Runx2 target genes IL11, MMP-13, and PTHrP. In addition, tumor cell viability was decreased and migration suppressed in vitro. Orthotopic implantation of MDA-MB-231-luc cells delivered with miR-135 or miR-203, followed by an intratumoral administration of the synthetic miRNAs, reduced the tumor growth and spontaneous metastasis to bone. Furthermore, intratibial injection of these miRNA-delivered cells impaired tumor growth in the bone environment and inhibited bone resorption. Importantly, reconstitution of Runx2 in MDA-MB-231-luc cells delivered with miR-135 and miR-203 reversed the inhibitory effect of the miRNAs on tumor growth and metastasis. Thus, we have identified that aberrant expression of Runx2 in aggressive tumor cells is related to the loss of specific Runx2-targeting miRNAs and that a clinically relevant replacement strategy by delivery of synthetic miRNAs is a candidate for a therapeutic approach to prevent metastatic bone disease by this route.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the expression of genes involved in bone metabolism. This study aimed to investigate the role of miR-505 in the osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. METHODS:We performed miRNA sequencing to identify differentially expressed miRNAs between MC3T3-E1 cells treated with osteogenic induction medium (OIM) and control cells. Bioinformatics analysis was performed by using the TargetScan and miRDB databases. The expression of miR-505 in MC3T3-E1 cells was detected during osteogenic differentiation. After transfection with miR-505 mimic or miR-505 inhibitor, MC3T3-E1 cells were induced to differentiate into osteoblasts, and the expression of osteogenic differentiation markers (Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin (OCN), and osterix (OSX)) was detected. RESULTS:miR-505 was the most downregulated miRNA among the differentially expressed miRNAs. The RUNX2 gene was identified as a potential target of miR-505 using the target prediction program. miR-505 expression was downregulated during osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. The expression of osteogenic marker genes was inhibited in MC3T3-E1 cells after transfection with miR-505. However, the expression of osteogenic marker genes was upregulated after transfection with miR-505 inhibitor. CONCLUSION:This study is the first to report miR-505 could bind to the RUNX2 gene and thus regulate partly the dysfunction of osteoblasts differentiation, which is expected to be targets for the treatment of osteoporosis.
Project description:As the population ages, the medical and socioeconomic impact of age-related bone disorders will further increase. An imbalance between osteogenesis and adipogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can lead to various bone and metabolic diseases such as osteoporosis. Thus, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying MSC osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation is important for the discovery of novel therapeutic paradigms for these diseases. miR-10b has been widely reported in tumorigenesis, cancer invasion and metastasis. However, the effects and potential mechanisms of miR-10b in the regulation of MSC adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation have not been explored. In this study, we found that the expression of miR-10b was positively correlated with bone formation marker genes ALP, RUNX2 and OPN, and negatively correlated with adipogenic markers CEBP?, PPAR? and AP2 in clinical osteoporosis samples. Overexpression of miR-10b enhanced osteogenic differentiation and inhibited adipogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADSCs) in vitro, whereas downregulation of miR-10b reversed these effects. Furthermore, miR-10b promoted ectopic bone formation in vivo. Target prediction and dual luciferase reporter assays identified SMAD2 as a potential target of miR-10b. Silencing endogenous SMAD2 expression in hADSCs enhanced osteogenesis but repressed adipogenesis. Pathway analysis indicated that miR-10b promotes osteogenic differentiation and bone formation via the TGF-? signaling pathway, while suppressing adipogenic differentiation may be primarily mediated by other pathways. Taken together, our findings imply that miR-10b acts as a critical regulator for balancing osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of hADSCs by repressing SMAD2 and partly through the TGF-? pathway. Our study suggests that miR-10b is a novel target for controlling bone and metabolic diseases.
Project description:Methyltransferase-like 3 (METTL3) is the main enzyme for N6-methyladenosine (m6A)-based methylation of RNAs and it has been implicated in many biological and pathophysiological processes. In this study, we aimed to explore the potential involvement of METTL3 in osteoblast differentiation and decipher the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. We demonstrated that METTL3 is downregulated in human osteoporosis and the ovariectomized (OVX) mouse model, as well as during the osteogenic differentiation. Silence of METTL3 by short interfering RNA (siRNA) decreased m6A methylation levels and inhibited osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and reduced bone mass, and similar effects were observed in METTL3+/- knockout mice. In contrast, adenovirus-mediated overexpression of METTL3 produced the opposite effects. In addition, METTL3 enhanced, whereas METTL3 silence or knockout suppressed, the m6A methylations of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2; a key transcription factor for osteoblast differentiation and bone formation) and precursor (pre-)miR-320. Moreover, downregulation of mature miR-320 rescued the decreased bone mass caused by METTL3 silence or METTL3+/- knockout. Therefore, METTL3-based m6A modification favors osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs through m6A-based direct and indirect regulation of RUNX2, and abnormal downregulation of METTL3 is likely one of the mechanisms underlying osteoporosis in patients and mice. Thus, METTL3 overexpression might be considered a new approach of replacement therapy for the treatment of human osteoporosis.
Project description:The imbalance induced by inhibition of bone mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) osteogenic differentiation results in osteoporosis (OP); however, the underlying regulatory mechanism is not completely understood. Long non?coding RNAs (lncRNAs) serve crucial roles in osteogenic differentiation; therefore, investigating their regulatory role in the process of osteogenic differentiation may identify a promising therapeutic target for OP. The expression of small nucleolar RNA host gene 1 (SNHG1), Dickkopf 1 (DKK1), microRNA (miR)?101, RUNX family transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalin (OCN) were detected via reverse transcription?quantitative PCR. The protein expression levels of DKK1, ??catenin, RUNX2, OPN, OCN, osterix and collagen type I ?1 chain were analyzed by performing western blotting. The osteoblastic phenotype was assessed by conducting alkaline phosphatase activity detection and Alizarin Red staining. The interaction between SNHG1 and miR?101 was validated by bioinformatics and luciferase assays. The regulatory role of SNHG1 in BMSC osteogenic differentiation was assessed. SNHG1 expression was downregulated in a time?dependent manner during the process of osteogenic differentiation. SNHG1 overexpression inhibited osteogenic differentiation compared with the pcDNA group. The results indicated that SNHG1 and DKK1 directly interacted with miR?101. Moreover, SNHG1 regulated the Wnt/??catenin signaling pathway to inhibit osteogenic differentiation via the miR?101/DKK1 axis. The present study indicated that lncRNA SNHG1 could attenuate BMSC osteogenic differentiation via the miR?101/DKK1 axis as a competitive endogenous RNA. Therefore, the present study furthered the current understanding of the potential mechanism underlying lncRNAs in in osteogenic differentiation.
Project description:Osteoporosis results from the imbalance between bone resorption and bone formation, and restoring the normal balance of bone remodeling is highly desirable for identification of better treatment. In this study, using a cell-based high-throughput screening model representing Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) transcriptional activity, we identified a novel small-molecular-weight compound, T63, as an efficient up-regulator of osteogenesis. T63 increased the alkaline phosphatase (ALPL) activity and mineralization as well as gene expression of Alpl and other osteogenic marker genes in mouse osteoblasts and mesenchymal stem cell-like cells. Upon induction of osteoblast differentiation, T63 inhibited adipogenic differentiation in the pluripotent mesenchymal cells. Consistently, T63 up-regulated RUNX2 mRNA and protein levels, and knockdown of RUNX2 reduced the osteogenic role of T63. Mechanistically, T63 activated both BMPs and WNT/?-catenin signaling pathways. Inhibition of either signaling pathway with specific inhibitor suppressed T63-induced RUNX2 expression and the osteogenic phenotypes. Moreover, T63 markedly protected against bone mass loss in the ovariectomized and dexamethasone treated rat osteoporosis model. Collectively, our data demonstrate that T63 could be a promising drug candidate and deserves further development for potential therapeutics in osteoporosis.
Project description:Osteoporosis, a disease characterized by both loss of bone mass and structural deterioration of bone, is the most common reason for a broken bone among the elderly. It is known that the attenuated differentiation ability of osteogenic cells has been regarded as one of the greatest contributors to age-related bone formation reduction. However, the effects of current therapies are still unsatisfactory. In this study we identify a novel long noncoding RNA AK045490 which is correlated with osteogenic differentiation and enriched in skeletal tissues of mice. In vitro analysis of bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) showed that AK045490 inhibited osteoblast differentiation. In vivo inhibition of AK045490 by its small interfering RNA rescued bone formation in ovariectomized osteoporosis mice model. Mechanistically, AK045490 inhibited the nuclear translocation of ?-catenin and downregulated the expression of TCF1, LEF1, and Runx2. The results suggest that Lnc-AK045490 suppresses ?-catenin/TCF1/Runx2 signaling and inhibits osteoblast differentiation and bone formation, providing a novel mechanism of osteogenic differentiation and a potential drug target for osteoporosis.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To observe the dynamic expression of DKK1 protein in the process whereby Epimedium-derived flavonoids (EFs) regulate the balance between osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells in ovariectomized rats, and to provide experimental evidence for the mechanism of EFs in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. METHODS:? Bone marrow stromal cells from ovariectomized rats were separated and cultivated in osteoinductive or liquid medium for 15 days in vitro. EFs (10?µg/mL) were applied to both cultures. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, ALP activity determination, Oil Red O staining and fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction were used to determine the influence of EFs on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells in ovariectomized rats. Moreover, in order to explore the exact mechanism of EFs on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells in ovariectomized rats, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the dynamic expression of DKK1 protein in this process. RESULTS:EFs increased activity of ALP and mRNA expression of Runx2 (early osteoblast differentiation factor) and decreased mRNA expression of PPAR?-2 (key factor of fat generation). Importantly, EFs down-regulated expression of DKK1 protein in an osteogenic induction medium and inhibited up-regulation of DKK1 protein in an adipogenic induction medium. CONCLUSION:? EFs regulate the balance between osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells in ovariectomized rats by down-regulating expression of DKK1 protein. This may be an important molecular mechanism of EFs in the context of treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.