Prevalence of Antibiotic Residues and Antibiotic Resistance in Isolates of Chicken Meat in Korea.
ABSTRACT: The aim of study was to investigate the correlation between the level of 17 antibiotic residues and 6 antibiotic resistances of Escherichia coli isolates in chicken meats. A total of 58 chicken meats were collected from retail grocery stores in five provinces in Korea. The total detection rate of antibiotic residues was 45% (26 out of 58). Ten out of 17 antibiotics were detected in chicken meats. None of the antibiotics exceeded the maximum residue level (MRLs) in chicken established by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS). The most detected antibiotics were amoxicillin (15.5%), followed by enrofloxacin (12.1%) and sulfamethoxazole (10.3%). In a total of 58 chicken meats, 51 E. coli strains were isolated. E. coli isolates showed the highest resistance to ampicillin (75%), followed by tetracycline (69%), ciprofloxacin (65%), trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole (41%), ceftiofur (22%), and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (12%). The results of study showed basic information on relationship between antibiotic residue and resistance for 6 compounds in 13 chicken samples. Further investigation on the antibiotic resistance patterns of various bacteria species is needed to improve food safety.
Project description:Bacterial foodborne infections, including meat-derived infections, are globally associated with diseases and some deaths. Antibiotics are sometimes used to treat bacterial infections. The use of antibiotics by farmers contributes to the development of resistance by foodborne pathogens. This study aimed to investigate the antibiotics used by farmers and the occurrence of antibiotic-resistant <i>Escherichia coli</i> in ready-to-eat (RTE) meat sources. Data was obtained from livestock farmers through the administration of semistructured questionnaires (<i>n</i> = 376) to obtain information on their demographics, knowledge and antibiotic usage. The procedure in the USA Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s Bacteriological Analytical Manual was used for <i>E. coli</i> detection. Antibiotic resistance test was performed using the disk diffusion method. The findings revealed that most of the farmers were male (74.5%), were aged 30-39 years (28.5%), had tertiary education (30.3%) and had 6-10 years of experience in livestock husbandry. Sheep (65.7%) were the most reared livestock, and antibiotics were mostly used to treat sick animals (36.7%). Tetracycline (27.7%) was the most common antibiotic used by farmers, followed by amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (18.6%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (11.7%). Most farmers (56.1%) said they had knowledge of antibiotic usage. The prevalence of <i>E. coli</i> in RTE meats was lowest in pork (6.0%) and highest in chevon (20.0%). <i>E. coli</i> isolates from RTE meats were highly resistant to teicoplanin (96.77%), tetracycline (93.55%), amoxicillin/clavulanic (70.97%), azithromycin (70.97%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (58.06%) but was susceptible to chloramphenicol (93.55%), ciprofloxacin (61.29%) and ceftriaxone (58.06%). The multiple antibiotic index ranged from 0.22 to 0.78. Multidrug resistance (93.55%) was high among the <i>E. coli</i> isolates. The resistance pattern AmcAzmTecTeSxt (amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-azithromycin-telcoplanin-tetracycline-trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole) was the most common. The use of antibiotics by farmers must be well regulated. Sellers of RTE meats also ought to take hygiene practices seriously to keep meat safe and healthy for public consumption.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Monitoring antimicrobial use and resistance in hospitals are important tools of antimicrobial stewardship programs. We aimed to determine the association between the use of frequently prescribed antibiotics and the corresponding resistance rates in <i>Escherichia coli</i> and <i>Klebsiella pneumoniae</i> among the clinical departments of a tertiary care hospital.<h4>Methods</h4>We performed a retrospective observational study to analyse the use of nine frequently prescribed antibiotics and the corresponding antimicrobial resistance rates in hospital acquired <i>E. coli</i> and <i>K. pneumoniae</i> isolates from 18 departments of our institution over 9 years (2008-2016). The main cross-sectional analysis assessed the hypothetical influence of antibiotic consumption on resistance by mixed logistic regression models.<h4>Results</h4>We found an association between antibiotic use and resistance rates in <i>E. coli</i> for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (OR per each step of 5 defined daily dose/100 bed-days 1.07, 95% CI 1.02-1.12; <i>p</i>?=?0.004), piperacillin-tazobactam (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.45-3.07; <i>p</i>?<?0.001), quinolones (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.25-1.86; <i>p</i>?<?0.001) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.19-2.13; <i>p</i>?=?0.002). Additionally, we found a significant association when all nine antibiotics were combined in one analysis. The association between consumption and resistance rates was stronger for nosocomial than for community strains. In <i>K. pneumoniae,</i> we found an association for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.14; <i>p</i>?=?0.025) and for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.44-2.84; <i>p</i>?<?0.001). The combined analysis did not show an association between consumption and resistance (OR 1.06, 95% CI 0.99-1.14; <i>p</i>?=?0.07).<h4>Conclusions</h4>We documented an association between antibiotic use and resistance rate for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, piperacillin-tazobactam, quinolones and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in <i>E. coli</i> and for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in <i>K. pneumoniae</i> across different hospital departments. Our data will support stewardship interventions to optimize antibiotic prescribing at a department level.
Project description:The frequent use of antibiotics contributes to antibiotic resistance in bacteria, resulting in an increase in infections that are difficult to treat. Livestock are commonly administered antibiotics in their feed, but there is current interest in raising animals that are only administered antibiotics during active infections. Staphylococcus aureus (SA) is a common pathogen of both humans and livestock raised for human consumption. SA has achieved high levels of antibiotic resistance, but the origins and locations of resistance selection are poorly understood. We determined the prevalence of SA and MRSA in conventional and antibiotic-free (AF) meat products, and also measured rates of antibiotic resistance in these isolates. We isolated SA from raw conventional turkey, chicken, beef, and pork samples and also from AF chicken and turkey samples. We found that SA contamination was common, with an overall prevalence of 22.6% (range of 2.8-30.8%) in conventional meats and 13.0% (range of 12.5-13.2%) in AF poultry meats. MRSA was isolated from 15.7% of conventional raw meats (range of 2.8-20.4%) but not from AF-free meats. The degree of antibiotic resistance in conventional poultry products was significantly higher vs AF poultry products for a number of different antibiotics, and while multi-drug resistant strains were relatively common in conventional meats none were detected in AF meats. The use of antibiotics in livestock contributes to high levels of antibiotic resistance in SA found in meat products. Our results support the use of AF conditions for livestock in order to prevent antibiotic resistance development in SA.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The majority of studies that link antibiotic usage and resistance focus on simple associations between the resistance against a specific antibiotic and the use of that specific antibiotic. However, the relationship between antibiotic use and resistance is more complex. Here we evaluate selection and co-selection by assessing which antibiotics, including those mainly prescribed for respiratory tract infections, are associated with increased resistance to various antibiotics among Escherichia coli isolated from urinary samples.<h4>Methods</h4>Monthly primary care prescribing data were obtained from National Health Service (NHS) Digital. Positive E. coli records from urine samples in English primary care (n = 888,207) between April 2014 and January 2016 were obtained from the Second Generation Surveillance System. Elastic net regularization was used to evaluate associations between prescribing of different antibiotic groups and resistance against amoxicillin, cephalexin, ciprofloxacin, co-amoxiclav and nitrofurantoin at the clinical commissioning group (CCG) level. England is divided into 209 CCGs, with each NHS practice prolonging to one CCG.<h4>Results</h4>Amoxicillin prescribing (measured in DDD/ 1000 inhabitants / day) was positively associated with amoxicillin (RR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.04) and ciprofloxacin (RR 1.09, 95% CI 1.04-1.17) resistance. In contrast, nitrofurantoin prescribing was associated with lower levels of resistance to amoxicillin (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.84-0.97). CCGs with higher levels of trimethoprim prescribing also had higher levels of ciprofloxacin resistance (RR 1.34, 95% CI 1.10-1.59).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Amoxicillin, which is mainly (and often unnecessarily) prescribed for respiratory tract infections is associated with increased resistance against various antibiotics among E. coli causing urinary tract infections. Our findings suggest that when predicting the potential impact of interventions on antibiotic resistances it is important to account for use of other antibiotics, including those typically used for other indications.
Project description:Colibacillosis is considered as one of the major bacterial infections in avian pathology. The excessive use of antibiotics reduced their effectiveness, which eventually led to the risk of emergence of antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to isolate, identify and serotype the pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and to determine their antibiotic susceptibility.A total of 180 samples from different organs of broilers with colibacillosis lesions were collected (liver, spleen, lung, and heart) in center of Algeria. The isolation and identification of E. coli were carried out using conventional techniques. Then, these strains were serotyped and tested over 13 antibiotics.A total of 156 strains of E. coli were isolated. Serotyping results showed that 50 strains belong to 3 serotypes (23 for O1, 11 for O2, 16 for O78) which represent 32% of isolates. The antimicrobial susceptibility test, presented high level of resistance to tetracyclines (94.12%), flumequine (91.5%), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (88.89%), enrofloxacin (86.27%), nalidixic acid (85.62%), ampicillin (83.01%) and doxycycline (75.81%), medium level resistance to chloramphenicol (39.22%), and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (43.13%). All the strains were susceptible to cefotaxime, excepting three, which presented an extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL). In addition, the results of multi-resistance showed that all the strains were resistant at the minimum to two antibiotics and 66.66% of strains were resistant to at least seven antibiotics.The antibiotic resistance continues to rise at an alarming rate, and the emergence of ESBL is considered as a threat for public health.
Project description:The emergence of multidrug resistance among Enterobacteriaceae in livestock poses a serious public health threat. <i>Escherichia coli</i>, a usual host of intestinal microbiota, is recognized also as etiological agent of numerous infections widespread in both humans and animals. The colibacillosis is one of the most reported zoonoses worldwide, typically treated with antibiotics in the primary stages. This strategy has promoted the onset of antibiotic-resistant serotypes of <i>E. coli</i>, reducing the effectiveness of therapeutic treatments and contributing to antibiotic resistance spread. The current study focused on biodiversity, pathogenicity, and antibiotic resistance profile of 104 <i>E. coli</i> strains isolated from domestic animals in Eastern Sicily. The strains were isolated from sick animals and carcasses of six different animal species and screened for resistance against 16 antibiotic molecules, as recommended by WHO and OIE. The antibiotic resistance patterns highlighted that all strains were multi-resistant, showing resistance to at least three antibiotic classes. The highest incidence of resistance was observed against amoxicillin (100%), tylosin (97%), sulfamethoxazole (98%), and erythromycin (92%), while the lowest for colistin (8%). The pathotype characterization identified two EPEC strains and the study of genetic linkage (PFGE) showed a wide variety of profiles. The current study emphasized the wide range of multidrug resistance and genotyping profiles in <i>E. coli</i> isolated in Easter Sicily.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>We sought to determine if the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli differed across retail poultry products and among major production categories, including organic, "raised without antibiotics", and conventional.<h4>Results</h4>We collected all available brands of retail chicken and turkey-including conventional, "raised without antibiotic", and organic products-every two weeks from January to December 2012. In total, E. coli was recovered from 91% of 546 turkey products tested and 88% of 1367 chicken products tested. The proportion of samples contaminated with E. coli was similar across all three production categories. Resistance prevalence varied by meat type and was highest among E. coli isolates from turkey for the majority of antibiotics tested. In general, production category had little effect on resistance prevalence among E. coli isolates from chicken, although resistance to gentamicin and multidrug resistance did vary. In contrast, resistance prevalence was significantly higher for 6 of the antibiotics tested-and multidrug resistance-among isolates from conventional turkey products when compared to those labelled organic or "raised without antibiotics". E. coli isolates from chicken varied strongly in resistance prevalence among different brands within each production category.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The high prevalence of resistance among E. coli isolates from conventionally-raised turkey meat suggests greater antimicrobial use in conventional turkey production as compared to "raised without antibiotics" and organic systems. However, among E. coli from chicken meat, resistance prevalence was more strongly linked to brand than to production category, which could be caused by brand-level differences during production and/or processing, including variations in antimicrobial use.
Project description:Antimicrobial resistance is currently an important concern, but there are few data on the co-presence of metal and antibiotic resistance in potentially pathogenic Escherichia coli entering the food chain from pork, which may threaten human health. We have examined the phenotypic and genotypic resistances to 18 antibiotics and 3 metals (mercury, silver, and copper) of E. coli from pig slaughterhouses in the United Kingdom. The results showed resistances to oxytetracycline, streptomycin, sulphonamide, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ceftiofur, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, aztreonam, and nitrofurantoin. The top three resistances were oxytetracycline (64%), streptomycin (28%), and sulphonamide (16%). Two strains were resistant to six kinds of antibiotics. Three carried the blaTEM gene. Fifteen strains (18.75%) were resistant to 25 µg/mL mercury and five (6.25%) of these to 50 µg/mL; merA and merC genes were detected in 14 strains. Thirty-five strains (43.75%) showed resistance to silver, with 19 possessing silA, silB, and silE genes. Fifty-five strains (68.75%) were resistant to 8 mM copper or above. Seven contained the pcoE gene. Some strains were multi-resistant to antibiotics, silver, and copper. The results in this study, based on strains isolated between 2007 and 2010, will aid understanding about the effects of strategies to reduce resistance and mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance (AMR).
Project description:Groupwise antibiotic treatments are common in broiler chicken production. They induce selection for antibiotic resistance in commensal Escherichia coli. This study aimed to investigate antibiotic resistance after individual (I, drenching) or groupwise treatment (G, by water) with amoxicillin, and after contact with I or G (KI or KG), compared with untreated broilers without contact with treated broilers (C), and pretreatment values. Finally, we compared antibiotic resistance from broilers (G) after a second treatment, with a treatment in the contact animals (KG), and a first treatment in the control animals (C). Resistance to ampicillin and other antibiotics was significantly increased in groups G and I within 2 days, suggesting (co-)selection of resistance. The increase was lower in groups KI, KG, and C during the first treatment (days 1-5). The increased resistance in group C was interpreted as a change in the microbiota after initial moving and first feeding. After treatment, resistance rates decreased to initial or lower values in all groups. During the second treatment period (days 34-38), all three groups' (G, KG, and C) resistance levels increased to equally high levels. Cephalosporin resistance was low, and did not change over the experimental period. On days 3 and 38, resistance rates of E. coli from duodenum, jejunum, and cecum did not differ between segments and treatment routes. Overall, the baseline levels of antibiotic resistance in E. coli were high. Amoxicillin triggered an increase in resistance levels, irrespective of the mode of treatment. Substantial resistance dynamics in untreated controls warrant further investigation.
Project description:As a result of public health concerns regarding antimicrobial resistance in animal-based food products, conventional poultry companies have turned to 'raised without antibiotics' (ABF) and organic farming systems. In this work, we evaluated the influence of rearing systems on antimicrobial susceptibility in E. coli and extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESLB) E. coli diffusion in conventional (C), organic (O) and antibiotic free (ABF) chicken samples collected from cloacal swabs and skin samples in slaughterhouse. The E. coli isolates from conventional (135), antibiotic-free (131) and organic (140) samples were submitted to the Kirby-Bauer method and ESBL E. coli were analyzed by the microdilution test. Conventional samples showed the highest number of strains resistant to ampicillin (89.6%; p < 0.01), cefotaxime (43.7%; p < 0.01), nalidixic acid (57.8%; p < 0.01), ciprofloxacin (44.4%; p < 0.001), and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (62.2%; p < 0.01), with patterns of multi-resistance to three (35.1%) and to four antimicrobials (31.3%), whereas most of the E. coli isolated from antibiotic-free and organic chicken samples revealed a co-resistance pattern (29.2% and 39%, respectively). The highest number of ESBL E. coli was observed in conventional, in both cloacal and skin samples and the lowest in organic (p < 0.001). Our results are consistent with the effect of conventional farming practices on E. coli antimicrobial resistance and ESBL E. coli number, due to the use of antimicrobials and close contact with litter for most of the production cycle.