Mucopolysaccharidoses: early diagnostic signs in infants and children.
ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) comprise a group of lysosomal disorders that are characterized by progressive, systemic clinical manifestations and a coarse phenotype. The different types, having clinical, biochemical, and genetic heterogeneity, share key clinical features in varying combinations, including joint and skeletal dysplasia, coarse facial features, corneal clouding, inguinal or abdominal hernias, recurrent upper respiratory tract infections, heart valve disease, carpal tunnel syndrome, and variable neurological involvement. In the severe forms, these features usually appear in the first months of life, but a correct diagnosis is often reached later when suggestive signs are manifest. All MPS types may have severe or attenuated presentations depending on the residual enzymatic activity of the patient. Based on data from the literature and from personal experience, here we underline the very early signs of the severe forms which should alert the paediatrician on their first appearance. A few early signs are typical of MPS (i.e. gibbus) while many are unspecific (hernias, upper airway infections, organomegaly, etc.), and finding the association of many unspecific signs might prompt the paediatrician to search for a common cause and to carefully look for other more specific signs (gibbus and other skeletal deformities, heart murmur). We stress the need to increase awareness of MPS among paediatricians and other specialists to shorten the still existing diagnostic delay. A timely diagnosis is mandatory for the commencement of treatment as soon as possible, when available, to possibly obtain better results.
Project description:Patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (MPS IVA; Morquio A syndrome) have accumulation of the glycosaminoglycans, keratan sulfate, and chondroitin-6-sulfate, in bone and cartilage, causing systemic spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia. Features include lumbar gibbus, pectus carinatum, faring of the rib cage, marked short stature, cervical instability and stenosis, kyphoscoliosis, genu valgum, and laxity of joints. Generally, MPS IVA patients are wheelchair-bound as teenagers and do not survive beyond the second or third decade of life as a result of severe bone dysplasia, causing restrictive lung disease and airway narrowing, increasing potential for pneumonia and apnea; stenosis and instability of the upper cervical region; high risk during anesthesia administration due to narrowed airway as well as thoracoabdominal dysfunction; and surgical complications. Patients often need multiple surgical procedures, including cervical decompression and fusion, hip reconstruction and replacement, and femoral or tibial osteotomy, throughout their lifetime. Current measures to intervene in disease progression are largely palliative, and improved therapies are urgently needed. A clinical trial for enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and an investigational trial for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are underway. Whether sufficient enzyme will be delivered effectively to bone, especially cartilage (avascular region) to prevent the devastating skeletal dysplasias remains unclear. This review provides an overview of historical aspects of studies on MPS IVA, including clinical manifestations and pathogenesis of MPS IVA, orthopedic surgical interventions, and anesthetic care. It also describes perspectives on potential ERT, HSCT, and gene therapy.
Project description:The aim of this study was to develop an algorithm to prompt early clinical suspicion of mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I).An international working group was established in 2016 that comprised 11 experts in paediatrics, rare diseases and inherited metabolic diseases. They reviewed real-world clinical cases, selected key signs or symptoms based on their prevalence and specificity and reached consensus about the algorithm. The algorithm was retrospectively tested.An algorithm was developed. In patients under two years of age, kyphosis or gibbus deformity were the key symptoms that raised clinical suspicion of MPS I and in those over two years they were kyphosis or gibbus deformity, or joint stiffness or contractures without inflammation. The algorithm was tested on 35 cases, comprising 16 Hurler, 10 Hurler-Scheie, and nine Scheie patients. Of these 35 cases, 32 (91%) - 16 Hurler, nine Hurler-Scheie and seven Scheie patients - would have been referred earlier if the algorithm had been used.The expert panel developed and tested an algorithm that helps raise clinical suspicion of MPS I and would lead to a more prompt final diagnosis and allow earlier treatment.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII) is an ultra-rare disease characterised by the deficiency of ?-glucuronidase (GUS). Patients' phenotypes vary from severe forms with hydrops fetalis, skeletal dysplasia and mental retardation to milder forms with fewer manifestations and mild skeletal abnormalities. Accurate assessments on the frequency and clinical characteristics of the disease have been scarce. The aim of this study was to collect such data. METHODS:We have conducted a survey of physicians to document the medical history of patients with MPS VII. The survey included anonymous information on patient demographics, family history, mode of diagnosis, age of onset, signs and symptoms, severity, management, clinical features and natural progression of the disease. RESULTS:We collected information on 56 patients from 11 countries. Patients with MPS VII were classified based on their phenotype into three different groups: (1) neonatal non-immune hydrops fetalis (NIHF) (n=10), (2) Infantile or adolescent form with history of hydrops fetalis (n=13) and (3) Infantile or adolescent form without known hydrops fetalis (n=33). Thirteen patients with MPS VII who had the infantile form with history of hydrops fetalis and survived childhood, had a wide range of clinical manifestations from mild to severe. Five patients underwent bone marrow transplantation and one patient underwent enzyme replacement therapy with recombinant human GUS. CONCLUSIONS:MPS VII is a pan-ethnic inherited lysosomal storage disease with considerable phenotypical heterogeneity. Most patients have short stature, skeletal dysplasia, hepatosplenomegaly, hernias, cardiac involvement, pulmonary insufficiency and cognitive impairment. In these respects it resembles MPS I and MPS II. In MPS VII, however, one unique and distinguishing clinical feature is the unexpectedly high proportion of patients (41%) that had a history of NIHF. Presence of NIHF does not, by itself, predict the eventual severity of the clinical course, if the patient survives infancy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI), also known as Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome (OMIM 253200) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal disorder, caused by the deficiency of the enzyme N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfatase (also known as arylsulfatase B) due to mutations of the ARSB gene. Cardiologic features are well recognized, and are always present in MPS VI patients. Generally, the onset and the progression of the cardiologic symptoms are insidious, and just a few patients have developed a rapidly progressive disease. Cardiac involvement in MPS VI is a common and progressive feature. For MPS patients, cardiac evaluations are recommended every 1 to 2?years, including blood pressure measurement, electrocardiography and echocardiography. However, congestive heart failure and valvular surgical repair are not frequently seen, and if so, they are performed in adults. Here we report on an atypical MPS VI case with ascites fetalis and a rapidly progressive cardiac disease. CASE PRESENTATION:A 6-month-old Brazilian male, only child of a Brazilian healthy non-consanguineous couple. During pregnancy, second trimester ultrasonography observed fetal ascites and bilateral hydrocele. Physical exam at 6?months-old revealed a typical gibbus deformity and MPS was suspected. Biochemical investigation revealed a diagnosis of MPS type VI, confirmed by molecular test. Baseline echocardiogram revealed discrete tricuspid regurgitation and a thickened mitral valve with posterior leaflet prolapse, causing moderate to severe regurgitation. The patient evolved with mitral insufficiency and congestive heart failure, eventually requiring surgical repair by the first year of age. CONCLUSIONS:We report the first case of MPS VI whose manifestations started in the prenatal period with fetal ascites, with severe cardiac valvular disease that eventually required early surgical repair. Moreover, in MPS with neonatal presentation, including fetal hydrops, besides MPS I, IVA and VII, clinicians should include MPS VI in the differential diagnosis.
Project description:Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is caused by the deficiency of ?-l-iduronidase, leading to the storage of dermatan and heparan sulfate. There is a broad phenotypical spectrum with the presence or absence of neurological impairment. The classical form is known as Hurler syndrome, the intermediate form as Hurler-Scheie, and the most attenuated form is known as Scheie syndrome. Phenotype seems to be largely influenced by genotype. Patients usually develop several somatic symptoms such as abdominal hernias, extensive dermal melanocytosis, thoracolumbar kyphosis odontoid dysplasia, arthropathy, coxa valga and genu valgum, coarse facial features, respiratory and cardiac impairment. The diagnosis is based on the quantification of ?-l-iduronidase coupled with glycosaminoglycan analysis and gene sequencing. Guidelines for treatment recommend hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for young Hurler patients (usually at less than 30 months of age). Intravenous enzyme replacement is approved and is the standard of care for attenuated-Hurler-Scheie and Scheie-forms (without cognitive impairment) and for the late-diagnosed severe-Hurler-cases. Intrathecal enzyme replacement therapy is under evaluation, but it seems to be safe and effective. Other therapeutic approaches such as gene therapy, gene editing, stop codon read through, and therapy with small molecules are under development. Newborn screening is now allowing the early identification of MPS I patients, who can then be treated within their first days of life, potentially leading to a dramatic change in the disease's progression. Supportive care is very important to improve quality of life and might include several surgeries throughout the life course.
Project description:Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a rare lysosomal storage disease caused by biallelic mutations in IDUA, the gene coding for the lysosomal enzyme alpha L-iduronidase. Clinically MPS I is a chronic progressive multisystem disease typically presenting with coarse facial features, skeletal deformities, joint contractures, and multi-organ involvement. Hurler syndrome (MPS IH) represents the severe end of the spectrum of mucopolysaccharidosis type I and is characterized by central nervous system involvement leading to childhood dementia. Here we report on a severe affected MPS IH patient who is homozygous for a splice site mutation (c.158 + 1G > A) in the IDUA gene. Further analyses revealed maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 4 with partial isodisomy of the telomeric end of chromosome 4 (4.p16.3p15.2), representing an extraordinary mode of inheritance with a much lower re-occurrence risk for MPS I in the family.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) is an inherited X-linked disease associated with a deficiency in the enzyme iduronate 2-sulfatase due to iduronate 2-sulfatase gene (IDS) mutations. Recent studies in MPS II carriers did not find clinical involvement, but these were mainly performed by anamnesis and patients' self-reported description of signs and symptoms. So although it is rare in heterozygous carriers, investigations in other types of inherited X-linked disorders suggest that some clinical manifestations may be a possibility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical pattern in female carriers of MPS II and to determine whether clinical symptoms were associated with the X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) pattern and age. METHODS: Female carriers of MPS II were genetically identified by molecular analysis of IDS. The clinical evaluation protocol included pedigree analysis, a comprehensive anamnesis, complete physical examination, ophthalmological evaluation, brain-evoked auditory response, electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, pulmonary function tests, abdominal sonogram, skeletal survey, neurophysiological studies, blood cell counts and biochemistry, urine glycosaminoglycan (GAGs) quantification, karyotype and pattern of XCI. RESULTS: Ten women were included in the study. The mean age of the participants was 40.2 ± 13.1 years. Six carriers presented a skewed XCI pattern, 3 of whom (aged 38, 42 and 52 years) had increased levels of GAGs in the urine and showed typical MPS II clinical manifestations, such as skeletal anomalies, liver abnormalities, carpal tunnel syndrome, recurrent ear infection, hypoacusia and more frequent severe odontological problems without coarse facial features. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study performing a comprehensive evaluation of heterozygous MPS II carriers. Our results provide evidence of possible progressive, age-dependent, mild clinical manifestations in MPS II female carriers with a skewed XCI pattern, most likely affecting the normal allele. Further comparative studies with systematized clinical examinations in larger age-stratified populations of MPS II female carriers are required.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Leporacarus gibbus is a highly specific acarian parasitizing in rabbits, with a proven zoonotic potential. While the majority of cases of L. gibbus infestation are asymptomatic, several cases of pruritic cutaneous condition in both laboratory and pet rabbits were reported. Up to date, L. gibbus has not been linked with clinical signs in any other species than rabbits and humans.<h4>Case presentation</h4>This case report described the clinical case of a 14-month-old cat with a dermatitis linked to L. gibbus. Mites specimens were collected by brushing, followed by light microscopy examination and species identification. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of L. gibbus-related dermatitis in cat.<h4>Conclusions</h4>L. gibbus infestation should be considered as a possible differential diagnosis of pruritic skin conditions in cat.
Project description:Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome (NCBRS) is a rare and well-recognized entity that was first described in 1993, with a prevalence that is currently not known. It is recognized as a distinctive entity, with some variability in its signs and symptoms. The most important characteristics include intellectual disability, peculiar facial features including sparse scalp hair, coarse facial features, low frontal hairline, and microcephaly, and seizures. Additional features may include epicanthic folds, thin upper lip vermilion with thick lower lip vermilion, skeletal abnormalities, and severe language impairment. The disorder is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner caused by de novo mutations in the SMARCA2 gene, with most being missense mutations. We report a young adult patient with NCBRS and, to our knowledge, the first case report of the syndrome in Latin America with a confirmed molecular diagnosis and a mild-to-moderate phenotype.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Dyggve-Melchior-Clausen (DMC) syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive type of skeletal dysplasia. It is characterized by the association of progressive spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia (SEMD), microcephaly, mental retardation (MR), and coarse facies. The radiographic appearance of generalized platyspondyly with double-humped end plates and the lace-like appearance of iliac crests are pathognomonic and distinctive of DMC syndrome. The disorder results from mutations in the DYM gene mapped in the 18q12-12.1 chromosomal region. MATERIALS AND METHODS:In this report, we studied 15 Egyptian cases with DMC syndrome from nine unrelated families. We aimed to emphasize the characteristic clinical and radiological features in order to differentiate the condition from other SEMDs and mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS). Patients were subjected to detailed history taking, three-generation family pedigree analysis, complete physical examination, anthropometric measurements, quantitative estimation, and two-dimensional electrophoresis of glycosaminoglycans in the urine and measurement of ?-l-iduronidase and galactose-6-sulfatase enzyme activities to exclude Hurler and Morquio diseases (MPS type I and MPS type IVA), respectively. Other investigations were carried out whenever indicated. All patients were the offspring of consanguineous apparently normal parents. Positive family history and similarly affected sibs were noted, confirming the autosomal recessive inheritance pattern of the syndrome. Short stature, microcephaly, variable degree of MR, and coarse facies were constant features. The frequency of characteristic orthopedic and radiological findings was reported. Orthopedic surgical intervention was carried out for two patients. CONCLUSIONS:The study concluded that DMC syndrome may be more frequent in Egypt than previously thought, especially due to misdiagnosis. Characteristic facial dysmorphism, body habitus, and pathognomonic radiological signs suggest the diagnosis and differentiate it from other types of SEMDs and MPS for proper genetic counseling and management.