3'-Sialyllactose as an inhibitor of p65 phosphorylation ameliorates the progression of experimental rheumatoid arthritis.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:3'-Sialyllactose (3'-SL) is a safe compound that is present in high levels in human milk. Although it has anti-inflammatory properties and supports immune homeostasis, its effect on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is unknown. In this study, we investigated the prophylactic and therapeutic effect of 3'-SL on the progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in in vitro and in vivo models. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:The anti-arthritic effect of 3'-SL was analysed with fibroblast-like synoviocytes in vitro and an in vivo mouse model of CIA. RT-PCR, Western blotting and ELISA were performed to evaluate its effects in vitro. Histological analysis of ankle and knee joints of mice with CIA was performed using immunohistochemistry, as well as safranin-O and haematoxylin staining. KEY RESULTS:3'-SL markedly alleviated the severity of CIA in the mice by reducing paw swelling, clinical scores, incidence rate, serum levels of inflammatory cytokines and autoantibody production. Moreover, 3'-SL reduced synovitis and pannus formation and suppressed cartilage destruction by blocking secretion of chemokines, pro-inflammatory cytokines, matrix metalloproteinases and osteoclastogenesis via NF-?B signalling. Notably, phosphorylation of p65, which is a key protein in the NF-?B signalling pathway, was totally blocked by 3'-SL in the RA models. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:3'-SL ameliorated pathogenesis of CIA by suppressing catabolic factor expression, proliferation of inflammatory immune cells and osteoclastogenesis. These effects were mediated via blockade of the NF-?B signalling pathway. Therefore, 3'-SL exerted prophylactic and therapeutic effects and could be a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of RA.
Project description:Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammatory synovitis leading to joint destruction and systemic bone loss. The inflammation-induced bone loss is mediated by increased osteoclast formation and function. Current antirheumatic therapies primarily target suppression of inflammatory cascade with limited or no success in controlling progression of bone destruction. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) by virtue of their tissue repair and immunomodulatory properties have shown promising results in various autoimmune and degenerative diseases. However, the role of MSCs in prevention of bone destruction in RA is not yet understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of adipose-derived MSCs (ASCs) on in vitro formation of bone-resorbing osteoclasts and pathological bone loss in the mouse collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model of RA. We observed that ASCs significantly inhibited receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis in both a contact-dependent and -independent manner. Additionally, ASCs inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in the presence of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-?, IL-17, and IL-1?. Furthermore, treatment with ASCs at the onset of CIA significantly reduced clinical symptoms and joint pathology. Interestingly, ASCs protected periarticular and systemic bone loss in CIA mice by maintaining trabecular bone structure. We further observed that treatment with ASCs reduced osteoclast precursors in bone marrow, resulting in decreased osteoclastogenesis. Moreover, ASCs suppressed autoimmune T cell responses and increased the percentages of peripheral regulatory T and B cells. Thus, we provide strong evidence that ASCs ameliorate inflammation-induced systemic bone loss in CIA mice by reducing osteoclast precursors and promoting immune tolerance.
Project description:Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) functions in NAD synthesis, apoptosis, and inflammation. Dysregulation of NAMPT has been associated with several inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The purpose of this study was to investigate NAMPT's role in arthritis using mouse and cellular models. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in DBA/1J Nampt +/- mice was evaluated by ELISA, micro-CT, and RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). In vitro Nampt loss-of-function and gain-of-function studies on osteoclastogenesis were examined by TRAP staining, nascent RNA capture, luciferase reporter assays, and ChIP-PCR. Nampt-deficient mice presented with suppressed inflammatory bone destruction and disease progression in a CIA mouse model. Nampt expression was required for the epigenetic regulation of the Nfatc1 promoter and osteoclastogenesis. Finally, RNA-seq identified 690 differentially expressed genes in whole ankle joints which associated (P?<?0.05) with Nampt expression and CIA. Selected target was validated by RT-PCR or functional characterization. We have provided evidence that NAMPT functions as a genetic risk factor and a potential therapeutic target to RA.
Project description:Phospholipase D1 (PLD1) plays a crucial role in various inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic and systemic autoimmune disease. However, the role of PLD1 in the pathogenesis of RA remains unknown. Here, we first investigated the role and effects of PLD1 in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and found that genetic and pharmacological inhibition of PLD1 in DBA1/J mice with CIA reduced the incidence of CIA, decreased the clinical score, and abrogated disease symptoms including infiltration of leukocytes, synovial inflammation, bone erosion, and cartilage destruction. Moreover, ablation and inhibition of PLD1 suppressed the production of type II collagen-specific IgG2a autoantibody and proinflammatory cytokines, accompanied by an increase in the regulatory T (Treg) cell population and a decrease in the Th17 cell population in CIA mice. The PLD1 inhibitor also promoted differentiation of Treg cells and suppressed differentiation of Th17 cells in vitro. Furthermore, the PLD1 inhibitor attenuated pathologic bone destruction in CIA mice by suppressing osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. Thus, our findings indicate that the targeting of PLD1 can ameliorate CIA by modulating the imbalance of Treg and Th17 cells and suppressing osteoclastogenesis, which might be a novel strategy to treat autoimmune diseases, such as RA.
Project description:MASM is a matrine derivate that exhibits a number of pharmacological effects, including immunosuppressive activity and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic efficacy of MASM in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis were investigated using DBA/1 mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and fibroblast-like synoviocytes derived from rheumatoid arthritis patients (RA-FLS). We demonstrated that MASM markedly attenuated the severity of arthritis in CIA mice. The therapeutic effects were associated with ameliorated joint swelling and reduced bone erosion and destruction. Furthermore, the administration of MASM suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6). In vitro, MASM inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-6, IL-8) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-13) by inhibiting both the phosphorylation of MAPKs and the activation of NF-?B in IL-1?-stimulated RA-FLS. Additionally, MASM could induce apoptosis of RA-FLS via mitochondrial and Akt signaling pathways in human RA-FLS. These findings suggest that MASM could attenuate arthritis severity in CIA mice at least partially by blocking the phosphorylation of MAPKs and the activation of NF-?B and by inducing apoptosis in RA-FLS. MASM could be a potent therapeutic agent for the treatment of RA.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Periploca forrestii Schltr has been used as a Chinese folk medicine for the treatment of rheumatism, arthralgia and fractures. However, the anti-arthritic activity of Periploca forrestii saponin (PFS) and the active compound has still not been revealed. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects and mechanisms of PFS on collagen type II (CII) collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice. We sought to investigate whether PFS and Periplocin could regulate osteoclastogenesis, and if so, further investigation on its mechanism of action. METHODS:Arthritis was induced in female BALB/c mice by CIA method. PFS was administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight once daily for five weeks. The effects of treatment in mice were assessed by histological and biochemical evaluation in sera and paws. Anti-osteoclastogenic action of PFS and Periplocin was identified using an osteoclast formation model induced by RANKL. RESULTS:PFS ameliorated paw erythema and swelling, inhibited bone erosion in ankle joint histopathological examination. PFS treatment resulted in decreased IgG2a, and increased IgG1 levels in the serum of CIA mice. Decreased TNF-?, and increased interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-22 levels were also found in PFS-treated mice. PFS inhibited the I-?B? phosphorylation, blocked nuclear factor (NF)-?B/p65 phosphorylation and abrogated AP-1/c-Fos activity. PFS downregulated toll-like receptor (TLR) 4, STAT3 and MMP-9 expression in CIA mice and RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. PFS and Periplocin inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast formation in a dose dependent manner within nongrowth inhibitory concentration, and PFS decreased osteoclastogenesis-related marker expression, including cathepsin K and MMP-9. CONCLUSION:This study revealed that the protective mechanism of PFS on CIA was associated with regulatory effects on proinflammatory factors and further on the crosstalk between NF-?B and c-Fos/AP-1 in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, PFS is a promising therapeutic alternative for the treatment of RA, evidencing the need to conduct further studies that can identify their active components in treating and preventing RA.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), a new class of anti-cancer agents, have recently been reported to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory activities. A proof of concept study was carried out with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and MS-275, two HDACi currently undergoing clinical investigations for various oncological indications. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The anti-rheumatic effects of SAHA and MS-275 were assessed in both mouse and rat collagen induced arthritis (CIA) models. KEY RESULTS: SAHA exhibited moderate prophylactic efficacy. It attenuated paw swelling due to inflammation, decreased bone erosion in both mice and rats and reduced slightly the RA-induced bone resorption in rats. However, SAHA could not inhibit the onset of arthritis. In contrast, MS-275 displayed dramatic anti-rheumatic activities. In prophylactic intervention, high doses of MS-275 prevented bone erosion and markedly delayed the onset of arthritis; at low doses, MS-275 strongly attenuated paw swelling, bone erosion, and bone resorption associated with RA. Furthermore, the therapeutic efficacy of MS-275 was also documented. After the onset of arthritis, it could stop the disease progression and joint destruction. An anti inflammatory effect of MS-275 was also confirmed through its capacity to decrease serum IL-6 and IL-1beta levels in the CIA induced mouse model. The anti-rheumatic activity of MS-275 was also confirmed through histological observation. No synovial hyperplasia, pannus formation, cartilage or bone destruction were observed in the high dose prophylactic intervention in mice. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATION: This study strongly supported HDACi as an innovative therapeutic strategy for RA.
Project description:Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by synovial hyperplasia, pannus formation, and cartilage and bone destruction. Nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group D member 1 (NR1D1) functions as a transcriptional repressor and plays a vital role in inflammatory reactions. However, whether NR1D1 is involved in synovial inflammation and joint destruction during the pathogenesis of RA is unknown. In this study, we found that NR1D1 expression was increased in synovial tissues from patients with RA and decreased in RA Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) stimulated with IL-1? in vitro. We showed that NR1D1 activation decreased the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), while NR1D1 silencing exerted the opposite effect. Furthermore, NR1D1 activation reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and increased the production of nuclear transcription factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-associated enzymes. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) pathways were blocked by the NR1D1 agonist SR9009 but activated by NR1D1 silencing. NR1D1 activation also inhibited M1 macrophage polarization and suppressed osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast-related genes expression. Treatment with NR1D1 agonist SR9009 in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mouse significantly suppressed the hyperplasia of synovial, infiltration of inflammatory cell and destruction of cartilage and bone. Our findings demonstrate an important role for NR1D1 in RA and suggest its therapeutic potential.
Project description:Osteoclasts are multinucleated giant cells of macrophage/monocyte lineage, and cell differentiation with the upregulation of osteoclast-related proteins is believed to play a major role in the destruction of the joints in the course of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), can be overexpressed in RA and lead to osteoclastogenesis. In a previous study, we found that cultured-type soft coral-derived excavatolide B (Exc-B) exhibited anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, we thus aimed to evaluate the anti-arthritic activity of Exc-B in in vitro and in vivo models. The results demonstrated that Exc-B inhibits LPS-induced multinucleated cell and actin ring formation, as well as TRAP, MMP-9, and cathepsin K expression. Additionally, Exc-B significantly attenuated the characteristics of RA in adjuvant (AIA) and type II collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in rats. Moreover, Exc-B improved histopathological features, and reduced the number of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells in the in vivo AIA and CIA models. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that Exc-B attenuated the protein expression of cathepsin K, MMP-2, MMP-9, CD11b, and NFATc1 in ankle tissues of AIA and CIA rats. Level of interleukin-17A and macrophage colony-stimulating factor were also decreased by Exc-B. These findings strongly suggest that Exc-B could be of potential use as a therapeutic agent by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation in arthritis. Moreover, this study also illustrates the use of the anti-inflammatory marine compound, Exc-B, as a potential therapeutic strategy for RA.
Project description:Although natural regulatory T cells (nTregs) can suppress osteoclastogenesis, the role of TGF-?-induced CD4+Foxp3+ Tregs (iTregs) in osteoclastogenesis remains unknown.To determine the effects of iTregs on osteoclastogenesis in vitro and on bone erosion in vivo in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA).Osteoclastogenesis was induced in bone marrow CD11b+ cells with receptor activator of nuclear factor ? B (NF-?B) ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony stimulating factor. Graded doses of Tregs were added to inhibit osteoclastogenesis. Transwell and antibody blockade experiments were performed to assess the roles for cell contact and soluble cytokines. NF-?B activation was determined by western blot. iTregs or nTregs were adoptively transferred to mice with CIA to assess in vivo effects on disease incidence and bone erosion, the latter determined by CT scanning.Both nTregs and iTregs greatly suppressed osteoclastogenesis in vitro, but only iTregs sustained this effect when interleukin-6 was present. iTregs, but not nTregs, significantly suppressed development of CIA. Bone erosions in iTregs-treated mice were diminished compared with untreated mice or nTregs-treated mice. Treatment with iTregs, but not with nTregs, dramatically decreased NF-?B p65/p50 levels in osteoclasts in vitro and p65/50 and RANKL expression by synovial tissues in vivo.iTregs may be therapeutically beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis and related diseases associated with bone erosions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Bone destruction is one of many severe complications that occurs in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and current therapies are unable to cure this manifestation. This study here aims to determine whether GMSC can directly inhibit osteoclast formation and eventually attenuate osteoclastogenesis and bone erosion in an inflammatory milieu. METHOD:GMSC were co-cultured with osteoclast precursors with or without CD39 inhibitor, CD73 inhibitor or adenosine receptors inhibitors pretreatment and osteoclast formation were evaluated in vitro. 2×10^6 GMSC per mouse were transferred to CIA mice and pathology scores, the frequency of osteoclasts, bone erosion in joints were assessed in vivo. FINDING:GMSC but not control cells, markedly suppressed human or mice osteoclastogenesis in vitro. GMSC treatment also resulted in a dramatically decreased level of NF-κB p65/p50 in osteoclasts in vitro. Infusion of GMSC to CIA significantly attenuated the severity of arthritis, pathology scores, frequency of osteoclasts, particularly bone erosion, as well as a decreased expression of RANKL in synovial tissues in vivo. Blockade of CD39/CD73 or adenosine receptors has significantly abrogated the suppressive ability of GMSC in vitro and therapeutic effect of GMSC on bone erosion during CIA in vivo. INTERPRETATION:GMSC inhibit osteoclast formation in vitro and in vivo partially via CD39-CD73-adenosine signals. Manipulation of GMSC may have a therapeutic implication on rheumatoid arthritis and other bone erosion related diseases. FUND: This study was supported by grants from the National Key R&D Program of China (2017YFA0105801 to F.H); the Zhujiang Innovative and Entrepreneurial Talent Team Award of Guangdong Province (2016 ZT 06S 252 to F·H) and National Institutes of Health (R01 AR059103, R61 AR073409 and NIH Star Award to S.G.Z).