Prevention of cervical cancer in HIV-seropositive women from developing countries through cervical cancer screening: a systematic review.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:There is scanty or inconclusive evidence on which cervical cancer screening tool is effective and suitable for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive women. The aim of this review was to assess, synthesise and document published evidence relating to the available cervical cancer screening modalities for HIV-seropositive women in developing countries. This paper did not review the issue of human papillomavirus (HPV) prophylactic vaccine on HIV-seropositive women. METHODS:Five electronic databases were systematically searched from inception to January 2018 for relevant published original research examining cervical cancer prevention modalities for HPV infection, abnormal cytology and direct visualisation of the cervix amongst HIV-seropositive women in developing countries. Extra studies were identified through reference list and citation tracking. RESULTS:Due to methodological and clinical heterogeneity, a narrative synthesis was presented. Of the 2559 articles, 149 underwent full-text screening and 25 were included in the review. Included studies were of moderate quality, and no exclusions were made based on quality or bias. There is no standard cervical cancer screening test or programme for HIV-seropositive women and countries screening according to available resources and expertise. The screening methods used for HIV-seropositive women are the same for HIV-negative women, with varying clinical performance and accuracy. The main cervical cancer screening methods described for HIV-seropositive women are HPV deoxyribonucleic acid/messenger RNA (DNA/mRNA) testing (n?=?16, 64.0%), visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) (n?=?13, 52.0%) and Pap smear (n?=?11, 44.0%). HPV testing has a better accuracy/efficiency than other methods with a sensitivity of 80.0-97.0% and specificity of 51.0-78.0%. Sequential screening using VIA or visual inspection with Lugol's iodine (VILI) and HPV testing has shown better clinical performance in screening HIV-seropositive women. CONCLUSION:Although cervical cancer screening exists in almost all developing countries, what is missing is both opportunistic and systematic organised population-based screenings. Cervical cancer screening programmes need to be integrated into already existing HIV services to enable early detection and treatment. There is a need to offer opportunistic and coordinated screening programmes that are provider-initiated to promote early identification of cervical precancerous lesions. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION:PROSPERO CRD42018095702.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cervical cancer incidence is high among women living with HIV due to high-risk HPV persistence in the cervix. In low-income countries, cervical cancer screening is based on visual inspection with acetic acid. Implementing human papilloma virus (HPV) screening through self-sampling could increase women's participation and screening performance. Our study aims to assess the preintervention acceptability of HPV screening among HIV-infected women in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. METHODS:Applying the Health Belief Model theoretical framework, we collected qualitative data through in-depth interviews with 21 HIV-infected women treated in an HIV-dedicated clinic. Maximum variation sampling was used to achieve a diverse sample of women in terms of level of health literacy. Interviews were recorded and transcribed with the participants' consent. Data analysis was performed using NVivo 12. RESULTS:Screening acceptability relies on cervical cancer representations among women. Barriers were the fear of diagnosis and the associated stigma disregard for HIV-associated health conditions, poor knowledge of screening and insufficient resources for treatment. Fees removal, higher levels of knowledge about cervical cancer and of the role of HIV status in cancer were found to facilitate screening. Healthcare providers are obstacle removers by their trusting relationship with women and help navigating through the healthcare system. Self-confidence in self-sampling is low. CONCLUSIONS:Free access to cervical screening, communication strategies increasing cervical cancer knowledge and healthcare provider involvement will foster HPV screening. Knowledge gathered through this research is crucial for designing adequate HPV-based screening interventions for women living with HIV in this setting.
Project description:Over 85% of cervical cancer cases and deaths occur in developing countries. HIV-seropositive women are more likely to develop precancerous lesions that lead to cervical cancer than HIV-negative women. However, the literature on cervical cancer prevention in seropositive women in developing countries has not been reviewed. The aim of this study is to systematically review cervical cancer prevention modalities available for HIV-seropositive women in developing countries.This protocol was developed by following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols (PRISMA-P) statement, and the systematic review will be reported in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. Embase, MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL and Cochrane Library will be searched from inception up to date of final search, and additional studies will be located through citation and reference list tracking. Eligible studies will be randomised controlled trials, prospective and retrospective cohort studies, case-control and cross-sectional studies carried out in developing countries. Studies will be included if they are published in English and examine cervical cancer prevention modalities in HIV-seropositive women. Results will be summarised in tables and, where appropriate, combined using meta-analysis.This review will address the gap in evidence by systematically reviewing the published literature on the different prevention modalities being used to prevent cervical cancer in HIV-seropositive women in developing countries. The findings may be used to inform evidence-based guidelines for prevention of cervical cancer in seropositive women as well as future research.PROSPERO CRD42017054678 .
Project description:Approximately 85% of cervical cancer cases and deaths occur in resource-constrained countries where best practices for prevention, particularly for women with HIV infection, still need to be developed. The aim of this study was to assess cervical cancer prevention capacity in select HIV clinics located in resource-constrained countries.A cross-sectional survey of sub-Saharan African sites of 4 National Institutes of Health-funded HIV/AIDS networks was conducted. Sites were surveyed on the availability of cervical cancer screening and treatment among women with HIV infection and without HIV infection. Descriptive statistics and ? or Fisher exact test were used as appropriate.Fifty-one (65%) of 78 sites responded. Access to cervical cancer screening was reported by 49 sites (96%). Of these sites, 39 (80%) performed screening on-site. Central African sites were less likely to have screening on-site (p = .02) versus other areas. Visual inspection with acetic acid and Pap testing were the most commonly available on-site screening methods at 31 (79%) and 26 (67%) sites, respectively. High-risk HPV testing was available at 29% of sites with visual inspection with acetic acid and 50% of sites with Pap testing. Cryotherapy and radical hysterectomy were the most commonly available on-site treatment methods for premalignant and malignant lesions at 29 (74%) and 18 (46%) sites, respectively.Despite limited resources, most sites surveyed had the capacity to perform cervical cancer screening and treatment. The existing infrastructure of HIV clinical and research sites may provide the ideal framework for scale-up of cervical cancer prevention in resource-constrained countries with a high burden of cervical dysplasia.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the performance of cervical cancer screening algorithms for women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), using primary high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) testing followed by cytology, visual inspection with acetic acid, or colposcopy. METHODS:We conducted a prospective cohort study of women living with HIV in Botswana. All participants underwent high-risk HPV testing. Participants with positive high-risk HPV test results underwent cytology, visual inspection with acetic acid, colposcopy, and biopsy. Participants with negative high-risk HPV test results also underwent cytology. Histopathology was the reference standard for determination of preinvasive cervical disease and cervical cancer. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value, and likelihood ratios (LR) of high-risk HPV-based two-stage screening algorithms were calculated. RESULTS:Among 300 women screened, 88 (29%) had a positive high-risk HPV test result, and 29 of the 88 (35%) women who tested positive for high-risk HPV had CIN 2 or higher on histopathology. High-risk HPV followed by colposcopy resulted in a sensitivity of 83%, specificity of 49%, PPV of 47%, LR+ of +1.6, and LR- of -0.4. High-risk HPV followed by visual inspection with acetic acid resulted in a reduced sensitivity of 59%, specificity of 49%, PPV of 39%, LR+ of +1.2, and LR- of -0.8. High-risk HPV testing followed by cytology also resulted in a reduced sensitivity of 62%, specificity of 77%, PPV of 60%, LR+ of +2.7, and LR- of -0.5. Stratification by HPV 16/18/45 did not improve performance of the algorithms. CONCLUSION:In a high-risk population with HIV, high-risk HPV testing followed by colposcopy demonstrated the highest sensitivity and PPV in detecting high-grade cervical dysplasia. Allocating resources to colposcopy in resource-limited settings may be more effective than other screening strategies.
Project description:We sought to document the association of Human immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and immunodeficiency with oncogenic Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection in women with no cervical neoplastic lesions identified through a cervical cancer screening programme in Côte d'Ivoire.A consecutive sample of women stratified on their HIV status and attending the national blood donor clinic or the closest HIV clinic was recruited during a cervical cancer screening programme based on the visual inspection. Diagnosis of HPV infection and genotype identification were based on the Linear Array; HPV test.A total of 445 (254 HIV-positive and 191 HIV-negative) women were included. The prevalence of oncogenic HPV infection was 53.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 47.9-59.9) in HIV-positive women and 33.7% (95% CI 27.1-40.3) in HIV-negative women (odds ratio (OR)=2.3 (95% CI 1.5-3.3)). In multivariate analysis, HIV-positive women with a CD4 count <200 cells mm(3) or between 200 and 499 cells mm(3) were more likely to harbour an oncogenic HPV compared with women with a CD4 count ≥500 cells mm(3) with OR of 2.8 (95% CI 1.1-8.1) and 1.7 (95% CI 1.0-2.9), respectively.A high prevalence of oncogenic HPV was found in women with no cervical neoplastic lesions, especially in HIV-positive women. Despite antiretroviral use, immunodeficiency was a main determinant of the presence of oncogenic HPV.
Project description:The careHPV assay is a test for high-risk (HR) human papillomaviruses (HPV) detection designed to be affordable in resource-poor settings. We evaluated the performance of careHPV screening among 1052 women living with HIV/AIDS included in the HARP (HPV in Africa Research Partnership) study in Burkina Faso (BF) and South Africa (SA).Cervical samples were tested for HR-HPV by the careHPV and the INNO-LiPA HPV genotyping Extra assays. All women had Pap smear testing, visual inspection with acetic acid/Lugol's iodine (VIA/VILI) and colposcopy. Cervical biopsies were obtained for participants who were HR-HPV DNA positive by careHPV or who had abnormalities detected on cytology, VIA/VILI or colposcopy.Overall, 45.1% of women had a positive careHPV test (46.5% in BF, 43.8% in SA). The careHPV positivity rate increased with the grade of cytological lesions. Sensitivity and specificity of careHPV for the diagnosis of CIN2+ (n=60, both countries combined) were 93.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 83.8-98.2) and 57.9% (95% CI: 54.5-61.2), respectively. Specificity increased with CD4 count. careHPV had a similar clinical sensitivity but higher specificity than the INNO-LiPA assay for detection of CIN2+.Our results suggest that careHPV testing is a reliable tool for cervical cancer screening in HIV-1-infected women in sub-Saharan Africa.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cervical cancer has become a major public health challenge in developing countries with a reported age-standardised incidence rate of about 17.9/100,000/year and lifetime risks approaching 1 in 20 in some settings. Evidence indicates that HIV-seropositive women are 2 to 12 times more likely to develop precancerous lesions that lead to cervical cancer than HIV-negative women. There is a lack of rigorous evidence on which treatment methods are being utilised for HIV-positive women, and this review aims to synthesise available evidence on treatment modalities for both cervical neoplasia and cervical cancer in HIV-seropositive women in developing countries. METHODS:A systematic review guided by a published protocol was conducted. Online databases including MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, CINAHL and Emerald (via EBSCOhost), PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, and health databases, which cover developing countries (3ie Systematic Reviews, WHO library and databases, World Bank website), were searched for published articles. Additional articles were found through citation, reference list tracking, and grey literature. Study design, treatment category, geographic country/region, and key outcomes for each included article were documented and summarised. RESULTS:Thirteen research articles from sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and South America were included. Eight (61.5%) articles focused on the treatment of cervical cancer with the remaining five (38.5%) assessed cervical neoplasia treatment. The available cervical cancer treatments, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, chemoradiation, and surgery are effective for HIV-seropositive patients, and these are the same treatments for HIV-negative patients. Both cryotherapy and LEEP are effective in reducing CIN2+ among HIV-seropositive women, and a choice between the treatments might be based on available resources and expertise. Radiation, chemotherapy, concurrent treatment using radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and surgery have shown the possibility of effectiveness among HIV-seropositive women. Cervical cancer stage, immunosuppressive level including those on HAART, and multisystem toxicities due to treatment are associated with treatment completion, prognostic, and survival outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:Treatment of cervical cancer is based on the stage of cancer, and poor outcomes in most developing countries might be due to a lack of optimal treatment regimen. Those infected with HIV were younger and had advanced cervical cancer as compared to those who were HIV-negative. Facilitation and putting HIV-infected people on life-long ART is of importance and has been found to have a positive impact on cervical cancer treatment response. Research on precancerous lesions and cervical cancer management of HIV-seropositive patients focusing on the quality of life of those treated; the effectiveness of the treatment method considering CD4+ count and ART is required. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION:PROSPERO CRD42018095707.
Project description:High risk human Papillomavirus (HPV) infections ultimately cause cervical cancer. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected women often present with multiple high-risk HPV infections and are thus at a higher risk of developing cervical cancer. However, information on the circulating high-risk HPV genotypes in Kenya in both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women is still scanty. This study is aimed at determining the phylogeny and the HPV genotypes in women with respect to their HIV status and at correlating this with cytology results. This study was carried out among women attending the Reproductive Health Clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital, a referral hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. A cross-sectional study recruited a total of 217 women aged 18 to 50 years. Paired blood and cervical samples were obtained from consenting participants. Blood was used for serological HIV screening while cervical smears were used for cytology followed by HPV DNA extraction, HPV DNA PCR amplification, and phylogenetic analysis. Out of 217 participants, 29 (13.4%) were HIV seropositive, while 68 (31.3%) were positive for HPV DNA. Eight (3.7%) of the participants had abnormal cervical cytology. High-risk HPV 16 was the most prevalent followed by HPV 81, 73, 35, and 52. One participant had cervical cancer, was HIV infected, and had multiple high-risk infections with HPV 26, 35, and 58. HPV 16, 6, and 81 had two variants each. HPV 16 in this study clustered with HPV from Iran and Africa. This study shows the circulation of other HPV 35, 52, 73, 81, 31, 51, 45, 58, and 26 in the Kenyan population that play important roles in cancer etiology but are not included in the HPV vaccine. Data from this study could inform vaccination strategies. Additionally, this data will be useful in future epidemiological studies of HPV in Nairobi as the introduction or development of new variants can be detected.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To assess and compare the accuracy of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), visual inspection with Lugol's iodine (VILI), and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing as alternative standalone methods for primary cervical cancer screening in sub-Saharan Africa. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies. DATA SOURCES: Systematic searches of multiple databases including Medline, Embase, and Scopus for studies published between January 1994 and June 2014. REVIEW METHODS: Inclusion criteria for studies were: alternative methods to cytology used as a standalone test for primary screening; study population not at particular risk of cervical cancer (excluding studies focusing on HIV positive women or women with gynaecological symptoms); women screened by nurses; reference test (colposcopy and directed biopsies) performed at least in women with positive screening results. Two reviewers independently screened studies for eligibility and extracted data for inclusion, and evaluated study quality using the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies 2 (QUADAS-2) checklist. Primary outcomes were absolute accuracy measures (sensitivity and specificity) of screening tests to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+). RESULTS: 15 studies of moderate quality were included (n=61,381 for VIA, n=46,435 for VILI, n=11,322 for HPV testing). Prevalence of CIN2+ did not vary by screening test and ranged from 2.3% (95% confidence interval 1.5% to 3.3%) in VILI studies to 4.9% (2.7% to 7.8%) in HPV testing studies. Positivity rates of VILI, VIA, and HPV testing were 16.5% (9.8% to 24.7%), 16.8% (11.0% to 23.6%), and 25.8% (17.4% to 35.3%), respectively. Pooled sensitivity was higher for VILI (95.1%; 90.1% to 97.7%) than VIA (82.4%; 76.3% to 87.3%) in studies where the reference test was performed in all women (P<0.001). Pooled specificity of VILI and VIA were similar (87.2% (78.1% to 92.8%) v 87.4% (77.1% to 93.4%); P=0.85). Pooled sensitivity and specificity were similar for HPV testing versus VIA (both P ? 0.23) and versus VILI (both P ? 0.16). Accuracy of VIA and VILI increased with sample size and time period. CONCLUSIONS: For primary screening of cervical cancer in sub-Saharan Africa, VILI is a simple and affordable alternative to cytology that demonstrates higher sensitivity than VIA. Implementation studies are needed to assess the effect of these screening strategies on the incidence and outcomes of cervical cancer in the region.
Project description:Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-seropositive women are more likely to have anogenital cancer, and high risk-HPV (HR-HPV) infection is the main associated factor. Between August 2013 and December 2015, we conducted a descriptive study to determine the HPV genotypes and HPV16 variants in cervical and anal samples of HIV-seropositive women with a normal Pap test. The viral DNA was amplified by PCR using the PGMY09/11 set of primers. Reverse line blot (RLB), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequencing assays were used to determine the HPV genotypes. HPV16 variants were identified by gene sequencing. We found a high frequency of HR-HPV (60.3%; 76/126) at the anogenital site among HIV-seropositive women and without association with anal intercourse. HPV16 and European variant predominated among the HR-HPV. Mixed infections with at least three different HPV types were common, particularly at the anal site. CD4+ T-cell counts below 500 cells/mm3, a HIV viral load above 50 copies/mL and an age of 18 to 35 years old were all related to HPV anal infection. Our study showed a high frequency of HR-HPV in both cervical and anal sites of women with negative cytology belonging to a risk group for the development of anogenital cancer.