The conserved threonine-rich region of the HCF-1PRO repeat activates promiscuous OGT:UDP-GlcNAc glycosylation and proteolysis activities.
ABSTRACT: O-Linked GlcNAc transferase (OGT) possesses dual glycosyltransferase-protease activities. OGT thereby stably glycosylates serines and threonines of numerous proteins and, via a transient glutamate glycosylation, cleaves a single known substrate-the so-called HCF-1PRO repeat of the transcriptional co-regulator host-cell factor 1 (HCF-1). Here, we probed the relationship between these distinct glycosylation and proteolytic activities. For proteolysis, the HCF-1PRO repeat possesses an important extended threonine-rich region that is tightly bound by the OGT tetratricopeptide-repeat (TPR) region. We report that linkage of this HCF-1PRO-repeat, threonine-rich region to heterologous substrate sequences also potentiates robust serine glycosylation with the otherwise poor R p-αS-UDP-GlcNAc diastereomer phosphorothioate and UDP-5S-GlcNAc OGT co-substrates. Furthermore, it potentiated proteolysis of a non-HCF-1PRO-repeat cleavage sequence, provided it contained an appropriately positioned glutamate residue. Using serine- or glutamate-containing HCF-1PRO-repeat sequences, we show that proposed OGT-based or UDP-GlcNAc-based serine-acceptor residue activation mechanisms can be circumvented independently, but not when disrupted together. In contrast, disruption of both proposed activation mechanisms even in combination did not inhibit OGT-mediated proteolysis. These results reveal a multiplicity of OGT glycosylation strategies, some leading to proteolysis, which could be targets of alternative molecular regulatory strategies.
Project description:In complex with the cosubstrate UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc),O-linked-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) catalyzes Ser/ThrO-GlcNAcylation of many cellular proteins and proteolysis of the transcriptional coregulator HCF-1. Such a dual glycosyltransferase-protease activity, which occurs in the same active site, is unprecedented and integrates both reversible and irreversible forms of protein post-translational modification within one enzyme. Although occurring within the same active site, we show here that glycosylation and proteolysis occur through separable mechanisms. OGT consists of tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) and catalytic domains, which, together with UDP-GlcNAc, are required for both glycosylation and proteolysis. Nevertheless, a specific TPR domain contact with the HCF-1 substrate is critical for proteolysis but not Ser/Thr glycosylation. In contrast, key catalytic domain residues and even a UDP-GlcNAc oxygen important for Ser/Thr glycosylation are irrelevant for proteolysis. Thus, from a dual glycosyltransferase-protease, essentially single-activity enzymes can be engineered both in vitro and in vivo. Curiously, whereas OGT-mediated HCF-1 proteolysis is limited to vertebrate species, invertebrate OGTs can cleave human HCF-1. We present a model for the evolution of HCF-1 proteolysis by OGT.
Project description:Human HCF-1 (also referred to as HCFC-1) is a transcriptional co-regulator that undergoes a complex maturation process involving extensive O-GlcNAcylation and site-specific proteolysis. HCF-1 proteolysis results in two active, noncovalently associated HCF-1N and HCF-1C subunits that regulate distinct phases of the cell-division cycle. HCF-1 O-GlcNAcylation and site-specific proteolysis are both catalyzed by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), which thus displays an unusual dual enzymatic activity. OGT cleaves HCF-1 at six highly conserved 26 amino acid repeat sequences called HCF-1PRO repeats. Here we characterize the substrate requirements for OGT cleavage of HCF-1. We show that the HCF-1PRO-repeat cleavage signal possesses particular OGT-binding properties. The glutamate residue at the cleavage site that is intimately involved in the cleavage reaction specifically inhibits association with OGT and its bound cofactor UDP-GlcNAc. Further, we identify a novel OGT-binding sequence nearby the first HCF-1PRO-repeat cleavage signal that enhances cleavage. These results demonstrate that distinct OGT-binding sites in HCF-1 promote proteolysis, and provide novel insights into the mechanism of this unusual protease activity.
Project description:Host cell factor-1 (HCF-1), a transcriptional co-regulator of human cell-cycle progression, undergoes proteolytic maturation in which any of six repeated sequences is cleaved by the nutrient-responsive glycosyltransferase, O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT). We report that the tetratricopeptide-repeat domain of O-GlcNAc transferase binds the carboxyl-terminal portion of an HCF-1 proteolytic repeat such that the cleavage region lies in the glycosyltransferase active site above uridine diphosphate-GlcNAc. The conformation is similar to that of a glycosylation-competent peptide substrate. Cleavage occurs between cysteine and glutamate residues and results in a pyroglutamate product. Conversion of the cleavage site glutamate into serine converts an HCF-1 proteolytic repeat into a glycosylation substrate. Thus, protein glycosylation and HCF-1 cleavage occur in the same active site.
Project description:O-Linked ?-N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) is an essential human enzyme that glycosylates numerous nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins on serine and threonine. It also cleaves Host cell factor 1 (HCF-1) by a mechanism in which the first step involves glycosylation on glutamate. Replacing glutamate with aspartate in an HCF-1 proteolytic repeat was shown to prevent peptide backbone cleavage, but whether aspartate glycosylation occurred was not examined. We report here that OGT glycosylates aspartate much faster than it glycosylates glutamate in an otherwise identical model peptide substrate; moreover, once formed, the glycosyl aspartate reacts further to form a succinimide intermediate that hydrolyzes to produce the corresponding isoaspartyl peptide. Aspartate-to-isoaspartate isomerization in proteins occurs in cells but was previously thought to be exclusively non-enzymatic. Our findings suggest it may also be enzyme-catalyzed. In addition to OGT, enzymes that may catalyze aspartate to isoaspartate isomerization include PARPs, enzymes known to ribosylate aspartate residues in the process of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation.
Project description:The essential human enzyme O-linked ?-N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT), known for modulating the functions of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins through serine and threonine glycosylation, was unexpectedly implicated in the proteolytic maturation of the cell cycle regulator host cell factor-1 (HCF-1). Here we show that HCF-1 cleavage occurs via glycosylation of a glutamate side chain followed by on-enzyme formation of an internal pyroglutamate, which undergoes spontaneous backbone hydrolysis.
Project description:Protein glycosylation on serine/threonine residues with N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a dynamic, inducible and abundant post-translational modification. It is thought to regulate many cellular processes and there are examples of interplay between O-GlcNAc and protein phosphorylation. In metazoa, a single, highly conserved and essential gene encodes the O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) that transfers GlcNAc onto substrate proteins using UDP-GlcNAc as the sugar donor. Specific inhibitors of human OGT would be useful tools to probe the role of this post-translational modification in regulating processes in the living cell. Here, we describe the synthesis of novel UDP-GlcNAc/UDP analogues and evaluate their inhibitory properties and structural binding modes in vitro alongside alloxan, a previously reported weak OGT inhibitor. While the novel analogues are not active on living cells, they inhibit the enzyme in the micromolar range and together with the structural data provide useful templates for further optimisation.
Project description:Proteolytic processing of human host cell factor 1 (HCF-1) to its mature form was recently shown, unexpectedly, to occur in a UDP-GlcNAc-dependent fashion within the transferase active site of O-GlcNAc-transferase (OGT) (Lazarus, M. B., Jiang, J., Kapuria, V., Bhuiyan, T., Janetzko, J., Zandberg, W. F., Vocadlo, D. J., Herr, W., and Walker, S. (2013) Science 342, 1235-1239). An interesting mechanism involving formation and then intramolecular rearrangement of a covalent glycosyl ester adduct of the HCF-1 polypeptide was proposed to account for this unprecedented proteolytic activity. However, the key intermediate remained hypothetical. Here, using a model enzyme system for which the formation of a glycosyl ester within the enzyme active site has been shown unequivocally, we show that ester formation can indeed lead to proteolysis of the adjacent peptide bond, thereby providing substantive support for the mechanism of HCF-1 processing proposed.
Project description:O-Linked ?-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a post-translational modification of proteins in multicellular organisms. O-GlcNAc modification is catalyzed by the O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), which transfers N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) from the nucleotide sugar donor UDP-GlcNAc to serine or threonine residues of protein substrates. Recently, we reported a novel metabolic labeling method to introduce the diazirine photocross-linking functional group onto O-GlcNAc residues in mammalian cells. In this method, cells are engineered to produce diazirine-modified UDP-GlcNAc (UDP-GlcNDAz), and the diazirine-modified GlcNAc analog (GlcNDAz) is transferred to substrate proteins by endogenous OGT, producing O-GlcNDAz. O-GlcNDAz-modified proteins can be covalently cross-linked to their binding partners, providing information about O-GlcNAc-dependent interactions. The utility of the method was demonstrated by cross-linking highly O-GlcNAc-modified nucleoporins to proteins involved in nuclear transport. For practical application of this method to a broader range of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins, efficient O-GlcNDAz production is critical. Here we examined the ability of OGT to transfer GlcNDAz and found that the wild-type enzyme (wtOGT) prefers the natural substrate, UDP-GlcNAc, over the unnatural UDP-GlcNDAz. This competition limits O-GlcNDAz production in cells and the extent of O-GlcNDAz-dependent cross-linking. Here we identified an OGT mutant, OGT(C917A), that efficiently transfers GlcNDAz and, surprisingly, has altered substrate specificity, preferring to transfer GlcNDAz rather than GlcNAc to protein substrates. We confirmed the reversed substrate preference by determining the Michaelis-Menten parameters describing the activity of wtOGT and OGT(C917A) with both UDP-GlcNAc and UDP-GlcNDAz. Use of OGT(C917A) enhances O-GlcNDAz production, yielding improved cross-linking of O-GlcNDAz-modified molecules both in vitro and in cells.
Project description:Modification of serine and threonine residues in proteins by O-linked ?-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) glycosylation is a feature of many cellular responses to the nutritional state and to stress. O-GlcNAc modification is reversibly regulated by O-linked ?-N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) and ?-D-N-acetylglucosaminase (O-GlcNAcase). O-GlcNAc modification of proteins is dependent on the concentration of uridine 5'-diphospho-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), which is a substrate of OGT and is synthesized via the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway. Immunoblot analysis using the O-GlcNAc-specific antibody CTD110.6 has indicated that glucose deprivation increases protein O-GlcNAcylation in some cancer cells. The mechanism of this paradoxical phenomenon has remained unclear. Here we show that the increased glycosylation induced by glucose deprivation and detected by CTD110.6 antibodies is actually modification by N-GlcNAc(2), rather than by O-GlcNAc. We found that this induced glycosylation was not regulated by OGT and O-GlcNAcase, unlike typical O-GlcNAcylation, and it was inhibited by treatment with tunicamycin, an N-glycosylation inhibitor. Proteomics analysis showed that proteins modified by this induced glycosylation were N-GlcNAc(2)-modified glycoproteins. Furthermore, CTD110.6 antibodies reacted with N-GlcNAc(2)-modified glycoproteins produced by a yeast strain with a ts-mutant of ALG1 that could not add a mannose residue to dolichol-PP-GlcNAc(2). Our results demonstrated that N-GlcNAc(2)-modified glycoproteins were induced under glucose deprivation and that they cross-reacted with the O-GlcNAc-specific antibody CTD110.6. We therefore propose that the glycosylation status of proteins previously classified as O-GlcNAc-modified proteins according to their reactivity with CTD110.6 antibodies must be re-examined. We also suggest that the repression of mature N-linked glycoproteins due to increased levels of N-GlcNAc(2)-modified proteins is a newly recognized pathway for effective use of sugar under stress and deprivation conditions. Further research is needed to clarify the physiological and pathological roles of N-GlcNAc(2)-modified proteins.
Project description:The dynamic glycosylation of serine/threonine residues on nucleocytoplasmic proteins with a single N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAcylation) is critical for many important cellular processes. Cellular O-GlcNAc levels are highly regulated by two enzymes: O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) is responsible for GlcNAc addition and O-GlcNAcase (OGA) is responsible for removal of the sugar. The lack of a rapid and simple method for monitoring OGT activity has impeded the efficient discovery of potent OGT inhibitors. In this study we describe a novel, single-well OGT enzyme assay that utilizes 6 × His-tagged substrates, a chemoselective chemical reaction, and unpurified OGT. The high-throughput Ni-NTA Plate OGT Assay will facilitate discovery of potent OGT-specific inhibitors on versatile substrates and the characterization of new enzyme variants.