Control of spin-wave transmission by a programmable domain wall.
ABSTRACT: Active manipulation of spin waves is essential for the development of magnon-based technologies. Here, we demonstrate programmable spin-wave filtering by resetting the spin structure of pinned 90° Néel domain walls in a continuous CoFeB film with abrupt rotations of uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. Using micro-focused Brillouin light scattering and micromagnetic simulations, we show that broad 90° head-to-head or tail-to-tail magnetic domain walls are transparent to spin waves over a broad frequency range. In contrast, magnetic switching to a 90° head-to-tail configuration produces much narrower and strongly reflecting domain walls at the same pinning locations. Based on these results, we propose a magnetic spin-wave valve with two parallel domain walls. Switching the spin-wave valve from an open to a closed state changes the transmission of spin waves from nearly 100 to 0%. Active control over spin-wave transport through programmable domain walls could be utilized in magnonic logic devices or non-volatile memory elements.
Project description:We report on the direct observation of spin wave and elastic wave emission from magnetic domain walls in ferromagnetic thin films. Driven by alternating homogeneous magnetic fields the magnetic domain walls act as coherent magnetisation wave sources. Directional and low damped elastic waves below and above the ferromagnetic resonance are excited. The wave vector of the magnetoelastically induced acoustic waves is tuned by varying the excitation frequency. The occurrence of elastic wave emission is proved by a combination of micromagnetic and mechanical finite element simulations. Domain wall emitted magnetostatic surface spin waves occur at higher frequencies, which characteristics are confirmed by micromagnetic simulations. The distinct modes of magnetisation wave excitation from micromagnetic objects are a general physical phenomenon relevant for dynamic magnetisation processes in structured magnetic films. Magnetic domain walls can act as reconfigurable antennas for spin wave and elastic wave generation. The wave orientation can be controlled separately via the domain wall orientation for elastic waves and via magnetization orientation for magnetostatic surface spin waves.
Project description:Miniaturization of magnonic devices for wave-like computing requires emission of short-wavelength spin waves, a key feature that cannot be achieved with microwave antennas. In this paper, we propose a tunable source of short-wavelength spin waves based on highly localized and strongly pinned magnetic domain walls in ferroelectric-ferromagnetic bilayers. When driven into oscillation by a microwave spin-polarized current, the magnetic domain walls emit spin waves with the same frequency as the excitation current. The amplitude of the emitted spin waves and the range of attainable excitation frequencies depend on the availability of domain wall resonance modes. In this respect, pinned domain walls in magnetic nanowires are particularly attractive. In this geometry, spin wave confinement perpendicular to the nanowire axis produces a multitude of domain wall resonances enabling efficient spin wave emission at frequencies up to 100 GHz and wavelengths down to 20 nm. At high frequency, the emission of spin waves in magnetic nanowires becomes monochromatic. Moreover, pinning of magnetic domain wall oscillators onto the same ferroelectric domain boundary in parallel nanowires guarantees good coherency between spin wave sources, which opens perspectives towards the realization of Mach-Zehnder type logic devices and sensors.
Project description:High density magnetic domain wall gratings are imprinted in ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic thin films by local ion irradiation by which alternating head-to-tail-to-head-to-tail and head-to-head-to-tail-to-tail spatially overlapping domain wall networks are formed. Unique magnetic domain processes result from the interaction of anchored domain walls. Non-linear magnetization response is introduced by the laterally distributed magnetic anisotropy phases. The locally varying magnetic charge distribution gives rise to localized and guided magnetization spin-wave modes directly constrained by the narrow domain wall cores. The exchange coupled multiphase material structure leads to unprecedented static and locally modified dynamic magnetic material properties.
Project description:As a collective quasiparticle excitation of the magnetic order in magnetic materials, spin wave, or magnon when quantized, can propagate in both conducting and insulating materials. Like the manipulation of its optical counterpart, the ability to manipulate spin wave polarization is not only important but also fundamental for magnonics. With only one type of magnetic lattice, ferromagnets can only accommodate the right-handed circularly polarized spin wave modes, which leaves no freedom for polarization manipulation. In contrast, antiferromagnets, with two opposite magnetic sublattices, have both left and right-circular polarizations, and all linear and elliptical polarizations. Here we demonstrate theoretically and confirm by micromagnetic simulations that, in the presence of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, an antiferromagnetic domain wall acts naturally as a spin wave polarizer or a spin wave retarder (waveplate). Our findings provide extremely simple yet flexible routes toward magnonic information processing by harnessing the polarization degree of freedom of spin wave.Spin waves are promising candidates as carriers for energy-efficient information processing, but they have not yet been fully explored application wise. Here the authors theoretically demonstrate that antiferromagnetic domain walls are naturally spin wave polarizers and retarders, two key components of magnonic devices.
Project description:Spin waves offer promising perspectives as information carriers for future computational architectures beyond conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology, owing to their benefits for device minimizations and low-ohmic losses. Although plenty of magnonic devices have been proposed previously, scalable nanoscale networks based on spin waves are still missing. Here, we demonstrate a reprogrammable two-dimensional spin wave network by combining the chiral exchange spin waves and chiral domain walls. The spin-wave network can be extended to two dimensions and offers unprecedented control of exchange spin waves. Each cell in the network can excite, transmit, and detect spin waves independently in the chiral domain wall, and spin-wave logics are also demonstrated. Our results open up perspectives for integrating spin waves into future logic and computing circuits and networks.
Project description:We theoretically investigate the dynamics of antiferromagnetic domain walls driven by spin-orbit torques in antiferromagnet-heavy-metal bilayers. We show that spin-orbit torques drive antiferromagnetic domain walls much faster than ferromagnetic domain walls. As the domain wall velocity approaches the maximum spin-wave group velocity, the domain wall undergoes Lorentz contraction and emits spin waves in the terahertz frequency range. The interplay between spin-orbit torques and the relativistic dynamics of antiferromagnetic domain walls leads to the efficient manipulation of antiferromagnetic spin textures and paves the way for the generation of high frequency signals from antiferromagnets.
Project description:Precise control of magnetic domain walls continues to be a central topic in the field of spintronics to boost infotech, logic, and memory applications. One way is to drive the domain wall by current in metals. In insulators, the incoherent flow of phonons and magnons induced by the temperature gradient can carry the spins, i.e., spin Seebeck effect, but the spatial and time dependence is difficult to control. Here, we report that coherent phonons hybridized with spin waves, magnetoelastic waves, can drive magnetic bubble domains, or curved domain walls, in an iron garnet, which are excited by ultrafast laser pulses at a nonabsorbing photon energy. These magnetoelastic waves were imaged by time-resolved Faraday microscopy, and the resultant spin transfer force was evaluated to be larger for domain walls with steeper curvature. This will pave a path for the rapid spatiotemporal control of magnetic textures in insulating magnets.
Project description:The atomic-scale structural and electric parameters of the 90° domain-walls in tetragonal ferroelectrics are of technological importance for exploring the ferroelectric switching behaviors and various domain-wall-related novel functions. We have grown epitaxial PbTiO3/SrTiO3 multilayer films in which the electric dipoles at 90° domain-walls of ferroelectric PbTiO3 are characterized by means of aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. Besides the well-accepted head-to-tail 90° uncharged domain-walls, we have identified not only head-to-head positively charged but also tail-to-tail negatively charged domain-walls. The widths, polarization distributions, and strains across these charged domain-walls are mapped quantitatively at atomic scale, where remarkable difference between these domain-walls is presented. This study is expected to provide fundamental information for understanding numerous novel domain-wall phenomena in ferroelectrics.
Project description:Local perturbations in the relative orientation of the magnetic moments in a continuous magnetic system can propagate in the form of waves. These so-called spin waves represent a promising candidate as an information carrier for spin-based low-power applications. A localized, energy-efficient excitation of coherent and short-wavelength spin waves is a crucial technological requirement, and alternatives to excitation via the Oersted field of an alternating current must be explored. Here, we show how a domain wall pinned at a geometrical constriction in a perpendicularly magnetized thin nanowire emits spin waves when forced to rotate by the application of a low direct current flowing along the wire. Spin waves are excited by the in-plane stray field of the rotating domain wall and propagate at an odd harmonic of the domain wall rotation frequency in the direction of the electron's flow. The application of an external field, opposing domain wall depinning induced by the current, breaks the symmetry for spin wave propagation in the two domains, allowing emission in both directions but at different frequencies. The results presented define a new approach to manufacture tuneable high-frequency spin wave emitters of easy fabrication and low power consumption.
Project description:Low dissipation data processing with spins is one of the promising directions for future information and communication technologies. Despite a significant progress, the available magnonic devices are not broadband yet and have restricted capabilities to redirect spin waves. Here we propose a breakthrough approach to spin wave manipulation in patterned magnetic nanostructures with unmatched characteristics, which exploits a spin wave analogue to edge waves propagating along a water-wall boundary. Using theory, micromagnetic simulations and experiment we investigate spin waves propagating along the edges in magnetic structures, under an in-plane DC magnetic field inclined with respect to the edge. The proposed edge spin waves overcome important challenges faced by previous technologies such as the manipulation of the spin wave propagation direction, and they substantially improve the capability of transmitting information at frequencies exceeding 10?GHz. The concept of the edge spin waves allows to design a broad of logic devices such as splitters, interferometers, or edge spin wave transistors with unprecedented characteristics and a potentially strong impact on information technologies.