ABSTRACT: Cell-surface proteins are of great biomedical importance, as demonstrated by the fact that 66% of approved human drugs listed in the DrugBank database target a cell-surface protein. Despite this biomedical relevance, there has been no comprehensive assessment of the human surfaceome, and only a fraction of the predicted 5,000 human transmembrane proteins have been shown to be located at the plasma membrane. To enable analysis of the human surfaceome, we developed the surfaceome predictor SURFY, based on machine learning. As a training set, we used experimentally verified high-confidence cell-surface proteins from the Cell Surface Protein Atlas (CSPA) and trained a random forest classifier on 131 features per protein and, specifically, per topological domain. SURFY was used to predict a human surfaceome of 2,886 proteins with an accuracy of 93.5%, which shows excellent overlap with known cell-surface protein classes (i.e., receptors). In deposited mRNA data, we found that between 543 and 1,100 surfaceome genes were expressed in cancer cell lines and maximally 1,700 surfaceome genes were expressed in embryonic stem cells and derivative lines. Thus, the surfaceome diversity depends on cell type and appears to be more dynamic than the nonsurface proteome. To make the predicted surfaceome readily accessible to the research community, we provide visualization tools for intuitive interrogation (wlab.ethz.ch/surfaceome). The in silico surfaceome enables the filtering of data generated by multiomics screens and supports the elucidation of the surfaceome nanoscale organization.
Project description:Cell surface proteins are major targets of biomedical research due to their utility as cellular markers and their extracellular accessibility for pharmacological intervention. However, information about the cell surface protein repertoire (the surfaceome) of individual cells is only sparsely available. Here, we applied the Cell Surface Capture (CSC) technology to 41 human and 31 mouse cell types to generate a mass-spectrometry derived Cell Surface Protein Atlas (CSPA) providing cellular surfaceome snapshots at high resolution. The CSPA is presented in form of an easy-to-navigate interactive database, a downloadable data matrix and with tools for targeted surfaceome rediscovery (http://wlab.ethz.ch/cspa). The cellular surfaceome snapshots of different cell types, including cancer cells, resulted in a combined dataset of 1492 human and 1296 mouse cell surface glycoproteins, providing experimental evidence for their cell surface expression on different cell types, including 136 G-protein coupled receptors and 75 membrane receptor tyrosine-protein kinases. Integrated analysis of the CSPA reveals that the concerted biological function of individual cell types is mainly guided by quantitative rather than qualitative surfaceome differences. The CSPA will be useful for the evaluation of drug targets, for the improved classification of cell types and for a better understanding of the surfaceome and its concerted biological functions in complex signaling microenvironments.
Project description:Cell surface proteins are excellent targets for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. By using bioinformatics tools, we generated a catalog of 3,702 transmembrane proteins located at the surface of human cells (human cell surfaceome). We explored the genetic diversity of the human cell surfaceome at different levels, including the distribution of polymorphisms, conservation among eukaryotic species, and patterns of gene expression. By integrating expression information from a variety of sources, we were able to identify surfaceome genes with a restricted expression in normal tissues and/or differential expression in tumors, important characteristics for putative tumor targets. A high-throughput and efficient quantitative real-time PCR approach was used to validate 593 surfaceome genes selected on the basis of their expression pattern in normal and tumor samples. A number of candidates were identified as potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets for colorectal tumors and glioblastoma. Several candidate genes were also identified as coding for cell surface cancer/testis antigens. The human cell surfaceome will serve as a reference for further studies aimed at characterizing tumor targets at the surface of human cells.
Project description:The identification of the subset of outer membrane proteins exposed on the surface of a bacterial cell (the surfaceome) is critical to understanding the interactions of bacteria with their environments and greatly narrows the search for protective antigens of extracellular pathogens. The surfaceome of Leptospira was investigated by biotin labeling of viable leptospires, affinity capture of the biotinylated proteins, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry (MS). The leptospiral surfaceome was found to be predominantly made up of a small number of already characterized proteins, being in order of relative abundance on the cell surface: LipL32 > LipL21 > LipL41. Of these proteins, only LipL32 had not been previously identified as surface exposed. LipL32 surface exposure was subsequently verified by three independent approaches: surface immunofluorescence, whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and immunoelectron microscopy. Three other proteins, Q8F8Q0 (a putative transmembrane outer membrane protein) and two proteins of 20 kDa and 55 kDa that could not be identified by MS, one of which demonstrated a high degree of labeling potentially representing an additional, as-yet-uncharacterized, surface-exposed protein. Minor labeling of p31(LipL45), GroEL, and FlaB1 was also observed. Expression of the surfaceome constituents remained unchanged under a range of conditions investigated, including temperature and the presence of serum or urine. Immunization of mice with affinity-captured surface components stimulated the production of antibodies that bound surface proteins from heterologous leptospiral strains. The surfaceomics approach is particularly amenable to protein expression profiling using small amounts of sample (<10(7) cells) offering the potential to analyze bacterial surface expression during infection.
Project description:The proteins of the cellular plasma membrane (PM) perform important functions relating to homeostasis and intercellular communication. Due to its overall low cellular abundance, amphipathic character, and low membrane-to-cytoplasm ratio, the PM proteome has been challenging to isolate and characterize, and is poorly represented in standard LC-MS/MS analyses. In this study, we employ sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation for the enrichment of the PM proteome, without chemical labeling and affinity purification, together with GeLCMS and use subsequent bioinformatics tools to select proteins associated with the PM/cell surface, herein referred to as the surfaceome. Using this methodology, we identify over 1900 cell surface associated proteins in a human acute myeloid leukemia cell line. These surface proteins comprise almost 50% of all detected cellular proteins, a number that substantially exceeds the depth of coverage in previously published studies describing the leukemia surfaceome.
Project description:The complement of cell surface proteins, collectively referred to as the surfaceome, is a useful indicator of normal differentiation processes, and the development of pathologies such as osteoarthritis (OA). We employed biochemical and proteomic tools to explore the surfaceome and to define biomarkers in chondrogenic progenitor cells (CPC) derived from human OA knee articular cartilage. These cells have great therapeutic potential, but their unexplored biology limits their clinical application. We performed biotinylation combined with glycocapture and high throughput shotgun proteomics to define the surface proteome of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and human CPCs. We prepared cell surface protein-enriched fractions from MSCs and CPCs, and then a proteomic approach was used to compare and evaluate protein changes between undifferentiated MSCs and CPCs. 1256 proteins were identified in the study, of which 791 (63%) were plasma membrane, cell surface or extracellular matrix proteins. Proteins constituting the surfaceome were annotated and categorized. Our results provide, for the first time, a repository of quantitative proteomic data on the surfaceome of two closely related cell types relevant to cartilage biology and OA. These results may provide novel insights into the transformation of the surfaceome during chondrogenic differentiation and phenotypic changes during OA development.
Project description:The surfaceome is critical because surface proteins provide a gateway for internal signals and transfer of molecules into cells, and surfaceome differences can influence therapy response. We have used a surfaceome analysis method, based on comparing RNA-seq data between normal and abnormal cells (Surfaceome DataBase Mining or Surfaceome DBM), to identify sets of upregulated cell surface protein mRNAs in an LMO2-mediated T-ALL mouse model and corroborated by protein detection using antibodies. In this model the leukemia initiating cells (LICs) comprise pre-leukaemic, differentiation inhibited thymocytes allowing us to provide a profile of the LIC surfaceome in which GPR56, CD53 and CD59a are co-expressed with CD25. Implementation of cell surface interaction assays demonstrates fluid interaction of surface proteins and CD25 is only internalized when co-localized with other proteins. The Surfaceome DBM approach to analyse cancer cell surfaceomes is a way to find targetable surface biomarkers for clinical conditions where RNA-seq data from normal and abnormal cell are available.
Project description:It is estimated that 10 to 20% of all genes in the human genome encode cell surface proteins and due to their subcellular localization these proteins represent excellent targets for cancer diagnosis and therapeutics. Therefore, a precise characterization of the surfaceome set in different types of tumor is needed. Using TCGA data from 15 different tumor types and a new method to identify cancer genes, the S-score, we identified several potential therapeutic targets within the surfaceome set. This allowed us to expand a previous analysis from us and provided a clear characterization of the human surfaceome in the tumor landscape. Moreover, we present evidence that a three-gene set-WNT5A, CNGA2, and IGSF9B-can be used as a signature associated with shorter survival in breast cancer patients. The data made available here will help the community to develop more efficient diagnostic and therapeutic tools for a variety of tumor types.
Project description:The cell surface proteome, the surfaceome, is the interface for engaging the extracellular space in normal and cancer cells. Here we apply quantitative proteomics of N-linked glycoproteins to reveal how a collection of some 700 surface proteins is dramatically remodeled in an isogenic breast epithelial cell line stably expressing any of six of the most prominent proliferative oncogenes, including the receptor tyrosine kinases, EGFR and HER2, and downstream signaling partners such as KRAS, BRAF, MEK, and AKT. We find that each oncogene has somewhat different surfaceomes, but the functions of these proteins are harmonized by common biological themes including up-regulation of nutrient transporters, down-regulation of adhesion molecules and tumor suppressing phosphatases, and alteration in immune modulators. Addition of a potent MEK inhibitor that blocks MAPK signaling brings each oncogene-induced surfaceome back to a common state reflecting the strong dependence of the oncogene on the MAPK pathway to propagate signaling. Cell surface protein capture is mediated by covalent tagging of surface glycans, yet current methods do not afford sequencing of intact glycopeptides. Thus, we complement the surfaceome data with whole cell glycoproteomics enabled by a recently developed technique called activated ion electron transfer dissociation (AI-ETD). We found massive oncogene-induced changes to the glycoproteome and differential increases in complex hybrid glycans, especially for KRAS and HER2 oncogenes. Overall, these studies provide a broad systems-level view of how specific driver oncogenes remodel the surfaceome and the glycoproteome in a cell autologous fashion, and suggest possible surface targets, and combinations thereof, for drug and biomarker discovery.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Chondrocytes are exposed to an inflammatory micro-environment in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of articular cartilage in joint diseases such as osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In OA, degenerative changes and low-grade inflammation within the joint transform the behaviour and metabolism of chondrocytes, disturb the balance between ECM synthesis and degradation, and alter the osmolality and ionic composition of the micro-environment. We hypothesize that chondrocytes adjust their physiology to the inflammatory microenvironment by modulating the expression of cell surface proteins, collectively referred to as the 'surfaceome'. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize the surfaceome of primary equine chondrocytes isolated from healthy joints following exposure to the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1-beta (IL-1?) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?). We employed combined methodology that we recently developed for investigating the surfaceome in stem cells. Membrane proteins were isolated using an aminooxy-biotinylation technique and analysed by mass spectrometry using high throughput shotgun proteomics. Selected proteins were validated by western blotting. RESULTS:Amongst the 431 unique cell surface proteins identified, a high percentage of low-abundance proteins, such as ion channels, receptors and transporter molecules were detected. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD014773. A high number of proteins exhibited different expression patterns following chondrocyte stimulation with pro-inflammatory cytokines. Low density lipoprotein related protein 1 (LPR-1), thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), voltage dependent anion channel (VDAC) 1-2 and annexin A1 were considered to be of special interest and were analysed further by western blotting. CONCLUSIONS:Our results provide, for the first time, a repository for proteomic data on differentially expressed low-abundance membrane proteins on the surface of chondrocytes in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli.
Project description:The cell envelope of parietal monoderm bacteria (archetypal Gram-positive bacteria) is formed of a cytoplasmic membrane (CM) and a cell wall (CW). While the CM is composed of phospholipids, the CW is composed at least of peptidoglycan (PG) covalently linked to other biopolymers, such as teichoic acids, polysaccharides, and/or polyglutamate. Considering the CW is a porous structure with low selective permeability contrary to the CM, the bacterial cell surface hugs the molecular figure of the CW components as a well of the external side of the CM. While the surfaceome corresponds to the totality of the molecules found at the bacterial cell surface, the proteinaceous complement of the surfaceome is the proteosurfaceome. Once translocated across the CM, secreted proteins can either be released in the extracellular milieu or exposed at the cell surface by associating to the CM or the CW. Following the gene ontology (GO) for cellular components, cell-surface proteins at the CM can either be integral (GO: 0031226), i.e., the integral membrane proteins, or anchored to the membrane (GO: 0046658), i.e., the lipoproteins. At the CW (GO: 0009275), cell-surface proteins can be covalently bound, i.e., the LPXTG-proteins, or bound through weak interactions to the PG or wall polysaccharides, i.e., the cell wall binding proteins. Besides monopolypeptides, some proteins can associate to each other to form supramolecular protein structures of high molecular weight, namely the S-layer, pili, flagella, and cellulosomes. After reviewing the cell envelope components and the different molecular mechanisms involved in protein attachment to the cell envelope, perspectives in investigating the proteosurfaceome in parietal monoderm bacteria are further discussed.