The Effects of Exercise Training and High Triglyceride Diet in an Estrogen Depleted Rat Model: The Role of the Heme Oxygenase System and Inflammatory Processes in Cardiovascular Risk.
ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality of premenopausal women are significantly lower compared to men of similar age. However, this protective effect evidently decreases after the onset of menopause. We hypothesized that physical exercise could be a potential therapeutic strategy to improve inflammatory processes and cardiovascular antioxidant homeostasis, which can be affected by the loss of estrogen and the adverse environmental factors, such as overnutrition. Ovariectomized (OVX, n= 40) and sham-operated (SO, n= 40) female Wistar rats were randomized to exercising (R) and non-exercising (NR) groups. Feeding parameters were chosen to make a standard chow (CTRL) or a high triglyceride diet (HT) for 12 weeks. Aortic and cardiac heme oxygenase (HO) activity and HO-1 concentrations significantly decreased in all of the NR OVX and SO HT groups. However, the 12-week physical exercise was found to improve HO-1 values. Plasma IL-6 concentrations were higher in the NR OVX animals and rats fed HT diet compared to SO CTRL rats. TNF-? concentrations were significantly higher in the NR OVX groups. 12 weeks of exercise significantly reduced the concentrations of both TNF-? and IL-6 compared to the NR counterparts. The activity of myeloperoxidase enzyme (MPO) was significantly increased as a result of OVX and HT diet, however voluntary wheel-running exercise restored the elevated values. Our results show that estrogen deficiency and HT diet caused a significant decrease in the activity and concentration of HO enzyme, as well as the concentrations of TNF-?, IL-6, and the activity of MPO. However, 12 weeks of voluntary wheel-running exercise is a potential non-pharmacological therapy to ameliorate these disturbances, which determine the life expectancy of postmenopausal women.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of three weeks of rosuvastatin (Ros) treatment alone and in combination with voluntary training (Tr) on expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism (LDLR, PCSK9, LRP-1, SREBP-2, IDOL, ACAT-2 and HMGCR) in the liver of eight week-old ovariectomized (Ovx) rats. Sprague Dawley rats were Ovx or sham-operated (Sham) and kept sedentary for 8 weeks under a standard diet. Thereafter, rats were transferred for three weeks in running wheel cages for Tr or kept sedentary (Sed) with or without Ros treatment (5mg/kg/day). Six groups were formed: Sham-Sed treated with saline (Sal) or Ros (Sham-Sed-Sal; Sham-Sed-Ros), Ovx-Sed treated with Sal or Ros (Ovx-Sed-Sal; Ovx-Sed-Ros), Ovx trained treated with Sal or Ros (Ovx-Tr-Sal; Ovx-Tr-Ros). Ovx-Sed-Sal rats depicted higher (P < 0.05) body weight, plasma total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C, and liver TC content compared to Sham-Sed-Sal rats. In contrast, mRNA levels of liver PCSK9, LDLR, LRP-1 as well as plasma PCSK9 concentrations and protein levels of LRP-1 were reduced (P < 0.01) in Ovx-Sed-Sal compared to Sham-Sed-Sal rats. However, protein levels of LDLR increased (P < 0.05) in Ovx-Sed-Sal compared to Sham-Sed-Sal rats. Treatment of Ovx rats with Ros increased (P < 0.05) mRNA and protein levels of LRP-1 and PCSK9 but not mRNA levels of LDLR, while its protein abundance was reduced at the level of Sham rats. As a result, plasma LDL-C was not reduced. Exercise alone did not affect the expression of any of these markers in Ovx rats. Overall, Ros treatment corrected Ovx-induced decrease in gene expression of markers of cholesterol metabolism in liver of Ovx rats, but without reducing plasma LDL-C concentrations. Increased plasma PCSK9 levels could be responsible for the reduction of liver LDLR protein abundance and the absence of reduction of plasma LDL-C after Ros treatment.
Project description:Estrogen is involved in lipid metabolism. Menopausal women with low estrogen secretion usually gain weight and develop steatosis associated with abnormal lipid metabolism. A previous study showed that blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) extract (BCE) had phytoestrogen activity. In this study, we examined whether BCE improved lipid metabolism abnormalities and reduced liver steatosis in ovariectomized rats, as a menopausal animal model. Twelve-week-old ovariectomized (OVX) rats were fed a regular diet (Ctrl) or a 3% BCE supplemented diet while sham rats were fed a regular diet for three months. Body weight, visceral fat weight, levels of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol decreased in the BCE-treated OVX and sham rats, but not in OVX Ctrl rats. The results of hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed that BCE decreased the diameters of adipocytes and the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease activity score. Furthermore, quantitative RTPCR indicated a decreased expression of hepatitis-related genes, such as tumor necrosis factor-?, IL-6, and IL-1? in OVX rats after BCE treatment. This is the first study that reported improvement of lipid metabolism abnormalities in OVX rats by BCE administration. These results suggest that the intake of BCE alleviated dyslipidemia and prevented nonalcoholic steatohepatitis during menopause in this animal model.
Project description:Epidemiological studies report that individuals who exercise are less likely to abuse drugs. Preclinical studies report that exercise, in the form of treadmill or wheel running, reliably decreases the self-administration of psychomotor stimulants and opioids. To date, preclinical studies have only examined the effects of exercise on responding maintained by individual drugs and not by combinations of multiple drugs. This limits the translational appeal of these studies because polydrug abuse is common among substance abusing populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exercise on the self-administration of speedball, a combination of cocaine and heroin that is frequently encountered in intravenous drug abusing populations.Female rats were obtained at weaning and assigned to sedentary or exercising conditions. Sedentary rats were housed in standard cages that permitted no exercise beyond normal cage ambulation; exercising rats were housed in similar cages with an activity wheel. After 6weeks, rats were implanted with intravenous catheters and trained to self-administer cocaine, heroin, and dose combinations of cocaine and heroin (i.e., speedball) on a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement.Doses of speedball maintained greater levels of responding than corresponding doses of cocaine and heroin alone. Importantly, responding maintained by cocaine, heroin, and speedball was lower in exercising rats than sedentary rats.These data indicate that exercise decreases the self-administration of speedball and suggest that exercise may reduce the abuse of drug combinations that have traditionally been resistant to treatment.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Exercise is known to improve cognitive function, but the exact synaptic and cellular mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated the potential role of the serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) in mediating these effects. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and neurogenesis were measured in standard-housed and exercising (wheel running) wild-type (WT) and SERT heterozygous (HET) mice. We also assessed hippocampal-dependent cognition using the Morris water maze (MWM) and a spatial pattern separation touchscreen task. KEY RESULTS:SERT HET mice had impaired hippocampal LTP regardless of the housing conditions. Exercise increased hippocampal neurogenesis in WT mice. However, this was not observed in SERT HET animals, even though both genotypes used the running wheels to a similar extent. We also found that standard-housed SERT HET mice displayed altered cognitive flexibility than WT littermate controls in the MWM reversal learning task. However, SERT HET mice no longer exhibited this phenotype after exercise. Cognitive changes, specific to SERT HET mice in the exercise condition, were also revealed on the touchscreen spatial pattern separation task, especially when the cognitive pattern separation load was at its highest. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:Our study is the first evidence of reduced hippocampal LTP in SERT HET mice. We also show that functional SERT is required for exercise-induced increase in adult neurogenesis. Paradoxically, exercise had a negative impact on hippocampal-dependent cognitive tasks, especially in SERT HET mice. Taken together, our results suggest unique complex interactions between exercise and altered 5-HT homeostasis.
Project description:In drug self-administration procedures, extended-access test sessions allow researchers to model maladaptive patterns of excessive and escalating drug intake that are characteristic of human substance-abusing populations.The purpose of the present study was to examine the ability of aerobic exercise to decrease excessive and escalating patterns of drug intake in male and female rats responding under extended-access conditions.Male and female Long-Evans rats were obtained at weaning and divided into sedentary (no running wheel) and exercising (running wheel) groups immediately upon arrival. After 6 weeks, rats were surgically implanted with intravenous catheters and allowed to self-administer cocaine under positive reinforcement contingencies. In experiment 1, cocaine self-administration was examined during 23-h test sessions that occurred every 4 days. In experiment 2, the escalation of cocaine intake was examined during daily 6-h test sessions over 14 consecutive days.In experiment 1, sedentary rats self-administered significantly more cocaine than exercising rats during uninterrupted 23-h test sessions, and this effect was apparent in both males and females. In experiment 2, sedentary rats escalated their cocaine intake to a significantly greater degree than exercising rats over the 14 days of testing. Although females escalated their cocaine intake to a greater extent than males, exercise effectively attenuated the escalation of cocaine intake in both sexes.These data indicate that aerobic exercise decreases maladaptive patterns of excessive and escalating cocaine intake under extended-access conditions.
Project description:Physical activity reduces the incidence and severity of psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. Similarly, voluntary wheel running produces anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects in rodent models. The specific neurobiological mechanisms underlying the beneficial properties of exercise, however, remain unclear. One relevant pharmacological target in the treatment of psychiatric disorders is the 5-HT(2C) receptor (5-HT(2C)R). Consistent with data demonstrating the anxiogenic consequences of 5-HT(2C)R activation in humans and rodents, we have previously reported that site-specific administration of the selective 5-HT(2C)R agonist CP-809101 in the lateral/basolateral amygdala (BLA) increases shock-elicited fear while administration of CP-809101 in the dorsal striatum (DS) interferes with shuttle box escape learning. These findings suggest that activation of 5-HT(2C)R in discrete brain regions contributes to specific anxiety- and depression-like behaviors and may indicate potential brain sites involved in the anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of exercise. The current studies tested the hypothesis that voluntary wheel running reduces the behavioral consequences of 5-HT(2C)R activation in the BLA and DS, specifically enhanced shock-elicited fear and interference with shuttle box escape learning. After 6 weeks of voluntary wheel running or sedentary conditions, the selective 5-HT(2C)R agonist CP-809101 was microinjected into either the BLA or the DS of adult Fischer 344 rats, and shock-elicited fear and shuttle box escape learning was assessed. Additionally, in-situ hybridization was used to determine if 6 weeks of voluntary exercise changed levels of 5-HT(2C)R mRNA. We found that voluntary wheel running reduced the behavioral effects of CP-809101 and reduced levels of 5-HT(2C)R mRNA in both the BLA and the DS. The current data indicate that expression of 5-HT(2C)R mRNA in discrete brain sites is sensitive to physical activity status of the organism, and implicates the 5-HT(2C)R as a target for the beneficial effects of physical activity on mental health.
Project description:This study aims to explore the effects of exercise on postmenopausal osteoporosis and the mechanisms by which exercise affects bone remodeling. Sixty-three Wistar female rats were randomly divided into five groups: (1) control group, (2) sham-operated group, (3) OVX (Ovariectomy) group, (4) DES-OVX (Diethylstilbestrol-OVX) group, and (5) Ex-OVX (Exercise-OVX) group. The rat osteoporosis model was established through ovariectomy. The Ex-OVX rats were made to run 251.2 meters every day, 6 d/wk for 3 months in a running wheel. Trabecular bone volume (TBV%), total resorption surface (TRS%), trabecular formation surface (TFS%), mineralization rate (MAR), bone cortex mineralization rate (mAR), and osteoid seam width (OSW) were determined by bone histomorphometry. The mRNA and protein levels of interleukin-1? (IL-1?2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) were determined by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Serum levels of estrogen estradiol (E2), calcitonin (CT), osteocalcin (BGP), and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were determined by ELISA assays. The investigation revealed that compared to the control and the sham-operated groups, the OVX group showed significantly lower levels of TBV%, E2, and CT, but much higher levels of TRS%, TFS%, MAR, OSW, BGP, and PTH. The Ex-OVX group showed increased TBV% and serum levels of E2 and CT compared to the OVX group. Ovariectomy also led to a significant increase in IL-1? mRNA and protein levels in the bone marrow and IL-6 and Cox-2 protein levels in tibias. In addition, the Ex-OVX group showed lower levels of IL-1 mRNA and protein, IL-6 mRNA, and Cox-2 mRNA and protein than those in the OVX group. The upshot of the study suggests that exercise can significantly increase bone mass in postmenopausal osteoporosis rat models by inhibiting bone resorption and increasing bone formation, especially in trabecular bones.
Project description:Controversy exists as to whether supplementation with the antioxidants vitamin E and vitamin C blocks adaptation to exercise. Exercise is a first-line means to treat obesity and its complications. While diet-induced obesity alters mitochondrial function and induces insulin resistance (IR), no data exist as to whether supplementation with vitamin E and vitamin C modify responses to exercise in pre-existing obesity. We tested the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with vitamin E (0.4 g ?-tocopherol acetate/kg) and vitamin C (0.5 g/kg) blocks exercise-induced improvements on IR and mitochondrial content in obese rats maintained on a high-fat (45% fat energy (en)) diet. Diet-induced obese, sedentary rats had a 2-fold higher homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and larger insulin area under the curve following glucose tolerances test than rats fed a low-fat (10% fat en) diet. Exercising (12 weeks at 5 times per week in a motorized wheel) of obese rats normalized IR indices, an effect not modified by vitamin E and vitamin C. Vitamin E and vitamin C supplementation with exercise elevated mtDNA content in adipose and skeletal muscle to a greater extent (20%) than exercise alone in a depot-specific manner. On the other hand, vitamin C and vitamin E decreased exercise-induced increases in mitochondrial protein content for complex I (40%) and nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (35%) in a muscle-dependent manner. These data indicate that vitamin E and vitamin C supplementation in obese rodents does not modify exercise-induced improvements in insulin sensitivity but that changes in mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial protein expression may be modified by antioxidant supplementation.
Project description:Leuprolide acetate (LA), a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist, was identified to cause changes in body weight in experimental and clinical trials; however, to date, the effect of LA on the body composition has not been properly assessed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term effect of LA administration on body composition and the mRNA expression of ghrelin and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in rats. Ovariectomized (OVX), ovariectomized and LA-treated (OVX+LA), non-ovariectomized (CTRL) and non-ovariectomized but LA-treated (LA) rats were used. LA treatment was performed by intramuscular injection at 5 µg/kg every 72 h over 120 days. Analysis of body composition and mRNA expression of ghrelin and lipoprotein lipase were performed. The results indicated significant changes in body composition after treatment; in the OVX, LA, OVX+LA and CTRL group, the body weight was increased by 216.1, 183.7, 175.4 and 150.1%, respectively, compared with baseline. The fat mass in the LA group was 14% higher than that in the CTRL group, while that in the OVX group was 19% higher than that in the OVX+LA, and the fat-free mass was similar between the LA and CTRL as well as the OVX and OVX+LA groups. Following 120 days of treatment, the mRNA expression of ghrelin and LPL in the LA group was ~20% higher than that in the CTRL group, while that in the OVX+LA was downregulated in comparison with that in the OVX group. The results of the present study confirmed changes in body composition and mRNA expression of ghrelin and LPL caused by long-term administration of LA. LA may contribute to regulate food consumption and exert control over adipogenesis.
Project description:Rats selectively bred for high (HCR) and low (LCR) aerobic capacity show a stark divergence in wheel running behavior, which may be associated with the dopamine (DA) system in the brain. HCR possess greater motivation for voluntary running along with greater brain DA activity compared to LCR. We recently demonstrated that HCR are not immune to ovariectomy (OVX)-associated reductions in spontaneous cage (i.e. locomotor) activity. Whether HCR and LCR rats differ in their OVX-mediated voluntary wheel running response is unknown.To determine whether HCR are protected from OVX-associated reduction in voluntary wheel running.Forty female HCR and LCR rats (age ~27weeks) had either SHM or OVX operations, and given access to a running wheel for 11weeks. Weekly wheel running distance was monitored throughout the intervention. Nucleus accumbens (NAc) was assessed for mRNA expression of DA receptors at sacrifice.Compared to LCR, HCR ran greater distance and had greater ratio of excitatory/inhibitory DA mRNA expression (both line main effects, P<0.05). Wheel running distance was significantly, positively correlated with the ratio of excitatory/inhibitory DA mRNA expression across animals. In both lines, OVX reduced wheel running (P<0.05). Unexpectedly, although HCR started with significantly greater voluntary wheel running, they had greater OVX-induced reduction in wheel running than LCR such that no differences were found 11weeks after OVX between HCROVX and LCROVX (interaction, P<0.05). This significant reduction in wheel running in HCR was associated with an OVX-mediated reduction in the ratio of excitatory/inhibitory DA mRNA expression.The DA system in the NAc region may play a significant role in motivation to run in female rats. Compared to LCR, HCR rats run significantly more, which associates with greater ratio of excitatory/inhibitory DA mRNA expression. However, despite greater inherent motivation to run and an associated brain DA mRNA expression profile, HCR rats are not protected against OVX-induced reduction in wheel running or OVX-mediated reduction in the ratio of excitatory/inhibitory DA receptor mRNA expression. OVX-mediated reduction in motivated physical activity may be partially explained by a reduced ratio of excitatory/inhibitory DA receptor mRNA expression for which intrinsic fitness does not confer protection.