Association of MOG-IgG Serostatus With Relapse After Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis and Proposed Diagnostic Criteria for MOG-IgG-Associated Disorders.
ABSTRACT: Importance:Recent studies have reported a higher relapse rate following an initial inflammatory demyelinating disorder in pediatric patients with persistent seropositivity of antibodies targeting myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-IgG1). To date, the clinical implications of longitudinal MOG-IgG1 seropositivity using live cell assays with IgG1 secondary antibodies in adults after acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) are unknown. Objective:To determine whether MOG-IgG1 serostatus (transient vs persistent) and titer change over time provide clinical utility in predicting the likelihood of relapse after ADEM. Design, Setting, and Participants:This cohort study identified patients with an initial diagnosis of ADEM evaluated at a single referral center between January 1, 1990, and October 1, 2017. Fifty-one patients were included, including 31 children and 20 adults. Longitudinal serologic testing was performed detecting autoantibodies targeting aquaporin 4 (AQP4-IgG) and MOG-IgG1 with clinically validated fluorescence-activated cell sorting assays. Patients were divided into 3 cohorts: persistent seropositivity, transient seropositivity, and seronegativity. Main Outcomes and Measures:Clinical demographic characteristics, longitudinal AQP4-IgG and MOG-IgG1 serostatus, titers, relapses, use of immunotherapy, and Expanded Disability Status Scale score at follow-up. Results:Of 51 patients presenting with an initial diagnosis of ADEM, 20 (39%) were adult, 24 (47%) were female, and ages ranged from 12 months to 57 years. Seventeen patients fulfilled criteria for persistent seropositivity; of those, 8 of 9 children (89%) and 7 of 8 adults (88%) had at least 1 relapse after median (range) follow-up periods of 75 (15-236) months and 39 (9-161) months, respectively. Eight patients (16%), including 4 adults, fulfilled criteria for transient seropositivity; of those, no children and 1 of 4 adults (25%) relapsed after median (range) follow-up periods of 32 (24-114) months and 16 (13-27) months, respectively. Of 24 patients with AQP4-IgG and MOG-IgG seronegativity, 6 of 17 children (35%) and 2 of 7 adults (29%) had at least 1 relapse after median (range) follow-up periods of 36 (3-203) months and 34 (15-217) months, respectively. There were only 2 patients, including 1 adult, with AQP4-IgG seropositivity, and both relapsed. The hazard ratio for relapses in those with persistent MOG-IgG1 positivity compared with AQP4-IgG and MOG-IgG1 seronegativity was 3.1 (95% CI, 1.1-8.9; P = .04) in children and 5.5 (95% CI, 1.4-22.5; P = .02) in adults. Immunotherapy was used in 5 of 9 children (56%) and 6 of 8 adults (75%) with persistent seropositivity and in 3 of 17 children (18%) and 1 of 7 adults (14%) with AQP4-IgG and MOG-IgG seronegativity. Conclusions and Relevance:Relapse occurred in 15 of 17 patients (88%) with persistent MOG-IgG1 seropositivity after ADEM; only 1 patient with transient seropositivity experienced relapse. Our data extend the clinical utility of MOG-IgG1 serological testing to adult patients and highlights that longitudinal serologic evaluation of MOG-IgG1 could help predict disease course and consideration of immunotherapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Serum autoantibodies against the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) are important diagnostic biomarkers and pathogenic factors for neuromyelitis optica (NMO). However, AQP4-IgG are absent in 5-40% of all NMO patients and the target of the autoimmune response in these patients is unknown. Since recent studies indicate that autoimmune responses to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) can induce an NMO-like disease in experimental animal models, we speculate that MOG might be an autoantigen in AQP4-IgG seronegative NMO. Although high-titer autoantibodies to human native MOG were mainly detected in a subgroup of pediatric acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, their role in NMO and High-risk NMO (HR-NMO; recurrent optic neuritis-rON or longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis-LETM) remains unresolved. RESULTS: We analyzed patients with definite NMO (n = 45), HR-NMO (n = 53), ADEM (n = 33), clinically isolated syndromes presenting with myelitis or optic neuritis (CIS, n = 32), MS (n = 71) and controls (n = 101; 24 other neurological diseases-OND, 27 systemic lupus erythematosus-SLE and 50 healthy subjects) for serum IgG to MOG and AQP4. Furthermore, we investigated whether these antibodies can mediate complement dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). AQP4-IgG was found in patients with NMO (n = 43, 96%), HR-NMO (n = 32, 60%) and in one CIS patient (3%), but was absent in ADEM, MS and controls. High-titer MOG-IgG was found in patients with ADEM (n = 14, 42%), NMO (n = 3, 7%), HR-NMO (n = 7, 13%, 5 rON and 2 LETM), CIS (n = 2, 6%), MS (n = 2, 3%) and controls (n = 3, 3%, two SLE and one OND). Two of the three MOG-IgG positive NMO patients and all seven MOG-IgG positive HR-NMO patients were negative for AQP4-IgG. Thus, MOG-IgG were found in both AQP4-IgG seronegative NMO patients and seven of 21 (33%) AQP4-IgG negative HR-NMO patients. Antibodies to MOG and AQP4 were predominantly of the IgG1 subtype, and were able to mediate CDC at high-titer levels. CONCLUSIONS: We could show for the first time that a subset of AQP4-IgG seronegative patients with NMO and HR-NMO exhibit a MOG-IgG mediated immune response, whereas MOG is not a target antigen in cases with an AQP4-directed humoral immune response.
Project description:Background: Optic neuritis (ON) is a cardinal manifestation of multiple sclerosis (MS), aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-IgG-, and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-IgG-associated disease. However, the prevalence of AQP4-IgG seropositivity and MOG-IgG seropositivity in isolated ON is unclear, and studies comparing visual outcomes and optical coherence tomography (OCT)-derived structural retinal measures between MS-ON, AQP4-ON, and MOG-ON eyes are limited by small sample sizes. Objectives: (1) To assess the prevalence of AQP4-IgG and MOG-IgG seropositivity among patients presenting with isolated ON; (2) to compare visual outcomes and OCT measures between AQP4-ON, MOG-ON, and MS-ON eyes. Methods: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, a total of 65 eligible studies were identified by PubMed search. Statistical analyses were performed with random effects models. Results: In adults with isolated ON, AQP4-IgG seroprevalence was 4% in non-Asian and 27% in Asian populations, whereas MOG-IgG seroprevalence was 8 and 20%, respectively. In children, AQP4-IgG seroprevalence was 0.4% in non-Asian and 15% in Asian populations, whereas MOG-IgG seroprevalence was 47 and 31%, respectively. AQP4-ON eyes had lower peri-papillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL; -11.7 ?m, 95% CI: -15.2 to -8.3 ?m) and macular ganglion cell + inner plexiform layer (GCIPL; -9.0 ?m, 95% CI: -12.5 to -5.4 ?m) thicknesses compared with MS-ON eyes. Similarly, pRNFL (-11.2 ?m, 95% CI: -21.5 to -0.9 ?m) and GCIPL (-6.1 ?m, 95% CI: -10.8 to -1.3 ?m) thicknesses were lower in MOG-ON compared to MS-ON eyes, but did not differ between AQP4-ON and MOG-ON eyes (pRNFL: -1.9 ?m, 95% CI: -9.1 to 5.4 ?m; GCIPL: -2.6 ?m, 95% CI: -8.9 to 3.8 ?m). Visual outcomes were worse in AQP4-ON compared to both MOG-ON (mean logMAR difference: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.39 to 0.81) and MS-ON eyes (mean logMAR difference: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.40 to 0.96) but were similar in MOG-ON and MS-ON eyes (mean logMAR difference: 0.04, 95% CI: -0.05 to 0.14). Conclusions: AQP4-IgG- and MOG-IgG-associated disease are important diagnostic considerations in adults presenting with isolated ON, especially in Asian populations. Furthermore, MOG-IgG seroprevalence is especially high in pediatric isolated ON, in both non-Asian and Asian populations. Despite a similar severity of GCIPL and pRNFL thinning in AQP4-ON and MOG-ON, AQP4-ON is associated with markedly worse visual outcomes.
Project description:To optimize sensitivity and disease specificity of a myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody assay.Consecutive sera (n = 1,109) sent for aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody testing were screened for MOG antibodies (Abs) by cell-based assays using either full-length human MOG (FL-MOG) or the short-length form (SL-MOG). The Abs were initially detected by Alexa Fluor goat anti-human IgG (H + L) and subsequently by Alexa Fluor mouse antibodies to human IgG1.When tested at 1:20 dilution, 40/1,109 sera were positive for AQP4-Abs, 21 for SL-MOG, and 180 for FL-MOG. Only one of the 40 AQP4-Ab-positive sera was positive for SL-MOG-Abs, but 10 (25%) were positive for FL-MOG-Abs (p = 0.0069). Of equal concern, 48% (42/88) of sera from controls (patients with epilepsy) were positive by FL-MOG assay. However, using an IgG1-specific secondary antibody, only 65/1,109 (5.8%) sera were positive on FL-MOG, and AQP4-Ab- positive and control sera were negative. IgM reactivity accounted for the remaining anti-human IgG (H + L) positivity toward FL-MOG. The clinical diagnoses were obtained in 33 FL-MOG-positive patients, blinded to the antibody data. IgG1-Abs to FL-MOG were associated with optic neuritis (n = 11), AQP4-seronegative neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (n = 4), and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (n = 1). All 7 patients with probable multiple sclerosis (MS) were MOG-IgG1 negative.The limited disease specificity of FL-MOG-Abs identified using Alexa Fluor goat anti-human IgG (H + L) is due in part to detection of IgM-Abs. Use of the FL-MOG and restricting to IgG1-Abs substantially improves specificity for non-MS demyelinating diseases.This study provides Class II evidence that the presence of serum IgG1- MOG-Abs in AQP4-Ab-negative patients distinguishes non-MS CNS demyelinating disorders from MS (sensitivity 24%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 9%-45%; specificity 100%, 95% CI 88%-100%).
Project description:We aimed to report the frequency and implications of antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-ab) in adults with demyelinating syndromes suspicious for neuromyelitis optica (NMO).Samples from 174 patients (48 NMO, 84 longitudinally extensive myelitis (LETM), 39 optic neuritis (ON), and three acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) who presented initially with isolated LETM) were retrospectively examined for AQP4-ab and MOG-ab using cell-based assays.MOG-ab were found in 17 (9.8%) patients, AQP4-ab in 59 (34%), and both antibodies in two (1.1%). Among the 17 patients with MOG-ab alone, seven (41%) had ON, five (29%) LETM, four (24%) NMO, and one (6%) ADEM. Compared with patients with AQP4-ab, those with MOG-ab were significantly younger (median: 27 vs. 40.5 years), without female predominance (53% vs. 90%), and the clinical course was more frequently monophasic (41% vs. 7%) with a benign outcome (median Expanded Disability Status Scale: 1.5 vs. 4.0). In eight patients with paired serum-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples, five had MOG-ab in both samples and three only in serum. Antibody titres did not differ among clinical phenotypes or disease course. MOG-ab remained detectable in 12/14 patients (median follow-up: 23 months) without correlation between titres' evolution and outcome.MOG-ab identify a subgroup of adult patients with NMO, LETM and ON that have better outcome than those associated with AQP4-ab. MOG-ab are more frequently detected in serum than CSF and the follow-up of titres does not correlate with outcome.
Project description:Anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG-Ab) recently emerged as a potential biomarker in patients with inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system. We here compare the clinical and laboratory findings observed in a cohort of MOG-Ab seropositive and seronegative cases and describe IgG subclass analysis results. Consecutive serum samples referred to Verona University Neuropathology Laboratory for aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-Ab and/or MOG-Ab testing were analysed between March 2014 and May 2017. The presence of AQP4-Ab was determined using a cell-based assay. A live cell immunofluorescence assay was used for the detection of MOG-IgG and IgG subclass analysis. Among 454 analysed samples, 29 were excluded due to AQP4-Ab positivity or to the final demonstration of a disorder not compatible with MOG-Ab. We obtained clinical data in 154 out of 425 cases. Of these, 22 subjects resulted MOG-Ab positive. MOG-Ab positive patients were mainly characterised by the involvement of the optic nerve and/or spinal cord. Half of the cases presented relapses and the recovery was usually partial. Brain MRI was heterogeneous while short lesions were the prevalent observation on spinal cord MRI. MOG-Ab titre usually decreased in non-relapsing cases. In all MOG-IgG positive cases, we observed IgG1 antibodies, which were predominant in most subjects. IgG2 (5/22), IgG3 (9/22) and IgG4 (3/22) antibodies were also detectable. We confirm that MOG-Ab-related syndromes have distinct features in the spectrum of demyelinating conditions, and we describe the possible role of the different IgG subclasses in this condition.
Project description:Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), a member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily, is a myelin protein solely expressed at the outermost surface of myelin sheaths and oligodendrocyte membranes. This makes MOG a potential target of cellular and humoral immune responses in inflammatory demyelinating diseases. Due to its late postnatal developmental expression, MOG is an important marker for oligodendrocyte maturation. Discovered about 30?years ago, it is one of the best-studied autoantigens for experimental autoimmune models for multiple sclerosis (MS). Human studies, however, have yielded controversial results on the role of MOG, especially MOG antibodies (Abs), as a biomarker in MS. But with improved detection methods using different expression systems to detect Abs in patients' samples, this is meanwhile no longer the case. Using cell-based assays with recombinant full-length, conformationally intact MOG, several recent studies have revealed that MOG Abs can be found in a subset of predominantly pediatric patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), aquaporin-4 (AQP4) seronegative neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), monophasic or recurrent isolated optic neuritis (ON), or transverse myelitis, in atypical MS and in N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-encephalitis with overlapping demyelinating syndromes. Whereas MOG Abs are only transiently observed in monophasic diseases such as ADEM and their decline is associated with a favorable outcome, they are persistent in multiphasic ADEM, NMOSD, recurrent ON, or myelitis. Due to distinct clinical features within these diseases it is controversially disputed to classify MOG Ab-positive cases as a new disease entity. Neuropathologically, the presence of MOG Abs is characterized by MS-typical demyelination and oligodendrocyte pathology associated with Abs and complement. However, it remains unclear whether MOG Abs are a mere inflammatory bystander effect or truly pathogenetic. This article provides deeper insight into recent developments, the clinical relevance of MOG Abs and their role in the immunpathogenesis of inflammatory demyelinating disorders.
Project description:Pain is a frequent symptom in aquaporin-4-immunoglobulin-G-positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (AQP4-IgG-pos. NMOSD). Data on pain in myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-immunoglobulin-G autoimmunity with a clinical NMOSD phenotype (MOG-IgG-pos. NMOSD) are scarce.The objective of this paper is to investigate pain in MOG-IgG-pos. NMOSD, AQP4-IgG-pos. NMOSD and NMOSD without AQP4/MOG-IgG detection (AQP4/MOG-IgG-neg. NMOSD).Forty-nine MOG-IgG-pos. (n?=?14), AQP4-IgG-pos. (n?=?29) and AQP4/MOG-IgG-neg. (n?=?6) NMOSD patients were included in this cross-sectional baseline analysis from an ongoing observational study. We identified spinal cord lesions on magnetic resonance imaging, assessed pain by the painDETECT and McGill Pain questionnaires, quality of life by Short Form Health Survey, and depression by Beck Depression Inventory.Twelve MOG-IgG-pos. NMOSD patients (86%), 24 AQP4-IgG-pos. NMOSD patients (83%), and all AQP4/MOG-IgG-neg. NMOSD patients (100%) suffered from pain. MOG-IgG-pos. NMOSD patients had mostly neuropathic pain and headache; AQP4-IgG-pos. and AQP4/MOG-IgG-neg. NMOSD patients had mostly neuropathic pain. A history of myelitis was less frequent in MOG-IgG-pos. NMOSD than in AQP4-IgG-pos. NMOSD patients. Pain influenced quality of life in all patients. Thirty-six percent of patients with pain received pain medication; none of them were free of pain.Pain is a frequent symptom of patients with MOG-IgG-pos. NMOSD and is as important as in AQP4-IgG-pos. and AQP4/MOG-IgG-neg. NMOSD. Despite its impact on quality of life, pain is insufficiently alleviated by medication.
Project description:To (1) determine the value of the recently proposed criteria of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum disorder (NMOSD) that unify patients with NMO and those with limited forms (NMO/LF) with aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G (AQP4-IgG) antibodies; and (2) investigate the clinical significance of the serologic status in patients with NMO.This was a retrospective, multicenter study of 181 patients fulfilling the 2006 NMO criteria (n = 127) or NMO/LF criteria with AQP4-IgG (n = 54). AQP4-IgG and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein immunoglobulin G (MOG-IgG) antibodies were tested using cell-based assays.Patients were mainly white (86%) and female (ratio 6.5:1) with median age at onset 39 years (range 10-77). Compared to patients with NMO and AQP4-IgG (n = 94), those with NMO/LF presented more often with longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) (p < 0.001), and had lower relapse rates (p = 0.015), but similar disability outcomes. Nonwhite ethnicity and optic neuritis presentation doubled the risk for developing NMO compared with white race (p = 0.008) or LETM presentation (p = 0.008). Nonwhite race (hazard ratio [HR] 4.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-13.6) and older age at onset were associated with worse outcome (for every 10-year increase, HR 1.7, 95% CI 1.3-2.2). Patients with NMO and MOG-IgG (n = 9) had lower female:male ratio (0.8:1) and better disability outcome than AQP4-IgG-seropositive or double-seronegative patients (p < 0.001).In patients with AQP4-IgG, the similar outcomes regardless of the clinical phenotype support the unified term NMOSD; nonwhite ethnicity and older age at onset are associated with worse outcome. Double-seronegative and AQP4-IgG-seropositive NMO have a similar clinical outcome. The better prognosis of patients with MOG-IgG and NMO suggests that phenotypic and serologic classification is useful.
Project description:Optic neuritis (ON) in patients with anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-IgG antibodies has been associated with a better clinical outcome than anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4)- IgG ON. Average retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFL) correlates with visual outcome after ON.The aim of this study was to examine whether anti-MOG-IgG ON is associated with better average RNFL compared to anti-AQP4-IgG ON, and whether this corresponds with a better visual outcome.A retrospective study was done in a consecutive cohort of patients following anti-AQP4-IgG and anti-MOG-IgG ON. A generalized estimating equation (GEE) models analysis was used to compare average RNFL outcomes in ON eyes of patients with MOG-IgG to AQP4-IgG-positive patients, after adjusting for the number of ON events. The final mean visual field defect and visual acuity were compared between ON eyes of MOG-IgG and AQP4-IgG-positive patients. A correlation between average RNFL and visual function was performed in all study eyes.Sixteen patients were analyzed; ten AQP4-IgG-positive and six MOG-IgG-positive. The six patients with MOG-IgG had ten ON events with disc edema, five of which were bilateral. In the AQP4-IgG-positive ON events, 1/10 patients had disc edema. Final average RNFL was significantly better in eyes following MOG-IgG-ON (75.33μm), compared to 63.63μm in AQP4-IgG-ON, after adjusting for the number of ON attacks (GEE, p = 0.023). Mean visual field defects were significantly smaller (GEE, p = 0.046) among MOG-IgG positive ON eyes compared to AQP-IgG positive ON eyes, but last visual acuity did not differ between the groups (GEE, p = 0.153). Among all eyes, average RNFL positively correlated with mean visual field defect (GEE, p = 0.00015) and negatively correlated with final visual acuity (GEE, p = 0.00005).Following ON, RNFL is better preserved in eyes of patients with MOG-IgG antibodies compared to those with AQP4-IgG antibodies, correlating with better visual outcomes.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical features among patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) who have myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies, aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibodies, or seronegativity for both antibodies. METHODS: Sera from patients diagnosed with NMOSD in 1 of 3 centers (2 sites in Brazil and 1 site in Japan) were tested for MOG and AQP4 antibodies using cell-based assays with live transfected cells. RESULTS: Among the 215 patients with NMOSD, 7.4% (16/215) were positive for MOG antibodies and 64.7% (139/215) were positive for AQP4 antibodies. No patients were positive for both antibodies. Patients with MOG antibodies represented 21.1% (16/76) of the patients negative for AQP4 antibodies. Compared with patients with AQP4 antibodies or patients who were seronegative, patients with MOG antibodies were more frequently male, had a more restricted phenotype (optic nerve more than spinal cord), more frequently had bilateral simultaneous optic neuritis, more often had a single attack, had spinal cord lesions distributed in the lower portion of the spinal cord, and usually demonstrated better functional recovery after an attack. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with NMOSD with MOG antibodies have distinct clinical features, fewer attacks, and better recovery than patients with AQP4 antibodies or patients seronegative for both antibodies.