Analysis of the contribution of phosphoinositides to medial septation in fission yeast highlights the importance of PI(4,5)P2 for medial contractile ring anchoring.
ABSTRACT: In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, loss of the plasma membrane PI4-kinase scaffold Efr3 leads to sliding of the cytokinetic ring (CR) away from the cell center during anaphase, implicating phosphoinositides (PIPs) in CR anchoring. However, whether other PIP regulators contribute to CR anchoring has not been investigated. Here we report that mutants of other PIP kinases and their regulators divide with off-center septa, similar to efr3?. Using new biosensors for S. pombe PIPs, we confirm that these mutants have disrupted PIP composition. We extend a previous finding that a mutant known to decrease PI(3,5)P2 levels indirectly affects CR positioning by increasing vacuole size which disrupts nuclear position at the onset of mitosis. Indeed, we found that other mutants with increased vacuole size also disrupt medial division via this mechanism. Although elevated plasma membrane PI(4,5)P2 levels do not affect medial cytokinesis, mutants with decreased levels display CR sliding events indicating a specific role for PI(4,5)P2 in CR anchoring.
Project description:Kir2.1 channels are uniquely activated by phosphoinositide 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) and can be inhibited by other phosphoinositides (PIPs). Using biochemical and computational approaches, we assess PIP-channel interactions and distinguish residues that are energetically critical for binding from those that alter PIP sensitivity by shifting the open-closed equilibrium. Intriguingly, binding of each PIP is disrupted by a different subset of mutations. In silico ligand docking indicates that PIPs bind to two sites. The second minor site may correspond to the secondary anionic phospholipid site required for channel activation. However, 96-99% of PIP binding localizes to the first cluster, which corresponds to the general PI(4,5)P2 binding location in recent Kir crystal structures. PIPs can encompass multiple orientations; each di- and triphosphorylated species binds with comparable energies and is favored over monophosphorylated PIPs. The data suggest that selective activation by PI(4,5)P2 involves orientational specificity and that other PIPs inhibit this activation through direct competition.
Project description:Phosphoinositides (PIPs) are key regulators of membrane traffic and signaling. The interconversion of PIPs by lipid kinases and phosphatases regulates their functionality. Phosphatidylinositol (PI) and PIPs have a unique enrichment of 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonyl acyl species; however, the regulation and function of this specific acyl profile remains poorly understood. We examined the role of the PI acyltransferase LYCAT in control of PIPs and PIP-dependent membrane traffic. LYCAT silencing selectively perturbed the levels and localization of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] and phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate and the membrane traffic dependent on these specific PIPs but was without effect on phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate or biosynthetic membrane traffic. The acyl profile of PI(4,5)P2 was selectively altered in LYCAT-deficient cells, whereas LYCAT localized with phosphatidylinositol synthase. We propose that LYCAT remodels the acyl chains of PI, which is then channeled into PI(4,5)P2 Our observations suggest that the PIP acyl chain profile may exert broad control of cell physiology.
Project description:In plants, the shoot apical meristem (SAM) has two main functions, involving the production of all aerial organs on the one hand and self-maintenance on the other, allowing the production of organs during the entire post-embryonic life of the plant. Transcription factors, microRNA, hormones, peptides and forces have been involved in meristem function. Whereas phosphatidylinositol phosphates (PIPs) have been involved in almost all biological functions, including stem cell maintenance and organogenesis in animals, the processes in meristem biology to which PIPs contribute still need to be delineated.Using biosensors for PI4P and PI(4,5)P2, the two most abundant PIPs at the plasma membrane, we reveal that meristem functions are associated with a stereotypical PIP tissue-scale pattern, with PI(4,5)P2 always displaying a more clear-cut pattern than PI4P. Using clavata3 and pin-formed1 mutants, we show that stem cell maintenance is associated with reduced levels of PIPs. In contrast, high PIP levels are signatures for organ-meristem boundaries. Interestingly, this pattern echoes that of cortical microtubules and stress anisotropy at the meristem. Using ablations and pharmacological approaches, we further show that PIP levels can be increased when the tensile stress pattern is altered. Conversely, we find that katanin mutant meristems, with increased isotropy of microtubule arrays and slower response to mechanical perturbations, exhibit reduced PIP gradients within the SAM. Comparable PIP pattern defects were observed in phospholipase A3? overexpressor lines, which largely phenocopy katanin mutants at the whole plant level.Using phospholipid biosensors, we identified a stereotypical PIP accumulation pattern in the SAM that negatively correlates with stem cell maintenance and positively correlates with organ-boundary establishment. While other cues are very likely to contribute to the final PIP pattern, we provide evidence that the patterns of PIP, cortical microtubules and mechanical stress are positively correlated, suggesting that the PIP pattern, and its reproducibility, relies at least in part on the mechanical status of the SAM.
Project description:Many eukaryotic cells divide by assembling and constricting an actin- and myosin-based contractile ring (CR) that is physically linked to the plasma membrane (PM). In this study, we report that Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells lacking efr3, which encodes a conserved PM scaffold for the phosphatidylinositol-4 kinase Stt4, build CRs that can slide away from the cell middle during anaphase in a myosin V-dependent manner. The Efr3-dependent CR-anchoring mechanism is distinct from previously reported pathways dependent on the Fes/CIP4 homology Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs167 (F-BAR) protein Cdc15 and paxillin Pxl1. In efr3Δ, the concentrations of several membrane-binding proteins were reduced in the CR and/or on the PM. Our results suggest that proper PM lipid composition is important to stabilize the central position of the CR and resist myosin V-based forces to promote the fidelity of cell division.
Project description:Dynamic regulation of phosphoinositide lipids (PIPs) is crucial for diverse cellular functions, and, in neurons, PIPs regulate membrane trafficking events that control synapse function. Neurons are particularly sensitive to the levels of the low abundant PIP, phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate [PI(3,5)P2], because mutations in PI(3,5)P2-related genes are implicated in multiple neurological disorders, including epilepsy, severe neuropathy, and neurodegeneration. Despite the importance of PI(3,5)P2 for neural function, surprisingly little is known about this signaling lipid in neurons, or any cell type. Notably, the mammalian homolog of yeast vacuole segregation mutant (Vac14), a scaffold for the PI(3,5)P2 synthesis complex, is concentrated at excitatory synapses, suggesting a potential role for PI(3,5)P2 in controlling synapse function and/or plasticity. PI(3,5)P2 is generated from phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P) by the lipid kinase PI3P 5-kinase (PIKfyve). Here, we present methods to measure and control PI(3,5)P2 synthesis in hippocampal neurons and show that changes in neural activity dynamically regulate the levels of multiple PIPs, with PI(3,5)P2 being among the most dynamic. The levels of PI(3,5)P2 in neurons increased during two distinct forms of synaptic depression, and inhibition of PIKfyve activity prevented or reversed induction of synaptic weakening. Moreover, altering neuronal PI(3,5)P2 levels was sufficient to regulate synaptic strength bidirectionally, with enhanced synaptic function accompanying loss of PI(3,5)P2 and reduced synaptic strength following increased PI(3,5)P2 levels. Finally, inhibiting PI(3,5)P2 synthesis alters endocytosis and recycling of AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs), implicating PI(3,5)P2 dynamics in AMPAR trafficking. Together, these data identify PI(3,5)P2-dependent signaling as a regulatory pathway that is critical for activity-dependent changes in synapse strength.
Project description:Inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels are integral membrane proteins charged with a key role in establishing the resting membrane potential of excitable cells through selective control of the permeation of K(+) ions across cell membranes. In conjunction with secondary anionic phospholipids, members of this family are directly regulated by phosphoinositides (PIPs) in the absence of other proteins or downstream signaling pathways. Different Kir isoforms display distinct specificities for the activating PIPs but all eukaryotic Kir channels are activated by PI(4,5)P2. On the other hand, the bacterial KirBac1.1 channel is inhibited by PIPs. Recent crystal structures of eukaryotic Kir channels in apo and lipid bound forms reveal one specific binding site per subunit, formed at the interface of N- and C-terminal domains, just beyond the transmembrane segments and clearly involving some of the key residues previously identified as controlling PI(4,5)P2 sensitivity. Computational, biochemical, and biophysical approaches have attempted to address the energetic determinants of PIP binding and selectivity among Kir channel isoforms, as well as the conformational changes that trigger channel gating. Here we review our current understanding of the molecular determinants of PIP regulation of Kir channel activity, including in context with other lipid modulators, and provide further discussion on the key questions that remain to be answered.
Project description:Numerous cellular proteins interact with membrane surfaces to affect essential cellular processes. These interactions can be directed towards a specific lipid component within a membrane, as in the case of phosphoinositides (PIPs), to ensure specific subcellular localization and/or activation. PIPs and cellular PIP-binding domains have been studied extensively to better understand their role in cellular physiology. We applied a pH modulation assay on supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) as a tool to study protein-PIP interactions. In these studies, pH sensitive ortho-Sulforhodamine B conjugated phosphatidylethanolamine is used to detect protein-PIP interactions. Upon binding of a protein to a PIP-containing membrane surface, the interfacial potential is modulated (i.e. change in local pH), shifting the protonation state of the probe. A case study of the successful usage of the pH modulation assay is presented by using phospholipase C delta1 Pleckstrin Homology (PLC-?1 PH) domain and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) interaction as an example. The apparent dissociation constant (Kd,app) for this interaction was 0.39 ± 0.05 µM, similar to Kd,app values obtained by others. As previously observed, the PLC-?1 PH domain is PI(4,5)P2 specific, shows weaker binding towards phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, and no binding to pure phosphatidylcholine SLBs. The PIP-on-a-chip assay is advantageous over traditional PIP-binding assays, including but not limited to low sample volume and no ligand/receptor labeling requirements, the ability to test high- and low-affinity membrane interactions with both small and large molecules, and improved signal to noise ratio. Accordingly, the usage of the PIP-on-a-chip approach will facilitate the elucidation of mechanisms of a wide range of membrane interactions. Furthermore, this method could potentially be used in identifying therapeutics that modulate protein's capacity to interact with membranes.
Project description:Phosphatidylinositolphosphates (PIPs) are phospholipids that contain a phosphorylated inositol head group. PIPs represent a minor fraction of total phospholipids, but are involved in many regulatory processes, such as cell signalling and intracellular trafficking. Membrane compartments are enriched or depleted in specific PIPs, providing a unique composition for these compartments and contributing to their identity. The precise subcellular localization and dynamics of most PIP species is not fully understood in plants. Here, we designed genetically encoded biosensors with distinct relative affinities and expressed them stably in Arabidopsis thaliana. Analysis of this multi-affinity 'PIPline' marker set revealed previously unrecognized localization of various PIPs in root epidermis. Notably, we found that PI(4,5)P2 is able to localize PIP2 -interacting protein domains to the plasma membrane in non-stressed root epidermal cells. Our analysis further revealed that there is a gradient of PI4P, with the highest concentration at the plasma membrane, intermediate concentration in post-Golgi/endosomal compartments, and the lowest concentration in the Golgi. Finally, we also found a similar gradient of PI3P from high in late endosomes to low in the tonoplast. Our library extends the range of available PIP biosensors, and will allow rapid progress in our understanding of PIP dynamics in plants.
Project description:Phosphatidylinositol phosphates (PIPs) are involved in many cellular events as important secondary messengers. In Entamoeba histolytica, a human intestinal protozoan parasite, virulence-associated mechanisms such as cell motility, vesicular traffic, trogo- and phagocytosis are regulated by PIPs. It has been well established that PI3P, PI4P, and PI(3,4,5)P3 play specific roles during amoebic trogo- and phagocytosis. In the present study, we demonstrated the nuclear localization of PI4P in E. histolytica trophozoites in steady state with immunofluorescence imaging and immunoelectron microscopy, using anti-PI4P antibodies and PI4P biosensors [substrate of the Icm/ Dot type IV secretion system (SidM)]. We further showed that the nuclear PI4P decreased after a co-culture with human erythrocytes or Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. However, concomitant changes in the localization and the amount of PI(4,5)P2, which is the expected major metabolized (phosphorylated) product of PI4P, were not observed. This phenomenon was specifically caused by whole or ghost erythrocytes and CHO cells, but not artificial beads. The amount of PIP2 and PIP, biochemically estimated by [32P]-phosphate metabolic labeling and thin layer chromatography, was decreased upon erythrocyte adherence. Altogether, our data indicate for the first time in eukaryotes that erythrocyte attachment leads to the metabolism of nuclear PIPs, and metabolites other than PI(4,5)P2 may be involved in the regulation of downstream cellular events such as cytoskeleton rearrangement or transcriptional regulation.
Project description:Phosphatidylinositol phosphates (PIPs) and cholesterol are known to regulate the function of late endosomes and lysosomes (LELs), and ORP1L specifically localizes to LELs. Here, we show in vitro that ORP1 is a PI(4,5)P2- or PI(3,4)P2-dependent cholesterol transporter, but cannot transport any PIPs. In cells, both ORP1L and PI(3,4)P2 are required for the efficient removal of cholesterol from LELs. Structures of the lipid-binding domain of ORP1 (ORP1-ORD) in complex with cholesterol or PI(4,5)P2 display open conformations essential for ORP function. PI(4,5)P2/PI(3,4)P2 can facilitate ORP1-mediated cholesterol transport by promoting membrane targeting and cholesterol extraction. Thus, our work unveils a distinct mechanism by which PIPs may allosterically enhance OSBP/ORPs-mediated transport of major lipid species such as cholesterol.