Macrotylushenryi, a new species of Pelargonium-feeding Cremnorrhinina from South Africa (Hemiptera, Miridae, Phylinae, Cremnorrhinini).
ABSTRACT: Macrotylushenryi is described as a new species from South Africa. This new taxon is recorded as feeding on species of Pelargonium (Geraniaceae) in the Western Cape. Documentation is provided in the form of diagnosis, description, habitus photographs, scanning electron micrographs, illustrations and images of genitalic structures, detailed distributional data, host plant information, and images of hosts and habitats. Morphological traits are similar to species of Macrotylus Fieber from the Northern Hemisphere, but coloration is substantially variable, and the structure of the male genitalia is distinctive.
Project description:The phyline plant bug genus Tytthus Fieber, previously containing 19 species, is revised. Isoproba Osborn and Drake, 1915, incorrectly placed in the subfamily Bryocorinae, tribe Dicyphini, is synonymized as a junior synonym of Tytthus Fieber, syn. n.; the only included species, Isoproba picea Osborn and Drake is transferred to Tytthus, comb. n., as the senior synonym of Tytthus hondurensis Carvalho, syn. n.; and Tytthus koreanus Josifov and Kerzhner, 1972 is synonymized with Tytthus chinensis (Stål 1860), syn. n.; and a lectotype for Tytthus parviceps is designated. The six new species Tytthus femoralis from Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Jamaica, Mexico, and Peru,Tytthus fuscicornis from New Mexico (USA), Tytthus mexicanus from Mexico, Tytthus pallidus from Brazil and Panama, Tytthus uniformis from Arizona and New Mexico (USA), and Tytthus wheeleri from the eastern United States are described, bringing the total number of species for the genus to 24. A color adult habitus illustration of Tytthus wheeleri, color photographs for each species (except Tytthus juturnaiba Carvalho and Wallerstein), illustrations of male genitalia, scanning electron photomicrographs of selected structures of certain species, and an identification key are provided to facilitate species recognition. A phylogenetic analysis is offered to help infer relationships.
Project description:The pollen morphology of Pelargonium endlicherianum Fenzl. and Pelargonium quercetorum Agnew. from the family Geraniaceae was examined under light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Pollen morphologies are eurypalynous. The pollen grains were tricolporate, prolate-spheroidal and large. Aperture was ectoaperture, colpus was short, and the pores were oblate-spheroidal and large. The exine ornamentations were striate-reticulate and the reticula were heterobrachate. The 2 species are invasive exotics in Turkey.
Project description:The genus Castanopsides Yasunaga, 1992 belongs to the subfamily Mirinae and comprises 11 species worldwide. Prior to this study, two species, C. kerzhneri Josifov and C. potanini Reuter has been recorded from the Korean Peninsula. The genus Castanopsides Yasunaga, 1992 belongs to the subfamily Mirinae and comprises 11 species worldwide. Prior to this study, two species, C. kerzhneri Josifov and C. potanini Reuter has been recorded from the Korean Peninsula.In this paper, three species are recognized including a new record, C. falkovitshi (Kerzhner, 1979). Images of dorsal and ventral habitus, and male and genitalic structures are provided. A key to the Korean Castanopsides species is presented.
Project description:The unique genus Biromiris Schuh is recognized from the Oriental region for the first time, with the description of a new species, Biromiris tomokuniisp. n., from the Philippines. The new species is documented with photographic images of the dorsal habitus and male genital structures. A key to all known species of Biromiris is provided.
Project description:Background:Variation in floral shapes has long fascinated biologists and its modelling enables testing of evolutionary hypotheses. Recent comparative studies that explore floral shape have largely ignored 3D floral shape. We propose quantifying floral shape by using geometric morphometrics on a virtual3D model reconstructed from 2D photographical data and demonstrate its performance in capturing shape variation. Methods:This approach offers unique benefits to complement established imaging techniques (i) by enabling adequate coverage of the potential morphospace of large and diverse flowering-plant clades; (ii) by circumventing asynchronicity in anthesis of different floral parts; and (iii) by incorporating variation in copy number of floral organs within structures. We demonstrate our approach by analysing 90 florally-diverse species of the Southern African genus Pelargonium (Geraniaceae). We quantify Pelargonium floral shapes using 117 landmarks and show similarities in reconstructed morphospaces for nectar tube, corolla (2D datasets), and a combined virtual3D dataset. Results:Our results indicate that Pelargonium species differ in floral shape, which can also vary extensively within a species. PCA results of the reconstructed virtual3D floral models are highly congruent with the separate 2D morphospaces, indicating it is an accurate, virtual, representation of floral shape. Through our approach, we find that adding the third dimension to the data is crucial to accurately interpret the manner of, as well as levels of, shape variation in flowers.
Project description:Geraniaceae are known for their unusual plastid genomes (plastomes), with the genus Pelargonium being most conspicuous with regard to plastome size and gene organization as judged by the sequenced plastomes of P. x hortorum and P. alternans. However, the hybrid origin of P. x hortorum and the uncertain phylogenetic position of P. alternans obscure the events that led to these extraordinary plastomes. Here, we examine all plastid reconfiguration hotspots for 60 Pelargonium species across all subgenera using a PCR and sequencing approach. Our reconstruction of the rearrangement history revealed four distinct plastome types. The ancestral plastome configuration in the two subgenera Magnipetala and Pelargonium is consistent with that of the P. alternans plastome, whereas that of the subgenus Parvulipetala deviates from this organization by one synapomorphic inversion in the trnNGUU–ndhF region. The plastome of P. x hortorum resembles those of one group of the subgenus Paucisignata, but differs from a second group by another inversion in the psaI–psaJ region. The number of microstructural changes and amount of repetitive DNA are generally elevated in all inverted regions. Nucleotide substitution rates correlate positively with the number of indels in all regions across the different subgenera. We also observed lineage- and species-specific changes in the gene content, including gene duplications and fragmentations. For example, the plastid rbcL–psaI region of Pelargonium contains a highly variable accD-like region. Our results suggest alternative evolutionary paths under possibly changing modes of plastid transmission and indicate the non-functionalization of the plastid accD gene in Pelargonium.
Project description:The Caucasian subgenus Plumiger Horváth, 1927 of the halticine genus Myrmecophyes Fieber, 1870 is revised. A key, updated diagnoses, and data on distribution are given for the subgenus and its four species, including M.tomi sp. n. (Georgia and Dagestan), and the previously unknown male of M.armeniacus Drapolyuk, 1989. Illustrations of the male and female genitalia, photographs of the dorsal habitus, and SEM micrographs of selected structures are provided for all species of the subgenus.
Project description:Psallus (Psallus) thomashenryi<b>sp. n.</b> (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae: Phylinae: Phylini: Phylina) is described from southern Anatolia, Turkey. Illustrations of the dorsal habitus and male genitalia are provided. Its habitus is similar to other uniformly orange species of the subgenus Psallus Fieber, 1858, particularly <i>P.asthenicus</i> Seidenstücker, 1966 from which it can be easily distinguished by the combination of extremely small size (2.3 mm in both sexes) and different morphology of the vesica. Psallus (Psallus) lucanicus Wagner, 1968 is recorded for the first time from Turkey. Psallus (Psallus) aurora (Mulsant & Rey, 1852) is removed from the list of Turkish fauna based on a reevaluation of the voucher specimen. An updated checklist of the species of <i>Psallus</i> known to occur in Turkey is provided. The relevance of Anatolia and the Syro-anatolian-transcaucasian region in the Palearctic distribution of <i>Psallus</i> is discussed. The westernmost record of another mirid, <i>Plagiognathusmarivanensis</i> Linnavuori, 2010, is provided.
Project description:<i>Henryognathus</i>, new genus, with the single included new species <i>H.thomasi</i>, is described from western North America. The taxon is recorded as feeding on species of <i>Arctostaphylos</i> (Ericaceae) in California and Arizona. Coloration and many morphological attributes are similar to species of <i>Plagiognathus</i> Fieber, but the structure of the male genitalia is distinctive.
Project description:The mirine plant bug genus Paramiridius, previously known only from a single Taiwanese species, is reported from Indochinese Laos for the first time and redefined. Two additional species, Paramiridius indochinensis and Paramiridius laomontanus, are described as new to science. The female genitalic structures of the genus are documented for the first time. Habitus illustrations, figures of male genitalia, and key are provided for all three known Paramiridius species.