The Association of Menthol Cigarette Use With Quit Attempts, Successful Cessation, and Intention to Quit Across Racial/Ethnic Groups in the United States.
ABSTRACT: Introduction:Few studies have examined the relationship between menthol use and smoking cessation across various racial/ethnic groups; the findings were mixed. This study explored the association of menthol cigarette use with quit attempts, smoking cessation, and intention-to-quit among US adults and by race/ethnicity. Methods:Using the 2006/2007 and 2010/2011 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey data, this study analyzed 54 448 recent active smokers, defined as current smokers or former smokers who quit less than 12 months ago. Three behaviors were examined: any quit attempts in the past 12 months, successful cessation for ?3 months, and intention-to-quit smoking in the next 6 months. For each cessation behavior, multiple logistic regression models were estimated separately for the full-sample and stratified racial/ethnic subsamples. Results:While 72.3% of African American recent active smokers typically smoked menthol cigarettes, this proportion was 21.7%, 21.5%, and 28.0% for whites, Asians, and Hispanics, respectively. African American menthol smokers had higher odds of quit attempts compared to non-African American, non-menthol smokers (full-sample analysis), as well as African American non-menthol smokers (subsample analysis). Menthol use was not significantly associated with quit attempts in other racial/ethnic subsamples. There was no significant difference in either successful cessation or intention-to-quit between menthol and non-menthol smokers. Conclusions:African American menthol smokers were more likely to attempt to quit smoking than non-menthol smokers but these quit attempts did not translate into successful cessation. This study revealed no association of menthol use with quit attempts, successful cessation, and intention-to-quit among other racial/ethnic groups. Implications:The findings suggested that African American menthol smokers were more motivated to quit smoking; yet, the results also indicated no significant differences in successful cessation between African American menthol and non-menthol smokers. Interventions targeting menthol smokers within the African American community may help bridge this gap. While more local sales restrictions are beginning to occur (eg, Tobacco 21 efforts), additional policies restricting price discounting as well as the regulation of access to and the time, place, and/or manner of menthol tobacco advertising could also improve cessation rates. Further evaluation is needed to determine the viability of these policies.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Previous qualitative reviews have summarized evidence of an association between menthol cigarette use and likelihood of smoking cessation. The objective of this meta-analysis was to provide a quantitative summary of effect sizes, their variability, and factors related to the variability in effect size for the association between menthol use and likelihood of smoking cessation. METHODS:We systematically searched Medline, PsycINFO, and Embase for prospective and cross-sectional studies of the association between menthol use and smoking cessation. We analyzed data with random effects meta-analyses and meta-regression. RESULTS:Our review identified 22 reports from 19 studies of the association between menthol use and cessation. All identified study samples included only US smokers, with one exception that included both Canadian and US smokers. Our overall model did not demonstrate a significant association between menthol use and cessation; however, menthol users were significantly less likely to quit among blacks/African American smokers (odds ratio = 0.88). CONCLUSIONS:Among blacks/African Americans predominantly in the US menthol users have approximately 12% lower odds of smoking cessation compared to non-menthol users. This difference is likely the result of the tobacco industry's ongoing marketing influence on the black/African American Community, suggesting that a menthol ban may have a unique public health benefit for black/African American smokers by encouraging quitting behavior. IMPLICATIONS:This study adds a quantitative summary of the association between menthol cigarette use and smoking cessation in the United States. Findings of an association with lower likelihood of cessation among black/African American smokers, likely resulting from the tobacco industry's marketing influence, support the ban of menthol flavoring as part of a comprehensive tobacco control effort to increase cessation among black/African American smokers.
Project description:To assess the relations of menthol cigarette use with measures of cessation success in a large comparative effectiveness trial (CET).Participants were randomized to one of six medication treatment conditions in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. All participants received six individual counseling sessions.Community-based smokers in two communities in Wisconsin, USA.A total of 1504 adult smokers who smoked at least 10 cigarettes per day during the past 6 months and reported being motivated to quit smoking. The analysis sample comprised 1439 participants: 814 white non-menthol smokers, 439 white menthol smokers and 186 African American (AA) menthol smokers. There were too few AA non-menthol smokers (n = 16) to be included in the analyses.Nicotine lozenge, nicotine patch, bupropion sustained release, nicotine patch + nicotine lozenge, bupropion + nicotine lozenge and placebo.Biochemically confirmed 7-day point-prevalence abstinence assessed at 4, 8 and 26 weeks post-quit.In longitudinal abstinence analyses (generalized estimating equations) controlling for cessation treatment, menthol smoking was associated with reduced likelihood of smoking cessation success relative to non-menthol smoking [model-based estimates of abstinence = 31 versus 38%, respectively; odds ratio (OR) = 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.59, 0.86]. In addition, among menthol smokers, AA women were at especially high risk of cessation failure relative to white women (estimated abstinence = 17 versus 35%, respectively; OR = 2.63, 95% CI = 1.75, 3.96; estimated abstinence rates for AA males and white males were both 30%, OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.60, 1.66).In the United States, smoking menthol cigarettes appears to be associated with reduced cessation success compared with non-menthol smoking, especially in African American females.
Project description:While cigarette smoking prevalence is declining among US adults, quit rates may differ between white and African American smokers. Here, we summarize the literature on smoking cessation behaviors in whites and African Americans across four study designs and report the findings of new analyses of International Tobacco Control (ITC) US Survey cohort data.We reviewed 32 publications containing 39 relevant analyses that compared quit attempts and abstinence between US whites and African Americans. Two additional longitudinal analyses were conducted on 821 white and 76 African American cigarette smokers from Waves 7 and 8 of the ITC US Survey (mean follow-up = 19 months).Of 17 total analyses of quit attempts, nine (including the ITC US Survey) observed that African American smokers were more likely than whites to attempt to quit during a given year; seven found no differences. Whites were more likely than African Americans to be abstinent in five of six retrospective cohort analyses and in two of five considered community- and population-based cohort studies. Four of these 11 analyses, including one from the ITC US Survey, found no differences.Of 11 population- or community-based analyses, all seven that found significant differences indicated that whites were more likely to quit than African Americans. These findings, combined with the similar results from population-based birth cohort analyses, support the conclusion that white smokers are more likely to quit than African American smokers. Efforts to encourage and support quitting among all tobacco users remain a priority.This article provides a review of the literature on smoking cessation among African American and white smokers, and adds new analyses that compare quit attempts and abstinence between US African Americans and whites. Results demonstrate a clear distinction between the findings of cross-sectional and retrospective cohort studies with those of cohort studies. Reasons for these differences merit further study.
Project description:Black smokers have demonstrated greater lung cancer disease burden and poorer smoking cessation outcomes compared with whites. Lung cancer screening represents a unique opportunity to promote cessation among smokers; however, little is known about the differential impact of screening on smoking behaviors among black and white smokers. Using data from the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), we examined the racial differences in smoking behaviors after screening.We examined racial differences in smoking behavior and cessation activity among 6,316 white and 497 black (median age, 60 and 59 years, respectively) NLST participants who were current smokers at screening using a follow-up survey on 24-hour and 7-day quit attempts, 6-month continuous abstinence, and the use of smoking cessation programs and aids at 12 months after screening. Using multiple regression analyses, we examined the predictors of 24-hour and 7-day quit attempts and 6-month continuous abstinence.At 12 months after screening, blacks were more likely to report a 24-hour (52.7% vs. 41.2%, p < .0001) or 7-day (33.6% vs. 27.2%, p = .002) quit attempt. However, no significant racial differences were found in 6-month continuous abstinence (5.6% blacks vs. 7.2% whites). In multiple regression, black race was predictive of a higher likelihood of a 24-hour (odds ratio [OR], 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.0) and 7-day (OR, 1.5, 95% CI, 1.1-1.8) quit attempt; however, race was not associated with 6-month continuous abstinence. Only a positive screening result for lung cancer was significantly predictive of successful 6-month continuous abstinence (OR, 2.3, 95% CI, 1.8-2.9).Although blacks were more likely than whites to have 24-hour and 7-day quit attempts, the rates of 6-month continuous abstinence did not differ. Targeted interventions are needed at the time of lung cancer screening to promote abstinence among all smokers.Among smokers undergoing screening for lung cancer, blacks were more likely than whites to have 24-hour and 7-day quit attempts; however, these attempts did not translate to increased rates of 6-month continuous abstinence among black smokers. Targeted interventions are needed at the time of lung cancer screening to convert quit attempts to sustained smoking cessation among all smokers.
Project description:SIGNIFICANCE:Young adults with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and other severe mental illnesses (SMI) have high rates of smoking, but little research has evaluated predictors of cessation activity and treatment utilization in this group. METHODS:We assessed attitudes, beliefs, social norms, perceived behavioral control, intention, quit attempts, treatment utilization, and cessation among 58 smokers with SMI, age 18-30, enrolled in a randomized pilot study comparing a brief interactive/motivational vs. a static/educational computerized intervention. Subjects were assessed at baseline, post intervention, and 3-month follow-up. RESULTS:Over follow-up, one-third of participants self-reported quit attempts. Baseline measures indicating lower breath CO, greater intention to quit, higher perceptions of stigma, higher perceptions of psychological benefits of smoking, and greater symptom distress were associated with quit attempts, whereas gender, diagnosis, social support, attitudes about smoking, and use of cessation treatment were not. In the multivariate analysis, lower breath CO, higher intention to quit and symptom distress were significantly related to quit attempts. Only 5% of participants utilized verified cessation treatment during follow-up. Consistent with the Theory of Planned Behavior, attitudes, social norms and perceived behavioral control regarding cessation treatments correlated significantly with intention to use treatment. Norms and beliefs about treatment were somewhat positive and some improved after intervention, with a pattern significantly favoring the interactive intervention, but intentions to use treatments remained low, consistent with low treatment utilization. CONCLUSIONS:Perceptions of traditional cessation treatments improved somewhat after brief interventions, but most young adult smokers with SMI did not use cessation treatment. Instead, interventions led to quit attempts without treatment.
Project description:To examine disparities and changes over time in the population-level distribution of smokers along a cigarette quitting continuum among African American smokers compared with non-Hispanic Whites.Secondary data analyses of the 1999, 2002, 2005, and 2008 California Tobacco Surveys (CTS). The CTS are large, random-digit-dialed, population-based surveys designed to assess changes in tobacco use in California. The number of survey respondents ranged from n = 6,744 to n = 12,876 across CTS years. Current smoking behavior (daily or nondaily smoking), number of cigarettes smoked per day, intention to quit in the next 6 months, length of most recent quit attempt among current smokers, and total length of time quit among former smokers were assessed and used to recreate the quitting continuum model.While current smoking rates were significantly higher among African Americans compared with non-Hispanic Whites across all years, cigarette consumption rates were lower among African Americans in all years. There were significant increases in the proportion of former smokers who had been quit for at least 12 months from 1999 (African Americans, 26.8% ± 5.5%; non-Hispanic Whites, 36.8% ± 1.6%) to 2008 (African Americans, 43.6% ± 4.1%; non-Hispanic Whites, 57.4% ± 2.9%). The proportion of African American former smokers in each CTS year was significantly lower than that of non-Hispanic Whites.Despite positive progression along the quitting continuum for both African American and non-Hispanic White smokers, the overall distribution was less favorable for African Americans. The lower smoking consumption levels among African Americans, combined with the lower rates of successful smoking cessation, suggest that cigarette addiction and the quitting process may be different for African American smokers.
Project description:Although much is known about smoking cessation behavior, the vast majority of research has not assessed menthol as an independent factor. The objective of this review is to assess the effects, if any, that use of menthol cigarettes has on smoking cessation success in adults and youth. A total of 20 articles are included in this review. Although some studies have found that menthol smokers have less success in quitting smoking, others fail to find significant differences between menthol and non-menthol smokers. Some clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of various cessation treatments have suggested that menthol smokers have poorer outcomes, however two secondary data analysis studies (which used the same original dataset) failed to find any difference in success rate associated with particular treatments. Although there is some suggestion that smoking menthol cigarettes is associated with worse cessation outcomes, differences are not always found. However, if there was a difference, it was always in the direction of worse outcomes for menthol smokers. Given that Black/African American smokers prefer menthol cigarettes more than White smokers, possible interactions with race/ethnicity are discussed.
Project description:Telephone quitlines can help employees quit smoking. Quitlines typically use directive coaching, but nondirective, flexible coaching is an alternative. Call-2-Quit used a worksite-sponsored quitline to compare directive and nondirective coaching modes, and evaluated employee race and income as potential moderators.An unblinded randomized controlled trial compared directive and nondirective telephone coaching by trained laypersons. Participants were smoking employees and spouses recruited through workplace smoking cessation campaigns in a hospital system and affiliated medical school. Coaches were four non-medical women trained to use both coaching modes. Participants were randomized by family to coaching mode. Participants received up to 7 calls from coaches who used computer assisted telephone interview software to track topics and time. Outcomes were reported smoking abstinence for 7 days at last contact, 6 or 12 months after coaching began. Both worksites implemented new tobacco control policies during the study.Most participants responded to an insurance incentive introduced at the hospital. Call-2-Quit coached 518 participants: 22 % were African-American; 45 % had incomes below $30,000. Income, race, and intervention did not affect coaching completion rates. Cessation rates were comparable with directive and nondirective coaching (26 % versus 30 % quit, NS). A full factorial logistic regression model identified above median income (odds ratio?=?1.8, p?=?0.02), especially among African Americans (p?=?0.04), and recent quit attempts (OR?=?1.6, p?=?0.03) as predictors of cessation. Nondirective coaching was associated with high cessation rates among subgroups of smokers reporting income above the median, recent quit attempts, or use of alternative therapies. Waiting up to 4 weeks to start coaching did not affect cessation. Of 41 highly addicted or depressed smokers who had never quit more than 30 days, none quit.Nondirective coaching improved cessation rates for selected smoking employees, but less expensive directive coaching helped most smokers equally well, regardless of enrollment incentives and delays in receiving coaching. Some subgroups had very low cessation rates with either mode of quitline support.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02730260 , Registered March 31, 2016.
Project description:Introduction:There is clear evidence that the use of cessation aids significantly increases the likelihood of successful smoking cessation. The aim of this study was to examine quitting activity and use of cessation aids among smokers from various European countries. Subgroup differences were also examined for sex, income, education, and age in each country. Methods:Cross-sectional data were collected in 2016 from 10,683 smokers in eight European countries participating in the ITC Project: England (n=3,536), Germany (n=1,003), Greece (n=1,000), Hungary (n=1,000), the Netherlands (n=1,136), Poland (n=1,006), Romania (n=1,001), and Spain (n=1,001). We measured quitting activity, including quit attempts in the previous 12 months and intention to quit, use of cessation aids (i.e., medication, quitlines, internet, local services, and e-cigarettes), and whether respondents had received advice about quitting and e-cigarettes from health professionals. Results:Quit attempts were most common in England (46.3%) and least common in Hungary (10.4%). Quit intention was highest in England and lowest in Greece. Use of e-cigarettes to quit was highest in England (51.6%) and lowest in Spain (5.0%). Use of cessation aids was generally low across all countries; in particular this was true for quitlines, internet-based support, and local services. Receiving health professional advice to quit was highest in Romania (56.5%), and lowest in Poland (20.8%); few smokers received advice about e-cigarettes from health professionals. No clear differences were found for sex and income groups. Across countries, smokers with lower education reported less quitting activity. Conclusions:Quitting activity and use of cessation methods were low in most countries. Greater quit attempts and use of cessation aids were found in England, where large investments in tobacco control and smoking cessation have been made. Health professionals are important for motivating smokers to quit and promoting the effectiveness of various methods, but overall, few smokers get advice to quit.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The relationship between work loss and smoking has not been studied extensively, and underlying factors are often not examined. The aim of this study was to test two hypotheses. First, work loss is associated with greater intention to quit and more likelihood of smoking cessation, and this relationship is moderated by a decrease in income. Second, work loss is associated with lower quit intention and lower rates of smoking cessation, and this relationship is moderated by an increase in psychological distress. METHODS:We used pooled data from three countries participating in the ITC Project: France, Germany and the Netherlands (n=2712). We measured unemployment, income and psychological distress at two consecutive survey waves, and calculated changes between survey waves. We first conducted multiple logistic regression analyses to examine the association between work loss and smoking cessation behavior. Next, we added income decrease and psychological distress increase to the models. Finally, we added interaction terms of work loss by income decrease and work loss by distress increase to the model. RESULTS:Work loss was not associated with quit intention, quit attempts, and quit success. When income decrease and psychological distress increase were added to the model, we found a positive association between distress increase and quit attempts. The interactions, however, were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS:Our results indicate that smokers who become unemployed and face a decrease in income are not less likely to quit smoking than smokers who are employed.