A de novo mutation in PRICKLE1 associated with myoclonic epilepsy and autism spectrum disorder.
ABSTRACT: Homozygous recessive mutations in the PRICKLE1 gene were first described in three consanguineous families with myoclonic epilepsy. Subsequent studies have identified neurological abnormalities in humans and animal models with both heterozygous and homozygous mutations in PRICKLE1 orthologs. We describe a 7-year-old with a novel de novo missense mutation in PRICKLE1 associated with epilepsy, autism spectrum disorder and global developmental delay.
Project description:Progressive myoclonus epilepsy (PME) is a syndrome characterized by myoclonic seizures (lightning-like jerks), generalized convulsive seizures, and varying degrees of neurological decline, especially ataxia and dementia. Previously, we characterized three pedigrees of individuals with PME and ataxia, where either clinical features or linkage mapping excluded known PME loci. This report identifies a mutation in PRICKLE1 (also known as RILP for REST/NRSF interacting LIM domain protein) in all three of these pedigrees. The identified PRICKLE1 mutation blocks the PRICKLE1 and REST interaction in vitro and disrupts the normal function of PRICKLE1 in an in vivo zebrafish overexpression system. PRICKLE1 is expressed in brain regions implicated in epilepsy and ataxia in mice and humans, and, to our knowledge, is the first molecule in the noncanonical WNT signaling pathway to be directly implicated in human epilepsy.
Project description:Severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy (SMEI) is a rare disorder that occurs in isolated patients. The disease is characterized by generalized tonic, clonic, and tonic-clonic seizures that are initially induced by fever and begin during the first year of life. Later, patients also manifest other seizure types, including absence, myoclonic, and simple and complex partial seizures. Psychomotor development stagnates around the second year of life. Missense mutations in the gene that codes for a neuronal voltage-gated sodium-channel alpha-subunit (SCN1A) were identified in families with generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+). GEFS+ is a mild type of epilepsy associated with febrile and afebrile seizures. Because both GEFS+ and SMEI involve fever-associated seizures, we screened seven unrelated patients with SMEI for mutations in SCN1A. We identified a mutation in each patient: four had frameshift mutations, one had a nonsense mutation, one had a splice-donor mutation, and one had a missense mutation. All mutations are de novo mutations and were not observed in 184 control chromosomes.
Project description:Epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures, also known as myoclonic-astatic epilepsy or Doose syndrome, has been recently linked to variants in the SLC6A1 gene. Epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures is often refractory to antiepileptic drugs, and the ketogenic diet is known for treating medically intractable seizures, although the mechanism of action is largely unknown. We report a novel SLC6A1 variant in a patient with epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures, analyze its effects, and suggest a mechanism of action for the ketogenic diet.We describe a ten-year-old girl with epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures and a de novo SLC6A1 mutation who responded well to the ketogenic diet. She carried a c.491G>A mutation predicted to cause p.Cys164Tyr amino acid change, which was identified using whole exome sequencing and confirmed by Sanger sequencing. High-resolution structural modeling was used to analyze the likely effects of the mutation.The SLC6A1 gene encodes a transporter that removes gamma-aminobutyric acid from the synaptic cleft. Mutations in SLC6A1 are known to disrupt the gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter protein 1, affecting gamma-aminobutyric acid levels and causing seizures. The p.Cys164Tyr variant found in our study has not been previously reported, expanding on the variants linked to epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures.A 10-year-old girl with a novel SLC6A1 mutation and epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures had an excellent clinical response to the ketogenic diet. An effect of the diet on gamma-aminobutyric acid reuptake mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter protein 1 is suggested. A personalized approach to epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures patients carrying SLC6A1 mutation and a relationship between epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures due to SLC6A1 mutations, GABAergic drugs, and the ketogenic diet warrants further exploration.
Project description:Epilepsy with myoclonic absences is a specific seizure type characterized by bilateral rhythmic clonic jerks with impairment of consciousness. Here, we report an individual with epilepsy with myoclonic absences, mild intellectual disabilities, language disorder, and autism spectrum disorder. His interictal electroencephalogram revealed a spike-and-slow wave complex dominant in the frontal area. His ictal polygraphic and video-electroencephalogram showed a characteristic diffuse synchronous 3-Hz spike-and-wave burst associated with bilateral upper limb myoclonic jerks with impairment of consciousness. Using whole-exome sequencing, we found a novel de novo variant, c.386T>G, p.(Val129Gly), in SETD1B (SET domain containing 1B). We previously reported that two individuals with a de novo SETD1B variant showed intellectual disability, epilepsy, and autism. Of note, one of those individuals and the present case showed epilepsy with myoclonic absences. Therefore, this report supports the indication that SETD1B may be a causative gene for neurodevelopmental disorders and suggests that epilepsy with myoclonic absences may be a characteristic feature of SETD1B-related disorders.
Project description:Myoclonic epilepsy in Rhodesian Ridgeback (RR) dogs is characterized by myoclonic seizures occurring mainly during relaxation periods, a juvenile age of onset and generalized tonic-clonic seizures in one-third of patients. An 8-month-old female intact RR was presented for myoclonic seizures and staring episodes that both started at 10 weeks of age. Testing for the DIRAS1 variant indicated a homozygous mutant genotype. Unsedated wireless video-electroencephalography (EEG) identified frequent, bilaterally synchronous, generalized 4 Hz spike-and-wave complexes (SWC) during the staring episodes in addition to the characteristic myoclonic seizures with generalized 4-5 Hz SWC or 4-5 Hz slowing. Photic stimulation did not evoke a photoparoxysmal response. Repeat video-EEG 2 months after initiation of levetiracetam treatment disclosed a >95% decrease in frequency of myoclonic seizures, and absence seizures were no longer evident. Absence seizures represent another seizure type in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) in RR dogs, which reinforces its parallels to JME in humans.
Project description:The frequent comorbidity of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) with epilepsy suggests a shared underlying genetic susceptibility; several genes, when mutated, can contribute to both disorders. Recently, PRICKLE1 missense mutations were found to segregate with ASD. However, the mechanism by which mutations in this gene might contribute to ASD is unknown. To elucidate the role of PRICKLE1 in ASDs, we carried out studies in Prickle1(+/-) mice and Drosophila, yeast, and neuronal cell lines. We show that mice with Prickle1 mutations exhibit ASD-like behaviors. To find proteins that interact with PRICKLE1 in the central nervous system, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen with a human brain cDNA library and isolated a peptide with homology to SYNAPSIN I (SYN1), a protein involved in synaptogenesis, synaptic vesicle formation, and regulation of neurotransmitter release. Endogenous Prickle1 and Syn1 co-localize in neurons and physically interact via the SYN1 region mutated in ASD and epilepsy. Finally, a mutation in PRICKLE1 disrupts its ability to increase the size of dense-core vesicles in PC12 cells. Taken together, these findings suggest PRICKLE1 mutations contribute to ASD by disrupting the interaction with SYN1 and regulation of synaptic vesicles.
Project description:Heterozygous mutations in Myoclonin1/EFHC1 cause juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), the most common form of genetic generalized epilepsies, while homozygous F229L mutation is associated with primary intractable epilepsy in infancy. Heterozygous mutations in adolescent JME patients produce subtle malformations of cortical and subcortical architecture, whereas homozygous F229L mutation in infancy induces severe brain pathology and death. However, the underlying pathological mechanisms for these observations remain unknown. We had previously demonstrated that EFHC1 is a microtubule-associated protein (MAP) involved in cell division and radial migration during cerebral corticogenesis. Here, we show that JME mutations, including F229L, do not alter the ability of EFHC1 to colocalize with the centrosome and the mitotic spindle, but act in a dominant-negative manner to impair mitotic spindle organization. We also found that mutants EFHC1 expression disrupted radial and tangential migration by affecting the morphology of radial glia and migrating neurons. These results show how Myoclonin1/EFHC1 mutations disrupt brain development and potentially produce structural brain abnormalities on which epileptogenesis is established.
Project description:For a large number of individuals with intellectual disability (ID), the molecular basis of the disorder is still unknown. However, whole-exome sequencing (WES) is providing more and more insights into the genetic landscape of ID. In the present study, we performed trio-based WES in 311 patients with unsolved ID and additional clinical features, and identified homozygous CPLX1 variants in three patients with ID from two unrelated families. All displayed marked developmental delay and migrating myoclonic epilepsy, and one showed a cerebellar cleft in addition. The encoded protein, complexin 1, is crucially involved in neuronal synaptic regulation, and homozygous Cplx1 knockout mice have the earliest known onset of ataxia seen in a mouse model. Recently, a homozygous truncating variant in CPLX1 was suggested to be causative for migrating epilepsy and structural brain abnormalities. ID was not reported although it cannot be completely ruled out. However, the currently limited knowledge on CPLX1 suggests that loss of complexin 1 function may lead to a complex but variable clinical phenotype, and our findings encourage further investigations of CPLX1 in patients with ID, developmental delay and myoclonic epilepsy to unravel the phenotypic spectrum of carriers of CPLX1 variants.
Project description:Cerebrotendinous Xanthomatosis (CTX) is a rare autosomal-recessive inborn disorder of bile acid metabolism due to mutations in the <i>CYP27A1</i> gene. It presents with a diverse range of neurological and non-neurological symptoms. We present a case of CTX with a progressive myoclonic epilepsy (PME) like phenotype and a family history of CTX. The proband had a generalized epilepsy with prominent myoclonus. He also had intellectual decline, ataxia, bipyramidal dysfunction and peripheral neuropathy. The younger sibling had a milder generalized epilepsy without myoclonus along with behavioral issues, ataxia, neuropathy, and prominent tendon xanthomas. Both the siblings had developmental cataracts. MRI Brain of both had dentate hyperintensities with cerebellar atrophy. The proband's EEG showed severe background slowing with multifocal interictal discharges. Targeted gene of analysis proband revealed a novel homozygous 5' splice site variation in intron 3 of the CYP27A1 gene. We present a novel phenotype and genotype of CTX presenting with a syndrome of myoclonic epilepsy. This is the first PME-like presentation of CTX to the best of our knowledge. CTX may present with a PME-like clinical phenotype and should be considered as a treatable cause within the differential diagnostic evluation of syndromic epilepsies involving an atypical familial myoclonic epilepsy.
Project description:Myoclonic status epilepticus (MSE) is defined as prolonged period of myoclonic jerks that are correlated with epileptiform discharges on EEG. We here describe clinical features and video-EEG records of six adult patients with MSE who did not have a prior diagnosis of epilepsy. In four out of six patients, MSE was precipitated by drugs. Two out of four patients had chronic renal disease and received beta lactam group antibiotics. Two other patients, who described chronic pain, developed MSE while taking pregabalin. One patient who had dementia and family history of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) developed MSE one month after quetiapine was introduced. Another patient, who had a recent ischemic stroke, developed MSE due to an unknown reason. In these last two patients, an immediate triggering factor was not evident. Myoclonic status epilepticus ceased in five out of six patients after withdrawal of the drugs and/or intravenous antiepileptic treatment. Myoclonic status epilepticus is a rare event in patients without epilepsy. A correct diagnosis and prompt drug discontinuation may reverse this severe and life-threatening condition.