Transmembrane domain dependent inhibitory function of FcγRIIB.
ABSTRACT: FcγRIIB, the only inhibitory IgG Fc receptor, functions to suppress the hyper-activation of immune cells. Numerous studies have illustrated its inhibitory function through the ITIM motif in the cytoplasmic tail of FcγRIIB. However, later studies revealed that in addition to the ITIM, the transmembrane (TM) domain of FcγRIIB is also indispensable for its inhibitory function. Indeed, recent epidemiological studies revealed that a non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (rs1050501) within the TM domain of FcγRIIB, responsible for the I232T substitution, is associated with the susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In this review, we will summarize these epidemiological and functional studies of FcγRIIB-I232T in the past few years, and will further discuss the mechanisms accounting for the functional loss of FcγRIIB-I232T. Our review will help the reader gain a deeper understanding of the importance of the TM domain in mediating the inhibitory function of FcγRIIB and may provide insights to a new therapeutic target for the associated diseases.
Project description:IgG immune complexes (ICs) are generated during immune responses to infection and self-antigen and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Their role, and that of the fragment crystallizable (Fc) receptors that bind them, in driving local inflammation is not fully understood. Low affinity-activating Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) that bind immune complexes are controlled by a single inhibitory receptor, FcγRIIb (CD32b). We investigated whether FcγR cross-linking by IC might induce VEGF-A and lymph node lymphangiogenesis. Murine macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) stimulated with ICs produced VEGF-A, and this was inhibited by coligation of FcγRIIb. Similarly, IC-induced VEGF-A production by B cells was inhibited by FcγRIIb. In vivo, IC generation resulted in VEGF-A-dependent intranodal lymphangiogenesis and increased DC number. We sought to determine the relevance of these findings to autoimmunity because elevated serum VEGF-A has been observed in patients with SLE; we found that lymphangiogenesis and VEGF-A were increased in the lymph nodes of mice with collagen-induced arthritis and SLE. In humans, a SLE-associated polymorphism (rs1050501) results in a dysfunctional FcγRIIB(T232) receptor. Monocyte-derived macrophages from subjects with the FcγRIIB(T/T232) genotype showed increased FcγR-mediated VEGF-A production, demonstrating a similar process is likely to occur in humans. Thus, ICs contribute to inflammation through VEGF-A-driven lymph node lymphangiogenesis, which is controlled by FcγRIIb. These findings have implications for the pathogenesis, and perhaps future treatment, of autoimmune diseases.
Project description:Ab-dependent enhancement (ADE) of dengue virus (DENV) infection is mediated through the interaction of viral immune complexes with FcγRs, with notable efficiency of FcγRII. Most human dengue target cells coexpress activating (FcγRIIa) and inhibitory (FcγRIIb) isoforms, but their relative roles in ADE are not well understood. We studied the effects of FcγRIIa and FcγRIIb by transfecting cells to express each individual receptor isoform or through coexpression of both isoforms. We showed that although both isoforms similarly bind dengue-immune complexes, FcγRIIa efficiently internalized virus leading to productive cellular infection, unlike FcγRIIb. We next focused on the main discriminating feature of these isoforms: their distinct intracytoplasmic tails (FcγRIIa with an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif [ITAM] and FcγRIIb with an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif [ITIM]). We engineered cells to express "swapped" versions of their FcγRII by switching the cytoplasmic tails containing the ITAM/ITIM motifs, leaving the remainder of the receptor intact. Our data show that both FcγRIIa and FcγRIIb comparably bind dengue immune complexes. However, wild type FcγRIIa facilitates DENV entry by virtue of the ITAM motif, whereas the swapped version FcγRIIa-ITIM significantly inhibited ADE. Similarly, replacing the inhibitory motif in FcγRIIb with an ITAM (FcγRIIb-ITAM) reconstituted ADE capacity to levels of the wild type activating counterpart, FcγRIIa. Our data suggest that FcγRIIa and FcγRIIb isoforms, as the most abundantly distributed class II Fcγ receptors, differentially influence Ab-mediated DENV infection under ADE conditions both at the level of cellular infection and viral production.
Project description:Engaging inhibitory FcγRIIb by Fc region has been recently reported to be an attractive approach for improving the efficacy of antibody therapeutics. However, the previously reported S267E/L328F variant with enhanced binding affinity to FcγRIIb, also enhances binding affinity to FcγRIIa(R131) allotype to a similar degree because FcγRIIb and FcγRIIa(R131) are structurally similar. In this study, we applied comprehensive mutagenesis and structure-guided design based on the crystal structure of the Fc/FcγRIIb complex to identify a novel Fc variant with selectively enhanced FcγRIIb binding over both FcγRIIa(R131) and FcγRIIa(H131). This novel variant has more than 200-fold stronger binding affinity to FcγRIIb than wild-type IgG1, while binding affinity to FcγRIIa(R131) and FcγRIIa(H131) is comparable with or lower than wild-type IgG1. This selectivity was achieved by conformational change of the C(H)2 domain by mutating Pro to Asp at position 238. Fc variant with increased binding to both FcγRIIb and FcγRIIa induced platelet aggregation and activation in an immune complex form in vitro while our novel variant did not. When applied to agonistic anti-CD137 IgG1 antibody, our variant greatly enhanced the agonistic activity. Thus, the selective enhancement of FcγRIIb binding achieved by our Fc variant provides a novel tool for improving the efficacy of antibody therapeutics.
Project description:Fc?RIIB binding to its ligand suppresses immune cell activation. A single-nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) change, I232T, in the transmembrane (TM) domain of Fc?RIIB loses its suppressive function, which is clinically associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Previously, we reported that I232T tilts Fc?RIIB's TM domain. In this study, combining with molecular dynamics simulations and single-cell FRET assay, we further reveal that such tilting by I232T unexpectedly bends the Fc?RIIB's ectodomain toward plasma membrane to allosterically impede Fc?RIIB's ligand association. I232T substitution reduces in situ two-dimensional binding affinities and association rates of Fc?RIIB to interact with its ligands, IgG1, IgG2 and IgG3 by three to four folds. This allosteric regulation by an SNP provides an intrinsic molecular mechanism for the functional loss of Fc?RIIB-I232T in SLE patients.
Project description:Several tolerance checkpoints exist throughout B cell development to control autoreactive B cells and prevent the generation of pathogenic autoantibodies. FcγRIIb is an Fc receptor that inhibits B cell activation and, if defective, is associated with autoimmune disease, yet its impact on specific B cell tolerance checkpoints is unknown. Here we show that reduced expression of FcγRIIb enhances the deletion and anergy of autoreactive immature B cells, but in contrast promotes autoreactive B cell expansion in the germinal center and serum autoantibody production, even in response to exogenous, non-self antigens. Our data thus show that FcγRIIb has opposing effects on pre-immune and post-immune tolerance checkpoints, and suggest that B cell tolerance requires the control of bystander germinal center B cells with low or no affinity for the immunizing antigen.
Project description:Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of virus infection caused by the uptake of virus-antibody complexes by FcγRs is a significant obstacle to the development of effective vaccines to control certain human and animal viral diseases. The activation FcγRs, including FcγRI and FcγRIIa have been shown to mediate ADE infection of virus. In the present paper, we showed that pocine FcγRIIb, an inhibitory FcγR, mediates ADE of PRRSV infection. Stable Marc-145 cell lines expressing poFcγRIIb (Marc-poFcγRII) were established. The relative yield of progeny virus was significantly increased in the presence of sub-neutralization anti-PRRSV antibody. The Fab fragment and normal porcine sera had no effect. Anti-poFcγRII antibody inhibited the enhancement of infection when cells were infected in the presence of anti-PRRSV antibody, but not when cells were infected in the absence of antibody. These results indicate that enhancement of infection in these cells by anti-PRRSV virus antibody is FcγRII-mediated. Identification of the inhibitory FcγR mediating ADE infection should expand our understanding of the mechanisms of pathogenesis for a broad range of infectious diseases and may open many approaches for improvements to the treatment and prevention of such diseases.
Project description:Immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM)-containing receptors inhibit cellular responsiveness to immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-linked receptors. Although tyrosine phosphorylation is central to the initiation of both inhibitory ITIM and stimulatory ITAM signaling, the events that regulate receptor phosphorylation are incompletely understood. Previous studies have shown that ITAM tyrosines engage in structure-inducing interactions with the plasma membrane that must be relieved for phosphorylation to occur. Whether ITIM phosphorylation is similarly regulated and the mechanisms responsible for release from plasma membrane interactions to enable phosphorylation, however, have not been defined. PECAM-1 is a dual ITIM-containing receptor that inhibits ITAM-dependent responses in hematopoietic cells. We found that the PECAM-1 cytoplasmic domain is unstructured in an aqueous environment but adopts an α-helical conformation within a localized region on interaction with lipid vesicles that mimic the plasma membrane. The lipid-interacting segment contains the C-terminal ITIM tyrosine and a serine residue that undergo activation-dependent phosphorylation. The N-terminal ITIM is excluded from the lipid-interacting segment, and its phosphorylation is secondary to phosphorylation of the membrane-interacting C-terminal ITIM. On the basis of these findings, we propose a novel model for regulation of inhibitory signaling by ITIM-containing receptors that relies on reversible plasma membrane interactions and sequential ITIM phosphorylation.
Project description:The activation state of many blood and vascular cells is tightly controlled by a delicate balance between receptors that contain immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) and those that contain immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs). Precisely how the timing of cellular activation by ITAM-coupled receptors is regulated by ITIM-containing receptors is, however, poorly understood. Using platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1) as a prototypical ITIM-bearing receptor, we demonstrate that initiation of inhibitory signaling occurs via a novel, sequential process in which Src family kinases phosphorylate the C-terminal ITIM, thereby enabling phosphorylation of the N-terminal ITIM of PECAM-1 by other Src homology 2 domain-containing nonreceptor tyrosine kinases (NRTKs). NRTKs capable of mediating the second phosphorylation event include C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) and Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk). Btk and Csk function downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activation during ITAM-dependent platelet activation. In ITAM-activated platelets that were treated with a PI3K inhibitor, PECAM-1 was phosphorylated but did not bind the tandem SH2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2, indicating that it was not phosphorylated on its N-terminal ITIM. Csk bound to and phosphorylated PECAM-1 more efficiently than did Btk and required its SH2 domain to perform these functions. Additionally, the phosphorylation of the N-terminal ITIM of Siglec-9 by Csk is enhanced by the prior phosphorylation of its C-terminal ITIM, providing evidence that the ITIMs of other dual ITIM-containing receptors are also sequentially phosphorylated. On the basis of these findings, we propose that sequential ITIM phosphorylation provides a general mechanism for precise temporal control over the recruitment and activation of tandem SH2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatases that dampen ITAM-dependent signals.
Project description:Lamprey, the primitive jawless vertebrate, uses variable lymphocyte receptor (VLR) as alternative adaptive immune system instead of immunoglobulin (Ig)-based receptors used in jawed vertebrates. In the present study, we characterized a potential inhibitory receptor of VLRB from leucocytes in lamprey. It is a novel ITIM-containing IgSF protein and was therefore named as NICIP. NICIP has two Ig-like domains in extracellular region, a transmembrane domain and two classical ITIM motifs in cytoplasmic domain. It is mainly expressed on the surface of granulocytes and monocytes and can interact with VLRB. In transiently transfected HEK293T cells, it was confirmed again that it could interact with VLRB and the two phosphorylated ITIM motifs could recruit SHP-1 and SHP-2. These results imply that NICIP may play a role as a potential inhibitory receptor of VLRB and involve in negative regulation of immune response mediated by VLRB.
Project description:Stable surface expression of human inhibitory killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIRs) is critical for controlling NK cell function and maintaining NK cell tolerance toward normal MHC class I(+) cells. Our recent experiments, however, have found that Ab-bound KIR3DL1 (3DL1) readily leaves the cell surface and undergoes endocytosis to early/recycling endosomes and subsequently to late endosomes. We found that 3DL1 internalization is at least partially mediated by an interaction between the μ2 subunit of the AP-2 clathrin adaptor complex and ITIM tyrosine residues in the cytoplasmic domain of 3DL1. Disruption of the 3DL1/μ2 interaction, either by mutation of the ITIM tyrosines in 3DL1 or mutation of μ2, significantly diminished endocytosis and increased surface expression of 3DL1 in human primary NK cells and cell lines. Furthermore, we found that the 3DL1/AP-2 interaction is diminished upon Ab engagement with the receptor, as compared with untreated cells. Thus, we have identified AP-2-mediated endocytosis as a mechanism regulating the surface levels of inhibitory KIRs through their ITIM domains. Based on our results, we propose a model in which nonengaged KIRs are internalized by this mechanism, whereas engagement with MHC class I ligand would diminish AP-2 binding, thereby prolonging stable receptor surface expression and promoting inhibitory function. Furthermore, this ITIM-mediated mechanism may similarly regulate the surface expression of other inhibitory immune receptors.