Characterization of Erythromycin and Tetracycline Resistance in Lactobacillus fermentum Strains.
ABSTRACT: Lactobacillus fermentum colonizing gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts of humans and animals is widely used in manufacturing of fermented products and as probiotics. These bacteria may function as vehicles of antibiotic resistance genes, which can be transferred to pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, monitoring and control of transmissible antibiotic resistance determinants in these microorganisms is necessary to approve their safety status. The aim of this study was to characterize erythromycin and tetracycline resistance of L. fermentum isolates and to estimate the potential transfer of resistance genes from lactobacilli to the other Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Among six L. fermentum strains isolated from human feces and commercial dairy products, five strains demonstrated phenotypic resistance to tetracycline. PCR screening for antibiotic resistance determinants revealed plasmid-located tetracycline resistance genes tet(K) and tet(M) in all strains and erythromycin resistance genes erm(B) in the chromosome of L. fermentum 5-1 and erm(C) in the plasmid of L. fermentum 3-4. All tested lactobacilli lacked conjugative transposon Tn916 and were not able to transfer tetracycline resistance genes to Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Listeria monocytogenes, Acinetobacter baumannii, Citrobacter freundii, and Escherichia coli by filter mating. Staphylococcus haemolyticus did not accept erythromycin resistance genes from corresponding Lactobacillus strains. Thus, in the present study, L. fermentum was not implicated in the spread of erythromycin and tetracycline resistance, but still these strains pose the threat to the environment and human health because they harbored erythromycin and tetracycline resistance genes in their plasmids and therefore should not be used in foods and probiotics.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:This study investigated the distribution of acquired antibiotic resistance genes in Enterococcus species isolated from clinical patients in Baotou, China. RESULT:A total of 73 enterococca lisolates from clinical samples were collected from December 2016 to September 2017. Of the 73 enterococcal isolates, 36 (49.3%), 35 (47.9%), 1 (1.4%), and 1 (1.4%) were identified as E. faecium, E. faecalis, E. gallinarum, and E. raffinosus, respectively. The resistance rates of the enterococci to nitrofurantoin, tetracycline, gentamicin (high-level), ampicillin, ciprofloxacin and erythromycin were 24.7%, 49.3%, 50.7%, 54.8%, 74.0% and 89.0%, respectively. The most prevalent aminoglycoside resistance genes were aac(6')-Ie-aph(2?)-Ia (64.9%) and aph(3')IIIa (64.9%). The most common erythromycin ribosome methylation gene was erm(B) (67.7%), followed by erm(A) (4.6%) and erm(C) (1.5%). The tetracycline resistance gene tetM was found to be present in 100.0% of the tetracycline-resistant strains of enterococci. Thus, E. faecium and E. faecalis were identified as the species of greatest clinical importance associated with hospital-acquired enterococcal infections in Baotou, China. The antimicrobial resistance genes aac(6')-Ie-aph(2?)-Ia, aph(3')IIIa, tetM, and erm(B) were significantly more prevalent among the enterococcal isolates. Therefore, action should be taken to monitor drug resistance and antimicrobial resistance genes to manage multi-drug-resistant enterococcal infections.
Project description:In spite of a global concern on the transfer of antibiotic resistances (AR) via the food chain, limited information exists on this issue in species of Leuconostoc and Weissella, adjunct cultures used as aroma producers in fermented foods. In this work, the minimum inhibitory concentration was determined for 16 antibiotics in 34 strains of dairy origin, belonging to Leuconostoc mesenteroides (18), Leuconostoc citreum (11), Leuconostoc lactis (2), Weissella hellenica (2), and Leuconostoc carnosum (1). Atypical resistances were found for kanamycin (17 strains), tetracycline and chloramphenicol (two strains each), and erythromycin, clindamycin, virginiamycin, ciprofloxacin, and rifampicin (one strain each). Surprisingly, L. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides LbE16, showed resistance to four antibiotics, kanamycin, streptomycin, tetracycline and virginiamycin. PCR analysis identified tet(S) as responsible for tetracycline resistance in LbE16, but no gene was detected in a second tetracycline-resistant strain, L. mesenteroides subsp. cremoris LbT16. In Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum LbE15, erythromycin and clindamycin resistant, an erm(B) gene was amplified. Hybridization experiments proved erm(B) and tet(S) to be associated to a plasmid of ?35 kbp and to the chromosome of LbE15 and LbE16, respectively. The complete genome sequence of LbE15 and LbE16 was used to get further insights on the makeup and genetic organization of AR genes. Genome analysis confirmed the presence and location of erm(B) and tet(S), but genes providing tetracycline resistance in LbT16 were again not identified. In the genome of the multi-resistant strain LbE16, genes that might be involved in aminoglycoside (aadE, aphA-3, sat4) and virginiamycin [vat(E)] resistance were further found. The erm(B) gene but not tet(S) was transferred from Leuconostoc to Enterococcus faecalis both under laboratory conditions and in cheese. This study contributes to the characterization of AR in the Leuconostoc-Weissella group, provides evidence of the genetic basis of atypical resistances, and demonstrates the inter-species transfer of erythromycin resistance.
Project description:This study examined differences in antibiotic-resistant soil bacteria and the presence and quantity of resistance genes in soils with a range of management histories. We analyzed four soils from agricultural systems that were amended with manure from animals treated with erythromycin and exposed to streptomycin and/or oxytetracycline, as well as non-manure-amended compost and forest soil. Low concentrations of certain antibiotic resistance genes were detected using multiplex quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), with tet(B), aad(A), and str(A) each present in only one soil and tet(M) and tet(W) detected in all soils. The most frequently detected resistance genes were tet(B), tet(D), tet(O), tet(T), and tet(W) for tetracycline resistance, str(A), str(B), and aac for streptomycin resistance, and erm(C), erm(V), erm(X), msr(A), ole(B), and vga for erythromycin resistance. Transposon genes specific for Tn916, Tn1549, TnB1230, Tn4451, and Tn5397 were detected in soil bacterial isolates. The MIC ranges of isolated bacteria for tetracycline, streptomycin, and erythromycin were 8 to >256 ?g/ml, 6 to >1,024 ?g/ml, and 0.094 to >256 ?g/ml, respectively. Based on 16S rRNA gene similarity, isolated bacteria showed high sequence identity to genera typical of soil communities. Bacteria with the highest MICs were detected in manure-amended soils or soils from agricultural systems with a history of antibiotic use. Non-manure-amended soils yielded larger proportions of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, but these had lower MICs, carried fewer antibiotic resistance genes, and did not display multidrug resistance (MDR).
Project description:Large antibiotic resistance gene pools in the microbiota of foods may ultimately pose a risk for human health. This study reports the identification and quantification of tetracycline- and erythromycin-resistant populations, resistance genes, and gene diversity in traditional Spanish and Italian cheeses, via culturing, conventional PCR, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The numbers of resistant bacteria varied widely among the antibiotics and the different cheese varieties; in some cheeses, all the bacterial populations seemed to be resistant. Up to eight antibiotic resistance genes were sought by gene-specific PCR, six with respect to tetracycline, that is, tet(K), tet(L), tet(M), tet(O), tet(S), and tet(W), and two with respect to erythromycin, that is, erm(B) and erm(F). The most common resistance genes in the analysed cheeses were tet(S), tet(W), tet(M), and erm(B). The copy numbers of these genes, as quantified by qPCR, ranged widely between cheeses (from 4.94 to 10.18log10/g). DGGE analysis revealed distinct banding profiles and two polymorphic nucleotide positions for tet(W)-carrying cheeses, though the similarity of the sequences suggests this tet(W) to have a monophyletic origin. Traditional cheeses would therefore appear to act as reservoirs for large numbers of many types of antibiotic resistance determinants.
Project description:Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) is the leading cause of neonatal and maternal sepsis. Penicillin is recommended for intrapartum prophylaxis, but erythromycin or clindamycin is used for penicillin-allergic carriers. Antibiotic resistance (AR) has increased recently and needs to be monitored. We have developed a multiplex PCR-based reverse line blot (mPCR/RLB) hybridization assay to detect, simultaneously, seven genes encoding AR--erm(A/TR), erm(B), mef(A/E), tet(M), tet(O), aphA-3, and aad-6--and two AR-related genes, int-Tn and mreA. We tested 512 GBS isolates from Asia and Australasia and compared mPCR/RLB with antibiotic susceptibility phenotype or single-gene PCR. Phenotypic resistance to tetracycline was identified in 450 (88%) isolates, of which 442 had tet(M) (93%) and/or tet(O) (6%). Of 67 (13%) erythromycin-resistant isolates, 18 were susceptible to clindamycin, i.e., had the M phenotype, encoded by mef(A/E); 39 had constitutive (cMLS(B)) and 10 inducible clindamycin resistance, and of these, 34 contained erm(B) and 12 erm(A/TR). Of four additional isolates with mef(A/E), three contained erm(B) with cMLS(B) and one was erythromycin susceptible. Of 61 (12%) clindamycin-resistant isolates, 20 were susceptible to erythromycin and two had intermediate resistance. Based on sequencing, 21 of 22 isolates with mef had mef(E), and 8 of 353 with int-Tn had an atypical sequence. Several AR genes, erm(B), tet(O), aphA-3, aad-6, and mef(A/E), were significantly more common among Asian than Australasian isolates, and there were significant differences in distribution of AR genes between GBS serotypes. Our mPCR/RLB assay is simple, rapid, and suitable for surveillance of antibiotic resistance in GBS.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Infections by Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus (SGSP) is often underestimated. Herein, the epidemiological features and resistant characteristics of SGSP in mainland China are characterized to enable a better understanding of its role in clinical infections. METHODS:In the present work, 45 SGSP isolates were collected from the samples of bloodstream, urine, aseptic body fluid, and fetal membrane/placenta from patients in 8 tertiary general hospitals of 6 cities/provinces in China from 2011 to 2017. The identification of all isolates was performed using traditional biochemical methods, 16S rRNA and gyrB sequencing, followed by the characterization of their antibiotic resistance profiling and involved genes. RESULTS:Among 34 non-pregnancy-related patients, 4 (4/34,11.8%) patients had gastrointestinal cancer, 10 (10/34, 29.4%) patients had diabetes, and one patient had infective endocarditis. Moreover, 11 cases of pregnant women were associated with intrauterine infection (9/11, 81.2%) and urinary tract infection (1/11, 9.1%), respectively. Except one, all other SGSP isolates were correctly identified by the BD Phoenix automated system. We found that all SGSP isolates were phenotypically susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, cefotaxime, meropenem, and vancomycin. Forty strains (40/45, 88.9%) were both erythromycin and clindamycin-resistant, belonging to the cMLSB phenotype, and the majority of them carried erm(B) gene (39/40, 97.5%). Although the cMLSB/erm(B) constituted the most frequently identified phenotype/genotype combination (25/40, 62.5%) among all erythromycin-resistant cMLSB isolates, erm(B)/erm(A), erm(B)/mef(A/E), and erm(B)/erm(T) was detected in 7, 4, and 3 isolates, respectively. Furthermore, 43 strains (43/45, 95.6%) were tetracycline-resistant, and out of these, 39 strains (39/45, 86.7%) carried tet(L), 27(27/45, 60.0%) strains carried tet(O), and 7 (7/45, 15.6%) strains carried tet(M), alone or combined, respectively. All erythromycin-resistant isolates were also resistant to tetracycline. CONCLUSIONS:It is important to study and draw attention on SGSP, an underreported opportunistic pathogen targeting immunodeficient populations, notably elderly subjects, pregnant women and neonates.
Project description:Diet can affect the diversity and composition of gut microbiota. Usage of antibiotics in food production and in human or veterinary medicine has resulted in the emergence of commensal antibiotic resistant bacteria in the human gut. The incidence of erythromycin-resistant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the feces of healthy vegans, ovo-lacto vegetarians and omnivores was analyzed. Overall, 155 LAB were isolated and characterized for their phenotypic and genotypic resistance to erythromycin. The isolates belonged to 11 different species within the Enterococcus and Streptococcus genera. Enterococcus faecium was the dominant species in isolates from all the dietary categories. Only 97 out of 155 isolates were resistant to erythromycin after Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) determination; among them, 19 isolates (7 from vegans, 4 from ovo-lacto vegetarians and 8 from omnivores) carried the erm(B) gene. The copresence of erm(B) and erm(A) genes was only observed in Enterococcus avium from omnivores. Moreover, the transferability of erythromycin resistance genes using multidrug-resistant (MDR) cultures selected from the three groups was assessed, and four out of six isolates were able to transfer the erm(B) gene. Overall, isolates obtained from the omnivore samples showed resistance to a greater number of antibiotics and carried more tested antibiotic resistance genes compared to the isolates from ovo-lacto vegetarians and vegans. In conclusion, our results show that diet does not significantly affect the occurrence of erythromycin-resistant bacteria and that commensal strains may act as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance (AR) genes and as a source of antibiotic resistance spreading.
Project description:In order to assess antimicrobial resistance in Listeria monocytogenes, 202 food and environmental isolates from 1996 to 2006 were tested. Only four strains displayed acquired resistance. Resistance to erythromycin, tetracycline-minocycline, and trimethoprim was evidenced, and the genes erm(B), tet(M), and dfrD, already found in L. monocytogenes, were detected.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Solithromycin, the fourth generation of ketolides, has been demonstrated potent antibacterial effect against commonly-isolated gram-positive strains. However, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) strains with a higher solithromycin MIC have already been emerged, the mechanism of which is unknown. METHODS:Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed on 266 strains of S. aureus. The antibiotic resistance phenotype of erm-positive strain was determined by D-zone test. Spontaneous mutation frequency analysis was performed to compare the risk levels for solithromycin resistance among different strains. Efflux pumps and mutational analysis of ribosomal fragments as well as erm(B) gene domains were detected. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was conducted to compare the transcriptional expression of the erm gene between the constitutive macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (cMLSB)- and inducible MLSB (iMLSB)-phenotypes. RESULTS:In the erm-positive S. aureus strains, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)50/90 of solithromycin (2/> 16 mg/L) was significantly higher than that in the erm-negative strains (0.125/0.25 mg/L). Of note, the MIC50 value of the strains with iMLSB (0.25 mg/L) was significantly lower than that of the strains with cMLSB (4 mg/L). A comparison among strains demonstrated that the median mutational frequency in isolates with cMLSB (> 1.2 × 10- 4) was approximately > 57-fold and > 3333-fold higher than that in iMLSB strains (2.1 × 10- 6) and in erythromycin-sensitive strains (3.6 × 10- 8), respectively. The differential antibiotic in vitro activity against strains between cMLSB and iMLSB could not be explained by efflux pump carriers or genetic mutations in the test genes. The expression of the erm genes in strains with cMLSB did not differ from that in strains with iMLSB. CONCLUSIONS:The reduced susceptibility to solithromycin by S. aureus was associated with the cMLSB resistance phenotype mediated by erm.
Project description:Transfer of antibiotic resistance genes by conjugation is thought to play an important role in the spread of resistance. Yet virtually no information is available about the extent to which such horizontal transfers occur in natural settings. In this paper, we show that conjugal gene transfer has made a major contribution to increased antibiotic resistance in Bacteroides species, a numerically predominant group of human colonic bacteria. Over the past 3 decades, carriage of the tetracycline resistance gene, tetQ, has increased from about 30% to more than 80% of strains. Alleles of tetQ in different Bacteroides species, with one exception, were 96 to 100% identical at the DNA sequence level, as expected if horizontal gene transfer was responsible for their spread. Southern blot analyses showed further that transfer of tetQ was mediated by a conjugative transposon (CTn) of the CTnDOT type. Carriage of two erythromycin resistance genes, ermF and ermG, rose from <2 to 23% and accounted for about 70% of the total erythromycin resistances observed. Carriage of tetQ and the erm genes was the same in isolates taken from healthy people with no recent history of antibiotic use as in isolates obtained from patients with Bacteroides infections. This finding indicates that resistance transfer is occurring in the community and not just in clinical environments. The high percentage of strains that are carrying these resistance genes in people who are not taking antibiotics is consistent with the hypothesis that once acquired, these resistance genes are stably maintained in the absence of antibiotic selection. Six recently isolated strains carried ermB genes. Two were identical to erm(B)-P from Clostridium perfringens, and the other four had only one to three mismatches. The nine strains with ermG genes had DNA sequences that were more than 99% identical to the ermG of Bacillus sphaericus. Evidently, there is a genetic conduit open between gram-positive bacteria, including bacteria that only pass through the human colon, and the gram-negative Bacteroides species. Our results support the hypothesis that extensive gene transfer occurs among bacteria in the human colon, both within the genus Bacteroides and among Bacteroides species and gram-positive bacteria.