Squalene emulsions for parenteral vaccine and drug delivery.
ABSTRACT: Squalene is a linear triterpene that is extensively utilized as a principal component of parenteral emulsions for drug and vaccine delivery. In this review, the chemical structure and sources of squalene are presented. Moreover, the physicochemical and biological properties of squalene-containing emulsions are evaluated in the context of parenteral formulations. Historical and current parenteral emulsion products containing squalene or squalane are discussed. The safety of squalene-based products is also addressed. Finally, analytical techniques for characterization of squalene emulsions are examined.
Project description:Squalene-based oil-in-water emulsions have been used for years in some seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccines. However, concerns have been expressed regarding squalene source and potential biological activities. Little information is available regarding the immunomodulatory activity of squalene in comparison with other metabolizable oils in the context of oil-in-water emulsions formulated with vaccines. The present work describes the manufacture and physical characterization of emulsions composed of different classes of oils, including squalene, long chain triglycerides, a medium chain triglyceride, and a perfluorocarbon, all emulsified with egg phosphatidylcholine. Some differences were apparent among the non-squalene oils in terms of emulsion stability, including higher size polydispersity in the perfluorocarbon emulsion, more rapid visual instability at 60°C for the long-chain triglyceride and perfluorocarbon emulsions, and an increased creaming rate in the medium-chain triglyceride emulsion at 60°C as detected by laser scattering optical profiling. The biological activity of each of these emulsions was compared when formulated with either a recombinant malaria antigen or a split-virus inactivated influenza vaccine. Overall, vaccines containing the squalene emulsion elicited higher antibody titers and more abundant long-lived plasma cells than vaccines containing emulsions based on other oils. Since squalene-based emulsions show higher adjuvant potency compared to the other oils tested, non-squalene oils may be more suitable as carriers of amphiphilic or hydrophobic immunostimulatory molecules (such as TLR agonists) rather than as stand-alone adjuvants.
Project description:Egg phosphatidylcholine is commonly used as an emulsifier in formulations administered parenterally. However, synthetic phosphatidylcholine (PC) emulsifiers are now widely available and may be desirable substitutes for egg-derived phospholipids due to stability, purity, and material source considerations. In earlier work, we demonstrated that a squalene-1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) emulsion provided equivalent physical stability compared to a squalene-egg PC emulsion. In the present manuscript, we evaluate the physical stability of vaccine adjuvant emulsions containing a range of other synthetic phosphatidylcholine emulsifiers. Besides the POPC emulsion, the 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) emulsion showed good particle size and visual stability compared to emulsions made with other synthetic phospholipids. Moreover, comparable immune responses were elicited by squalene emulsions employing various synthetic PC or egg PC emulsifiers in combination with an inactivated influenza vaccine or a recombinant malaria antigen, and these responses were generally enhanced compared to antigen without adjuvant. Therefore, we show that (1) some synthetic PCs (DMPC, POPC, and to a lesser extent 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) are effective stabilizers of squalene emulsion over a range of storage temperatures while others are not (1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, and 1,2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) and (2) the immunogenicity of stable squalene emulsions is similar regardless of PC source.
Project description:Intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) is a risk of parenteral nutrition (PN)-dependence. Intravenous soybean oil-based parenteral fat can exacerbate the risk of IFALD while intravenous fish oil can minimize its progression, yet the mechanisms by which soybean oil harms and fish oil protects the liver are uncertain. Properties that differentiate soybean and fish oils include ?-tocopherol and phytosterol content. Soybean oil is rich in phytosterols and contains little ?-tocopherol. Fish oil contains abundant ?-tocopherol and little phytosterols. This study tested whether ?-tocopherol confers hepatoprotective properties while phytosterols confer hepatotoxicity to intravenous fat emulsions. Utilizing emulsions formulated in the laboratory, a soybean oil emulsion (SO) failed to protect from hepatosteatosis in mice administered a PN solution enterally. An emulsion of soybean oil containing ?-tocopherol (SO+AT) preserved normal hepatic architecture. A fish oil emulsion (FO) and an emulsion of fish oil containing phytosterols (FO+P) protected from steatosis in this model. Expression of hepatic acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?), was increased in animals administered SO. ACC and PPAR? levels were comparable to chow-fed controls in animals receiving SO+AT, FO, and FO+P. This study suggests a hepatoprotective role for ?-tocopherol in liver injury induced by the enteral administration of a parenteral nutrition solution. Phytosterols do not appear to compromise the hepatoprotective effects of fish oil.
Project description:Home parenteral nutrition (PN) is associated with many complications including severe hepatobiliary dysfunction. Commercial ?-6 fatty acid-soybean based-lipid emulsions in PN may mediate long term PN associate liver disease (PNALD) whereas ?-3-fish oil parenteral emulsions have shown to reverse PNALD in children. However, its clinical effectiveness in adults has been scarcely reported. In this work, we study the role of soybean and fish oil lipid commercial emulsions on inflammatory and profibrotic liver markers in adults with long term PNALD and in in vitro cellular models. Inflammatory and profibrotic markers were measured in serum of ten adults with long term PNALD and in culture supernatants of monocytes. Liver epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) was induced by transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF?1) to evaluate in vitro liver fibrosis. Omegaven®, a 100% fish oil commercial emulsion, was infused during four months in two patients with severe long term PNALD reversing, at the first month, the inflammatory, profibrotic and clinical parameters of PNALD. The effect was maintained during the treatment course but impaired when conventional lipid emulsions were reintroduced. The other patients under chronic soybean oil-based PN showed elevated inflammatory and profibrotic parameters. In vitro human monocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharide induced a strong inflammatory response that was suppressed by Omegaven®, but increased by soybean emulsions. In other experiments, TGF?1 induced EMT that was suppressed by Omegaven® and enhanced by soybean oil lipid emulsions. Omegaven® improves clinical, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic parameters in adults with long-term home PNALD.
Project description:Polyunsaturated fatty acids, sterols, and hydrophilic phenolic compounds are components of flax oil that act as antioxidants. We investigated the impact of flax oil from transgenic flax in the form of emulsions on stressed Chinese hamster pulmonary fibroblasts. We found that the emulsions protect V79 cells against the H2O2 and the effect is dose dependent. They reduced the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species and protected genomic DNA against damage. The rate of cell proliferation increased upon treatment with the emulsions at a low concentration, while at a high concentration it decreased significantly, accompanied by increased frequency of apoptotic cell death. Expression analysis of selected genes revealed the upregulatory impact of the emulsions on the histones, acetylases, and deacetylases. Expression of apoptotic, proinflammatory, and anti-inflammatory genes was also altered. It is thus suggested that flax oil emulsions might be useful as a basis for biomedical products that actively protect cells against inflammation and degeneration. The beneficial effect on fibroblast resistance to oxidative damage was superior in the emulsion made of oil from transgenic plants which was correlated with the quantity of antioxidants and squalene. The emulsions from transgenic flax are promising candidates for skin protection against oxidative damage.
Project description:Traditionally, lipids used in parenteral nutrition (PN) are based on ?-6 fatty acid-rich vegetable oils, such as soybean oil, with potential adverse effects involving oxidative stress.We evaluated the antioxidant defense system in children, after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), who were randomized to use a lipid emulsion with fish oil or soybean oil. Blood samples at baseline, at 10 days, and at the end of the PN were taken to analyze plasma retinol, ?-tocopherol, ?-carotene, coenzyme Q9 and coenzyme Q10 levels, and catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPOX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in lysed erythrocytes.An increase in plasma ?-tocopherol levels in the group of patients receiving the fish oil-containing emulsion (FO) compared with the group receiving the soybean emulsion was observed at day 10 of PN. Concurrently, plasma ?-tocopherol increased in the FO group and ?-carotene decreased in both groups at day 10 compared with baseline levels, being more significant in the group receiving the FO emulsion.FO-containing emulsions in PN could improve the antioxidant profile by increasing levels of ?-tocopherol in children after HSCT who are at higher risk of suffering oxidative stress and metabolic disorders.
Project description:Nanoscale emulsions are essential components in numerous products, ranging from processed foods to novel drug delivery systems. Existing emulsification methods rely either on the breakup of larger droplets or solvent exchange/inversion. Here we report a simple, scalable method of creating nanoscale water-in-oil emulsions by condensing water vapor onto a subcooled oil-surfactant solution. Our technique enables a bottom-up approach to forming small-scale emulsions. Nanoscale water droplets nucleate at the oil/air interface and spontaneously disperse within the oil, due to the spreading dynamics of oil on water. Oil-soluble surfactants stabilize the resulting emulsions. We find that the oil-surfactant concentration controls the spreading behavior of oil on water, as well as the peak size, polydispersity, and stability of the resulting emulsions. Using condensation, we form emulsions with peak radii around 100?nm and polydispersities around 10%. This emulsion formation technique may open different routes to creating emulsions, colloidal systems, and emulsion-based materials.
Project description:?-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids contained in fish oils (FO) possess major anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunologic properties that could be beneficial during critical illness. We hypothesized that parenteral FO-containing emulsions may improve clinical outcomes in the critically ill.We searched computerized databases from 1980-2012. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted in critically ill adult patients that evaluated FO-containing emulsions, either in the context of parenteral nutrition (PN) or enteral nutrition (EN).A total of 6 RCTs (n = 390 patients) were included; the mean methodological score of all trials was 10 (range, 6-13). When the results of these studies were aggregated, FO-containing emulsions were associated with a trend toward a reduction in mortality (risk ratio [RR], 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.49-1.04; P = .08; heterogeneity I (2) = 0%) and a reduction in the duration of mechanical ventilation (weighted mean difference in days [WMD], -1.41; 95% CI, -3.43 to 0.61; P = .17). However, this strategy had no effect on infections (RR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.42-1.36; P = .35) and intensive care unit length of stay (WMD, -0.46; 95% CI, -4.87 to 3.95; P = .84, heterogeneity I (2) = 75%).FO-containing lipid emulsions may be able to decrease mortality and ventilation days in the critically ill. However, because of the paucity of clinical data, there is inadequate evidence to recommend the routine use of parenteral FO. Large, rigorously designed RCTs are required to elucidate the efficacy of parenteral FO in the critically ill.
Project description:Though lubricant emulsions have been widely used in many industrial processes, various human health hazards have been reported. Conducting a systematic toxicity study on emulsions is difficult since emulsions contain multiple chemical compounds, and hydrophobic compounds form complex emulsion particles via surfactants. For a quantitative toxicity study, we developed a high-throughput imaging system using zebrafish and conducted a large scale in vivo toxicity assay of lubricant emulsion and their common ingredients. By computing the locomotion activity of zebrafish from captured time-lapse images, we could quantify the degree of relative toxicity of 29 chemicals. The changes in the locomotion activity over time were observed to vary significantly depending on emulsions, indicating that the degree of toxicity of the commercial products was very diverse. We found that primary ethanolamines were more toxic than secondary or tertiary ethanolamines, and several factors, such as alkyl chain length, EO mole, test concentration, and emulsion particle size, affected toxicity.
Project description:Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is associated with the development of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) in infants. Fish oil-based lipid emulsions can reverse PNALD, yet it is unknown if they can prevent PNALD. We studied preterm pigs administered TPN for 14 days with either 100% soybean oil (IL), 100% fish oil (OV), or a mixture of soybean oil, medium chain triglycerides (MCTs), olive oil, and fish oil (SL); a group was fed formula enterally (ENT). In TPN-fed pigs, serum direct bilirubin, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), and plasma bile acids increased after the 14 day treatment but were highest in IL pigs. All TPN pigs had suppressed hepatic expression of farnesoid X receptor (FXR), cholesterol 7-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), and plasma 7?-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4) concentrations, yet hepatic CYP7A1 protein abundance was increased only in the IL versus ENT group. Organic solute transporter alpha (OST?) gene expression was the highest in the IL group and paralleled plasma bile acid levels. In cultured hepatocytes, bile acid-induced bile salt export pump (BSEP) expression was inhibited by phytosterol treatment. We show that TPN-fed pigs given soybean oil developed cholestasis and steatosis that was prevented with both OV and SL emulsions. Due to the presence of phytosterols in the SL emulsion, the differences in cholestasis and liver injury among lipid emulsion groups in vivo were weakly correlated with plasma and hepatic phytosterol content.