Proposed biosimilar pegfilgrastim shows similarity in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics to reference pegfilgrastim in healthy subjects.
ABSTRACT: AIMS:This study aimed to demonstrate that the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) profile of Sandoz proposed biosimilar pegfilgrastim (LA-EP2006) matches reference pegfilgrastim (Neulasta® ) in healthy subjects. Safety and immunogenicity were also assessed. METHODS:The phase I, randomized, double-blind, two-period crossover study consisted of two treatment periods separated by an 8-week washout period. Healthy subjects aged 18-45 were randomized to either proposed biosimilar/reference pegfilgrastim or reference pegfilgrastim/proposed biosimilar. Proposed biosimilar and reference pegfilgrastim were administered on Day 1 of each treatment period (single 6 mg subcutaneous injection). Blood samples for PK/PD analysis were taken predose and ?336 h postdose. PK/PD similarity was claimed if 90% (PK) and 95% (PD) confidence intervals (CI) for geometric mean ratios of the area under the serum concentration-time curve (AUC) from time of dosing and extrapolated to infinity (AUC0-inf ), or to the last measurable concentration (AUC0-last ), maximum observed serum concentration (Cmax ), absolute neutrophil count (ANC) area under the effect curve from the time of dosing to the last measurable concentration (AUEC0-last ) and ANC maximum effect attributable to the therapy under investigation (Emax ) were completely contained within the predefined margin (0.8 to 1.25). RESULTS:Overall, 169 subjects completed the study. PK/PD similarity was demonstrated; 90% CIs of geometric mean ratio of proposed biosimilar/reference for PK: AUC0-inf (1.0559-1.2244), AUC0-last (1.0607-1.2328), Cmax (1.0312-1.1909) and 95% CIs for PD (ANC): AUEC0-last (0.9948-1.0366), Emax (0.9737-1.0169) were completely contained within predefined margin of 0.8 to 1.25. Both biologics had similar safety profiles, were well tolerated and had low incidence of anti-drug antibodies. No neutralizing or clinically relevant antibodies were detected. CONCLUSIONS:PK/PD similarity of Sandoz proposed biosimilar pegfilgrastim and reference pegfilgrastim was confirmed. No clinically meaningful differences in safety, tolerability and immunogenicity were observed in healthy subjects.
Project description:A phase 1 pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) study was conducted to demonstrate similarity of a proposed pegfilgrastim biosimilar to its reference product. In a single-dose, randomized, assessor-blinded, 2-way crossover, active-controlled PK/PD study, 66 healthy adults received the proposed pegfilgrastim biosimilar and US-licensed pegfilgrastim reference product. Primary end points were pegfilgrastim AUCt and Cmax (PK), and absolute neutrophil count AUECt and Emax (PD). Safety and immunogenicity were also measured. Fifty-six subjects completed both arms of the study. Mean pegfilgrastim concentration-time profile for both products was similar, with the 90% confidence intervals (CI) of the relative mean ratio for the primary end points falling within the predefined acceptance criteria of 80%-125% (91.7%-116.1% and 86.7%-110.2% for AUCt and Cmax , respectively). PD similarity was also demonstrated by the 95%CI of the relative mean ratio of the primary end point parameters within the predefined acceptance margins of 80%-125% (96.0%-101.6% and 92.6%-100.1% for AUECt and Emax , respectively). No statistically meaningful PK/PD differences were observed. No clinically meaningful safety or immunological differences were observed with the proposed pegfilgrastim biosimilar that were not previously identified with the reference product. The proposed pegfilgrastim biosimilar product is highly similar to the reference product with regard to PK/PD.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:PF-06881894 is a proposed biosimilar to pegfilgrastim (Neulasta®). This study evaluated the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic (PD/PK) equivalence, immunogenicity, and safety of PF-06881894 vs pegfilgrastim reference products (US- and EU-Neulasta®) in healthy volunteers. METHODS:A phase 1, open-label, randomized, crossover study was conducted to assess the pharmacologic equivalence and safety of a single 6-mg dose of PF-06881894, pegfilgrastim-US, and pegfilgrastim-EU. The primary PD endpoints were area under the effect-versus-time curve for absolute neutrophil count (ANC) from dose administration to 288 h postdose, and maximum observed ANC value among subjects confirmed negative for anti-pegfilgrastim antibodies. Primary PK variables included area under the serum pegfilgrastim-versus-time curve from the time of dose administration to time infinity and maximum observed serum pegfilgrastim concentration. A second phase 1, open-label, randomized (1:1), parallel-group, non-inferiority study was conducted to assess the immunogenicity and safety of multiple 6-mg doses of PF-06881894 versus pegfilgrastim-US. The primary endpoint for the immunogenicity study was the proportion of subjects with both negative baseline and confirmed positive postdose anti-pegfilgrastim antibodies at any time during the study. RESULTS:Across the single- and multiple-dose studies (N?=?153 and N?=?420 treated subjects, respectively), demographics for age (18-65 years), male gender (n?=?264/573), and white race (n?=?423/573) were similar. Three-way PD/PK equivalence of PF-06881894, pegfilgrastim-US, and pegfilgrastim-EU was demonstrated with the primary PD endpoints and primary PK variables being completely contained within the predefined 90% confidence interval acceptance limits (80-125%). The non-inferiority of PF-06881894 versus pegfilgrastim-US in terms of immunogenicity was established according to the prespecified non-inferiority margin (?10%). Overall, there were no clinically meaningful differences in safety profiles among or between study groups. CONCLUSIONS:Single-dose PF-06881894 demonstrated PD/PK equivalence and comparable safety with US- and EU-pegfilgrastim reference products. Multiple-dose PF-06881894 demonstrated immunogenicity non-inferiority to pegfilgrastim-US with comparable safety. Both studies contributed to the totality of evidence supporting biosimilarity. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT02629289; NCT03273842 (C1221005).
Project description:AIMS:Recombinant PEGylated human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (pegfilgrastim) is indicated for the reduction of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and prevention of febrile neutropenia. Biosimilar pegfilgrastim is expected to reduce the financial burden of this complication of chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to demonstrate biosimilarity between Sandoz biosimilar pegfilgrastim and its US- and EU-approved reference biologics. METHODS:Phase I, randomized, double-blind, single-dose, 3-period, 6-sequence cross-over, multicentre study to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, safety and immunogenicity of Sandoz biosimilar pegfilgrastim with US- and EU-references in healthy adults. RESULTS:Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic similarity was demonstrated between the 3 biologics, as the 90% confidence interval for all primary pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic endpoint comparisons were contained within the predefined similarity margins of 0.80-1.25. Safety, immunogenicity and tolerability were also similar. CONCLUSIONS:Sandoz biosimilar pegfilgrastim demonstrated pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic similarity to both US- and EU-reference biologics. No meaningful differences in safety, local tolerability and immunogenicity were identified.
Project description:Background:Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia is a common result of myelosuppressive chemotherapy treatment. Infections such as febrile neutropenia (FN) are sensitive to the duration of neutropenia as well as the depth of absolute neutrophil count (ANC) at nadir. Filgrastim, a granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), can stimulate the function of mature neutrophils. Pegfilgrastim, a long-acting form of filgrastim, has been shown to reduce FN to a greater extent compared to filgrastim. G-CSF agents have been recommended for prophylactic administration with chemotherapy. Apotex developed a proposed pegfilgrastim biosimilar. This study was conducted to confirm that no clinically meaningful efficacy or safety differences exist between Apotex's proposed biosimilar and its reference product. Methods:589 breast cancer patients were randomized and dosed with the proposed pegfilgrastim biosimilar, US-licensed pegfilgrastim reference product, or EU-approved pegfilgrastim reference product. The primary endpoint assessed was the duration of severe neutropenia (DSN) and secondary endpoints included rate of FN and ANC nadir. Results:Data showed that the mean DSN, the primary endpoint measured, was comparable across all three treatments. The As Treated arm had a 95% confidence interval within the equivalence range for the proposed pegfilgrastim biosimilar with the US-licensed and EU-approved pegfilgrastim reference products. Secondary endpoints, which included depth and peak of ANC nadir, time to ANC recovery post-nadir and rates of FN, also showed similarity between the three different treatment groups. The adverse event incidence was similar across treatment arms and there were no unexpected safety events. Conclusions:Overall, these results show that the proposed pegfilgrastim biosimilar is similar to Amgen's US-licensed and EU-approved pegfilgrastim reference products with regard to the clinical efficacy and safety endpoints assessed.Trial registration EMA: European Union Clinical Trials Register: (https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/search?query=eudract_number:2011-002678-21) Eudract # 2011-002678-21 Registered: 01/10/2012.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The aims were to demonstrate pharmacokinetic (PK) similarity between DRL_RI, a proposed rituximab biosimilar, and two reference innovator products (Rituxan® [RTX-US] and MabThera® [RTX-EU]) and compare their pharmacodynamics (PD), efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with inadequate response to methotrexate (MTX)-based therapy and no prior biologic administration. METHODS:In this randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study, 276 patients with moderate-to-severe active RA were randomized to receive DRL_RI, RTX-US, or RTX-EU on days 1 and 15. The primary PK end points included area under the concentration-time curve from time 0 to 336 h after first infusion (AUC0-14 days, first infusion), AUC from day 1 through week 16 (AUC0-?, entire course), and AUC from time 0 to time of last quantifiable concentration after the second dose (AUC0-t, second infusion). Secondary end points included other PK parameters, such as maximum concentration (Cmax), time to Cmax after each infusion, terminal half-life, systemic clearance, and volume of distribution after the second infusion; PD parameters and efficacy until week 24; safety and immunogenicity at week 24 and 52; and B cell recovery until week 52. AUC from time 0 to time of last quantifiable concentration after the first dose and over the entire course from day 1 through week 16 (AUC0-t, entire course) was analyzed as an exploratory end point. RESULTS:The 91% confidence intervals (CIs) of the geometric mean ratios (GMRs) for the primary end point of AUC0-?, entire course were within the bioequivalence limits of 80-125% for all comparisons: DRL_RI versus RTX-US 100.37% (92.30-109.14), DRL_RI versus RTX-EU 93.58% (85.98-101.85), and RTX-US versus RTX-EU 93.24% (85.62-101.54). PD outcomes (peripheral blood B-cell depletion and mean change in Disease Activity Score [28 joints]-C-reactive protein), efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity were also comparable between DRL_RI and the reference products. CONCLUSION:DRL_RI, a proposed biosimilar, demonstrated three-way PK similarity with RTX-EU and RTX-US, the reference innovator products, with comparable efficacy, PD, safety, and immunogenicity. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION NUMBER:ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02296775.
Project description:Pegfilgrastim is indicated for reducing the duration of neutropenia and incidence of febrile neutropenia in patients receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy. Here, safety and efficacy of MYL-1401H, a proposed pegfilgrastim biosimilar, were investigated as prophylaxis for chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. This was a phase 3, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group equivalence trial of MYL-1401H vs European Union-sourced reference pegfilgrastim. Patients with newly diagnosed stage II/III breast cancer eligible to receive (neo) adjuvant chemotherapy with docetaxel/doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide every 3 weeks for 6 cycles were enrolled and randomized 2:1 to 6 mg of MYL-1401H or reference pegfilgrastim 24 h (+?2-h window after the first 24 h) after the end of chemotherapy. The primary efficacy endpoint was the duration of severe neutropenia in cycle 1 (i.e., days with absolute neutrophil count (ANC) <?0.5?×?109/L). Mean (standard deviation (SD)) duration of severe neutropenia in MYL-1401H and reference pegfilgrastim groups was 1.2 days (0.93) and 1.2 days (1.10), respectively. The 95% CI for least squares mean difference (-?0.285, 0.298) was within the predefined equivalence range of ±?1 day. Secondary endpoints, including grade ??3 neutropenia (frequency, 91% and 82% for MYL-1401H and reference pegfilgrastim, respectively), time to ANC nadir (mean (SD), 6.2 (0.98) and 6.3 (1.57) days), and duration of post-nadir recovery (mean (SD), 1.9 (0.85) and 1.7 (0.91) days) were comparable. Overall safety profiles of the study drugs were comparable. MYL-1401H demonstrated equivalent efficacy and similar safety to reference pegfilgrastim and may be an equivalent option for reducing incidence of neutropenia. ( ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT02467868; EudraCT, 2014-002324-27).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Treatment with recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is accepted standard for prevention of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. RGB-02 (Gedeon Richter) is a proposed biosimilar to pegylated G-CSF (Neulasta®, Amgen) with sustained release properties. This is a randomized, comparative, double-blind, multicenter study to evaluate efficacy and safety of RGB-02 in breast cancer patients receiving cytotoxic regimen. METHODS:Two hundred thirty-nine women presenting with breast cancer were randomized to RGB-02 (n?=?121) and the reference product (n?=?118). All patients received up to 6?cycles of docetaxel/doxorubicin chemotherapy combination and a once-per-cycle injection of a fixed 6?mg dose of pegfilgrastim. Primary endpoint was the duration of severe neutropenia (ANC?<?0.5?×?109/L) in Cycle 1 (2-sided CI 95%). Secondary endpoints included incidence and duration of severe neutropenia (in cycles 2-4), incidence of febrile neutropenia, time to ANC recovery, depth of ANC nadir, and safety outcomes. RESULTS:The mean duration of severe neutropenia in Cycle 1 was 1.7 (RGB-02) and 1.6?days (reference), with a difference (LS Mean) of 0.1?days (95% CI -0.2, 0.4). Equivalence could be established as the CI for the difference in LS Mean lay entirely within the pre-defined range of ±1?day. This positive result was supported by the analysis of secondary endpoints, which also revealed no clinical meaningful differences. Safety profiles were comparable between groups. No neutralizing antibodies against pegfilgrastim were identified. CONCLUSIONS:Treatment equivalence in reducing the duration of chemotherapy induced neutropenia between RGB-02 and Neulasta® could be demonstrated. Similar efficacy and safety profiles of the once-per-cycle administration of RGB-02 and the pegfilgrastim reference were demonstrated. TRIAL REGISTRATION:The trial was registered prospectively, prior to study initiation. EudraCT number ( 2013-003166-14 ). The date of registration was 12 July, 2013.
Project description:Objective:This study was conducted to explore the tolerance, variability, pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamics (PD) of denosumab biosimilar (QL1206) in healthy Chinese subjects. Methods:This is a randomized, double-blind, two-arm, parallel study performed to examine the bioequivalence of denosumab biosimilar, QL1206, with that of Xgeva® (Denosumab) as a reference drug. A single dose of 120 mg/kg of the denosumab biosimilar or Xgeva® was administered to the subjects, who were followed up for 134 days. Results:Similar PK properties as those of Xgeva® were exhibited by QL1206. When compared to QL1206 with Xgeva®, the 90% confidence intervals of the ratios for Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-? were observed to be within 80-125%. The inter-subject variability (inter-CV) ranged from 29% to 39.5%. Six and three subjects in the QL1206 and Xgeva® groups were found to be positive for the ADA and negative for the NAb, respectively. The CTX1 concentration-time profiles appeared similar (about 80% decrease from 48 hours to134 days) between the QL1206 and Xgeva® groups. Adverse events (AEs) were observed in 92.6% and 93.4% of subjects in the QL1206 and Xgeva® groups, respectively. Reduction in blood calcium level was found to be the most common AE recorded, with an incidence of 72.8% versus 72.4% in the QL1206 and Xgeva® groups, respectively. Conclusion:Similar PK and PD characteristics were exhibited by QL1206 as compared to those of Xgeva®. The inter-CV was slightly large. The safety profiles of denosumab biosimilars and Xgeva® were found to be similar.
Project description:Background:Following the functional and physicochemical characterization of a proposed biosimilar, comparative clinical studies help to confirm biosimilarity by demonstrating similar safety and efficacy to the reference product in a sensitive patient population. Patients and methods:LA-EP2006 is a proposed biosimilar that has been developed for pegfilgrastim, a long-acting form of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for the prevention of neutropenia. The current analysis reports data pooled from two independent, multinational, prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind phase III studies of similar design comparing the safety and efficacy of reference pegfilgrastim with LA-EP2006 in patients with breast cancer receiving myelotoxic (neo)adjuvant TAC (docetaxel, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide) chemotherapy and requiring granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Results:A total of 624 patients were randomized in the PROTECT-1 and PROTECT-2 studies (NCT01735175; NCT01516736) (LA-EP2006: n?=?314; reference: n?=?310). Baseline characteristics of patients were well balanced across treatment groups. The primary end point, mean duration of severe neutropenia in the first chemotherapy cycle was similar in both the LA-EP2006 and reference groups (1.05?±?1.055 days versus 1.01?±?0.958 days), with a treatment difference of?-?0.04 days [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.19 to 0.11] that met the equivalence criteria (the 95% CI were within the defined margin of?±1?day). Secondary end points, such as the nadir of absolute neutrophil count and the incidence of febrile neutropenia, were also similar between LA-EP2006 and reference pegfilgrastim. The safety and tolerability profile of LA-EP2006 was similar to that observed with reference pegfilgrastim, and there were no reports of neutralizing antibodies. Conclusions:This pooled analysis confirms, as a part of totality of evidence approach, that the proposed biosimilar pegfilgrastim LA-EP2006 has a comparable efficacy and safety profile to reference pegfilgrastim in patients with breast cancer receiving TAC chemotherapy. Clinical trial numbers:NCT01735175 and NCT01516736.
Project description:Pegfilgrastim is widely used for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. In highly regulated markets, there are currently no approved biosimilars of pegfilgrastim. Pegfilgrastim Randomized Oncology (Supportive Care) Trial to Evaluate Comparative Treatment (PROTECT-2) was a confirmatory efficacy and safety study designed to compare proposed biosimilar LA-EP2006 with reference pegfilgrastim (Neulasta, Amgen) in early-stage breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant or neoadjuvant myelosuppressive chemotherapy.A total of 308 patients were randomized to LA-EP2006 or reference pegfilgrastim. Each patient received TAC (intravenous docetaxel 75 mg/m(2), doxorubicin 50 mg/m(2), and cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m(2)) on day 1 of each cycle, for six or more cycles. Pegfilgrastim (LA-EP2006 or reference) was given subcutaneously (6 mg in 0.6 mL) on day 2 of each cycle. The primary endpoint was duration of severe neutropenia (DSN) during cycle 1 (number of consecutive days with an absolute neutrophil count <0.5 × 10(9)/L), with equivalence confirmed if 90% and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were within a 1-day margin.Baseline characteristics were well balanced. DSN was equivalent between groups at mean ± SD 1.36 ± 1.13 (LA-EP2006, n = 155) and 1.19 ± 0.98 (reference, n = 153) in cycle 1. With a treatment difference (reference minus LA-EP2006) of -0.16 days (90% CI -0.36 to 0.04; 95% CI -0.40 to 0.08), LA-EP2006 was equivalent to reference pegfilgrastim. Secondary efficacy parameters were similar between groups during cycle 1 and across cycles. Safety profiles were also similar between groups. No neutralizing antibodies against pegfilgrastim, filgrastim, or polyethylene glycol were detected.LA-EP2006 and reference pegfilgrastim were therapeutically equivalent and comparable regarding efficacy and safety in the prevention of neutropenia in patients with early-stage breast cancer receiving TAC.The granulocyte colony-stimulating factor pegfilgrastim is widely used for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. Biosimilars are biologics with similar quality, safety, and efficacy to a reference product that may increase the affordability of treatment compared with their reference compounds. There are currently no approved biosimilars of pegfilgrastim in highly regulated markets. No previous phase III studies have been performed with LA-EP2006. PROTECT-2 was conducted to confirm the similarity of the proposed biosimilar LA-EP2006 to pegfilgrastim. Biosimilar pegfilgrastim (LA-EP2006) may benefit oncology patients by offering increased access to biological treatments that may improve clinical outcomes. This means that patients could potentially be treated prophylactically with biologics rather than only after complications have occurred.