Persistent Occurrence of Cryptosporidium hominis and Giardia duodenalis Subtypes in a Welfare Institute.
ABSTRACT: Few data are available on the transmission dynamics of intestinal protozoa in children in welfare institutes. In this study, fecal specimens were collected from 396 children in a welfare institute in Shanghai, China during December 2011 (207 specimens), June 2012 (78 specimens), and September 2013 (111 specimens), and examined for Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi by PCR analysis of the small subunit rRNA, triosephosphate isomerase, and internal transcribed spacer genes, respectively. The Cryptosporidium hominis and G. duodenalis assemblage A identified were further subtyped by multilocus sequence typing. Altogether, Cryptosporidium was detected in 39 (9.8%) children, with infection rates of 11.6% (24/207), 9.0% (7/78), and 7.2% (8/111) in December 2011, June 2012, and September 2013, respectively. Infection rates were higher in children of 0-12 months (20.4% compared to 0-7.3% in other age groups, P = 0.0001) and those with diarrhea (17.9% compared to 7.7% in those with no diarrhea, P = 0.006). In contrast, G. duodenalis was detected in 161/396 (40.7%), with infection rates of 48.3% (100/207), 35.9% (28/78), and 29.7% (33/111) in December 2011, June 2012, and September 2013, respectively. There were no significant gender- or diarrhea-associated differences, but the G. duodenalis infection rate in children of 13-24 months (50%) was significantly higher than in the age groups of 0-12 months and > 48 months (29.8-36.5%, P = 0.021). Co-infection of Cryptosporidium and G. duodenalis was seen in 19 (4.8%) children, but no E. bieneusi infection was detected in this study. All Cryptosporidium-positive specimens belonged to the subtype IaA14R4 of C. hominis, while all G. duodenalis-positive specimens belonged to sub-assemblage AII. Both were the same subtypes in a previous outbreak of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis in a hospital ward hosting children from the welfare institute. Results of the study indicate that there was a persistent occurrence of limited C. hominis and G. duodenalis subtypes in the small enclosed community, with differences in age distribution and association with diarrhea occurrence between cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The transmission of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis into humans varies according to species/genotypes of the pathogens. Although infections with both parasites are recorded in Egypt, few data are available on the distribution of Cryptosporidium species and G. duodenalis genotypes. The present study assessed the occurrence and genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis in Egyptian children. METHODS:In the present study, 585 fecal specimens were collected from children eight years old and younger in three provinces (El-Dakahlia, El-Gharbia and Damietta) during March 2015 to April 2016. PCR-RFLP analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene and sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein gene were used to detect and subtype Cryptosporidium spp., respectively, whereas PCR and sequence analyses of the triose phosphate isomerase, glutamate dehydrogenase and ?-giardin genes were used to detect and genotype Giardia duodenalis. RESULTS:The overall infection rates of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis were 1.4% and 11.3%, respectively. The Cryptosporidium species identified included C. hominis and C. parvum, each with three subtype families. The C. hominis subtypes were IbA6G3 (n = 2), IdA17 (n = 1), IdA24 (n = 1) and IfA14G1R5 (n = 1), while C. parvum subtypes were IIdA20G1 (n = 1), IIaA15G2R1 (n = 1), and IIcA5G3a (n = 1). The G. duodenalis identified included both assemblages A (n = 31) and B (n = 34). All G. duodenalis assemblage A belonged to the anthroponotic sub-assemblage AII, while a high genetic heterogeneity was seen within assemblage B. CONCLUSIONS:Data from this study are useful in our understanding of the genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis in Egypt and the potential importance of anthroponotic transmission in the epidemiology of both pathogens.
Project description:Pediatric diarrhea is a common cause of death among children under 5 years of age. In the current study, we investigated the frequency of intestinal parasites among 580 pediatric patients with chronic diarrhea. Parasitic protozoa (all species combined) were detected by molecular tools in 22.9% of the children and the most common parasite was Cryptosporidium spp. (15.1%). Blastocystis hominis was detected in 4.7%, Dientamoeba fragilis in 4%, Giardia duodenalis in 1.7%, and Entamoeba histolytica in 0.17%. Protozoan infections were observed among all regional groups, but prevalence was highest among Qatari subjects and during the winter season. Typing of Cryptosporidium spp. revealed a predominance of Cryptosporidium parvum in 92% of cases with mostly the IIdA20G1 subtype. Subtypes IIdA19G2, IIdA18G2, IIdA18G1, IIdA17G1, IIdA16G1, and IIdA14G1 were also detected. For Cryptosporidium hominis, IbA10G2 and IbA9G3 subtypes were identified. This study provides supplementary information for implementing prevention and control strategies to reduce the burden of these pediatric protozoan infections. Further analyses are required to better understand the local epidemiology and transmission of Cryptosporidium spp. in Qatar.
Project description:To determine whether clinical manifestations are associated with genotypes or subtypes of Cryptosporidium spp., we studied a 4-year longitudinal birth cohort of 533 children in Peru. A total of 156 infection episodes were found in 109 children. Data from first infections showed that C. hominis was associated with diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, general malaise, and increased oocyst shedding intensity and duration. In contrast, C. parvum, C. meleagridis, C. canis, and C. felis were associated with diarrhea only. C. hominis subtype families were identified (Ia, Ib, Id, and Ie); all were associated with diarrhea. Ib was also associated with nausea, vomiting, and general malaise. All C. parvum specimens belonged to subtype family IIc. Analysis of risk factors did not show associations with specific Cryptosporidium spp. genotypes or subtypes. These findings strongly suggest that Cryptosporidium spp. and subtypes are linked to different clinical manifestations in children.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>In a prospective study, 498 single faecal samples from children aged under 16 years attending an outpatient clinic in the Angkor Hospital for Children, northwest Cambodia, were examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts using microscopy and molecular assays.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 2.2% (11/498) of samples using microscopy and in 7.7% (38/498) with molecular tests. Giardia duodenalis cysts were detected in 18.9% (94/498) by microscopy and 27.7% (138/498) by molecular tests; 82% of the positive samples (by either method) were from children aged 1-10 years. Cryptosporidium hominis was the most common species of Cryptosporidium, detected in 13 (34.2%) samples, followed by Cryptosporidium meleagridis in 9 (23.7%), Cryptosporidium parvum in 8 (21.1%), Cryptosporidium canis in 5 (13.2%), and Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium ubiquitum in one sample each. Cryptosporidium hominis and C. parvum positive samples were subtyped by sequencing the GP60 gene: C. hominis IaA16R6 and C. parvum IIeA7G1 were the most abundant subtypes. Giardia duodenalis was typed using a multiplex real-time PCR targeting assemblages A and B. Assemblage B (106; 76.8% of all Giardia positive samples) was most common followed by A (12.3%) and mixed infections (5.1%). Risk factors associated with Cryptosporidium were malnutrition (AOR 9.63, 95% CI 1.67-55.46), chronic medical diagnoses (AOR 4.51, 95% CI 1.79-11.34) and the presence of birds in the household (AOR 2.99, 95% CI 1.16-7.73); specifically C. hominis (p = 0.03) and C. meleagridis (p<0.001) were associated with the presence of birds. The use of soap was protective against Giardia infection (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.58-0.95).<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>This is the first report to describe the different Cryptosporidium species and subtypes and Giardia duodenalis assemblages in Cambodian children. The variety of Cryptosporidium species detected indicates both anthroponotic and zoonotic transmission in this population. Interventions to improve sanitation, increase hand washing after defecation and before preparing food and promote drinking boiled water may reduce the burden of these two parasites.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Although enteroparasites are common causes of diarrheal illness, few studies have been performed among children in Tanzania. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia among young children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and identify risk factors for infection.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>We performed an unmatched case-control study among children < 2 years of age in Dar es Salaam, recruited from August 2010 to July 2011. Detection and identification of protozoans were done by PCR techniques on DNA from stool specimens from 701 cases of children admitted due to diarrhea at the three study hospitals, and 558 controls of children with no history of diarrhea during the last month prior to enrollment. The prevalence of C. parvum/hominis was 10.4% (84.7% C. hominis), and that of G. lamblia 4.6%. E. histolytica was not detected. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium was significantly higher in cases (16.3%) than in controls (3.1%; P < 0.001; OR = 6.2; 95% CI: 3.7-10.4). G. lamblia was significantly more prevalent in controls (6.1%) than in cases (3.4%; P = 0.027; OR = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.1-3.1). Cryptosporidium infection was found more often in HIV-positive (24.2%) than in HIV-negative children (3.9%; P < 0.001; OR = 7.9; 95% CI: 3.1-20.5), and was also associated with rainfall (P < 0.001; OR = 2.41; 95% CI: 1.5-3.8). Among cases, stunted children had significantly higher risk of being infected with Cryptosporidium (P = 0.011; OR = 2.12; 95% CI: 1.2-3.8). G. lamblia infection was more prevalent in the cool season (P = 0.004; OR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3-3.8), and more frequent among cases aged > 12 months (P = 0.003; OR = 3.5; 95% CI: 1.5-7.8). Among children aged 7-12 months, those who were breastfed had lower prevalence of G. lamblia infection than those who had been weaned (P = 0.012).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Cryptosporidium infection is common among young Tanzanian children with diarrhea, particularly those living with HIV, and infection is more frequent during the rainy season. G. lamblia is frequently implicated in asymptomatic infections, but rarely causes overt diarrheal illness, and its prevalence increases with age.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Giardia and Cryptosporidium are the most common causes of protozoan diarrhea that lead to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium species infections among children and cattle, and to assess the potential risk of zoonotic transmission. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted between January and April 2009 in Girar Jarso and Dera Districts of North Shewa Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia. A total of 768 stool specimens were collected and examined for intestinal parasites using direct wet mount with saline and formalin ether concentration methods. The modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining method was used for the detection of Cryptosporidium species. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software version 15. RESULTS: Out of 384 children examined, 53 (13.8%) and 28 (7.3%) were positive for Giardia and Cryptosporidium infections, respectively. Similarly, of the total 384 cattle examined, 9 (2.3%) were positive for Giardia duodenalis and 30 (7.8%) were positive for Cryptosporidium infection. The prevalence of giardiasis was significantly higher among children who had close contact with cattle 33 (18.7%) compared to children who had no contact with cattle 20 (9.6%) (P?<?0.05). Higher number of Cryptosporidium infection was also recorded in children who had close contact with cattle 15 (8.5%). Difference in prevalence of giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis among children was not statistically significant between males and females. On the other hand, difference in the prevalence of giardiasis among children was statistically significant between age groups. CONCLUSIONS: Higher prevalence of Giardia duodenalis infection detected among children was significantly associated with contact with cattle and manure that the children had. Further analysis using molecular techniques is needed to explain the existence of zoonotic transmission in the study area.
Project description:This study aims at evaluating the performances of the multiplex PCR AllplexTM Gastrointestinal Panel-Parasite Assay (GIPPA), which detects G. duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., E. histolytica, D. fragilis, B. hominis, and C. cayetanensis, by comparison to microscopy. A retrospective evaluation was conducted on a series of positive clinical samples (n = 99) stored at -80 °C or at +4 °C. A five-month prospective study was then conducted on all samples sent to our lab for parasite detection (n = 586). In the retrospective cohort, sensitivity was 81% for both G. duodenalis (26/32) and D. fragilis (21/26) and 100% for Cryptosporidium spp. (26/26, including 6 different species), B. hominis (26/26), and C. cayetanensis (4/4). During the prospective study, 95 samples were positive by microscopy and 207 by multiplex PCR assay. The molecular assay showed a significantly higher sensitivity of PCR, especially for G. duodenalis (100% vs. 60.7%, p < 0.01), D. fragilis (97.2% vs. 14.1%, p < 0.001), and B. hominis (99.4% vs. 44.2%, p < 0.001) but also for E. histolytica (100% vs. 50.0%). The sensitivity of the AllplexTM GIPPA on the first stool sample was equivalent to the sensitivity of microscopy on multiple stool samples but inferior to multiplex PCR on multiple stool samples. Taken together, the AllplexTM GIPPA is suitable for the routine detection of protozoa in fecal samples.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium hominis and C. parvum are usually considered to be the major pathogens responsible for human cryptosporidiosis. However, there have been few studies regarding the molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium in human infections in China. Here we investigated Cryptosporidium infection in patients with diarrhea, in Danyang Hospital of Jiangsu Province, China, at the genotype level. METHODS: A total of 232 stool specimens were collected from outpatients with diarrhea in Danyang Hospital of Jiangsu Province, China, from February 2012 to January 2013. Each specimen was stained from direct fecal smears and examined for Cryptosporidium using modified acid fast staining and microscopy. Moreover, genomic DNA of each fecal sample was screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium with nested PCR, which was genotyped by analyzing the DNA sequences of small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA). RESULTS: The average infection rate of Cryptosporidium was 1.3% (3/232) by microscopy and subjected to PCR amplification of the SSU rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium, with 9.91% (23/232) being positive for Cryptosporidium with a significant peak in autumn. Based on the SSU rRNA gene, two Cryptosporidium spp. were identified, including C. andersoni (n =21) and C. hominis (n =2). Two types of C. andersoni, designated as A370 + and A370 - , were found in the SSU rRNA gene in our present study, which was 100% homologous to C. andersoni infections derived from dairy calves and goats, respectively. The clinical questionnaires showed no significant difference in age, gender and frequency of diarrhea, but duration of diarrhea was shorter for C. andersoni than that of C. hominis (mean, 2 vs. 4 days; p <0.01). CONCLUSIONS: C. andersoni is the dominant species in Danyang City of Jiangsu Province. The fact that SSU rRNA sequences of C. andersoni obtained from human stools exhibited 100% homologous to those derived from dairy calves and goats supported that C. andersoni infection might be attributable to animal origin. The difference in the duration of diarrhea of C. andersoni and C. hominis indicated that different Cryptosporidium species might cause different clinical manifestations.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cryptosporidium is a leading cause of childhood diarrhea in low-resource settings, and has been repeatedly associated with impaired physical and cognitive development. In May 2013, an outbreak of diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium hominis was identified in the Arctic region of Nunavik, Quebec. Human cryptosporidiosis transmission was previously unknown in this region, and very few previous studies have reported it elsewhere in the Arctic. We report clinical, molecular, and epidemiologic details of a multi-village Cryptosporidium outbreak in the Canadian Arctic. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:We investigated the occurrence of cryptosporidiosis using a descriptive study of cases with onset between April 2013 and April 2014. Cases were defined as Nunavik inhabitants of any age presenting with diarrhea of any duration, in whom Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected by stool microscopy in a specialised reference laboratory. Cryptosporidium was identified in stool from 51 of 283 individuals. The overall annual incidence rate (IR) was 420 / 100,000 inhabitants. The IR was highest among children aged less than 5 years (1290 /100,000 persons). Genetic subtyping for stool specimens from 14/51 cases was determined by DNA sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene. Sequences aligned with C. hominis subtype Id in all cases. No common food or water source of infection was identified. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:In this first observed outbreak of human cryptosporidiosis in this Arctic region, the high IR seen is cause for concern about the possible long-term effects on growth and development of children in Inuit communities, who face myriad other challenges such as overcrowding and food-insecurity. The temporal and geographic distribution of cases, as well as the identification of C. hominis subtype Id, suggest anthroponotic rather than zoonotic transmission. Barriers to timely diagnosis delayed the recognition of human cryptosporidiosis in this remote setting.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidiosis is an important cause for chronic diarrhea and death in HIV/AIDS patients. Among common Cryptosporidium species in humans, C. parvum is responsible for most zoonotic infections in industrialized nations. Nevertheless, the clinical significance of C. parvum and role of zoonotic transmission in cryptosporidiosis epidemiology in developing countries remain unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this cross-sectional study, 520 HIV/AIDS patients were examined for Cryptosporidium presence in stool samples using genotyping and subtyping techniques. Altogether, 140 (26.9%) patients were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. by PCR-RFLP analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene, belonging to C. parvum (92 patients), C. hominis (25 patients), C. viatorum (10 patients), C. felis (5 patients), C. meleagridis (3 patients), C. canis (2 patients), C. xiaoi (2 patients), and mixture of C. parvum and C. hominis (1 patient). Sequence analyses of the 60 kDa glycoprotein gene revealed a high genetic diversity within the 82 C. parvum and 19 C. hominis specimens subtyped, including C. parvum zoonotic subtype families IIa (71) and IId (5) and anthroponotic subtype families IIc (2), IIb (1), IIe (1) and If-like (2), and C. hominis subtype families Id (13), Ie (5), and Ib (1). Overall, Cryptosporidium infection was associated with the occurrence of diarrhea and vomiting. Diarrhea was attributable mostly to C. parvum subtype family IIa and C. hominis, whereas vomiting was largely attributable to C. hominis and rare Cryptosporidium species. Calf contact was identified as a significant risk factor for infection with Cryptosporidium spp., especially C. parvum subtype family IIa. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results of the study indicate that C. parvum is a major cause of cryptosporidiosis in HIV-positive patients and zoonotic transmission is important in cryptosporidiosis epidemiology in Ethiopia. In addition, they confirm that different Cryptosporidium species and subtypes are linked to different clinical manifestations.