Putative Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria Associated With the Rhizosphere and Root Endosphere of Wheat Plants Grown in an Andisol From Southern Chile.
ABSTRACT: Acidic ash derived volcanic soils (Andisols) support 50% of cereal production in Chile. Nitrogen (N) is essential for cereal crops and commonly added as urea with consequent environmental concerns due to leaching. Despite the relevance of N to plant growth, few studies have focused on understanding the application, management and ecological role of N2-fixing bacterial populations as tool for improve the N nutrition of cereal crops in Chile. It is known that N2-fixing bacteria commonly inhabits diverse plant compartments (e.g., rhizosphere and root endosphere) where they can supply N for plant growth. Here, we used culture-independent and dependent approaches to characterize and compare the putative N2-fixing bacteria associated with the rhizosphere and root endosphere of wheat plants grown in an Andisol from southern Chile. Our results showed significantly greater bacterial loads in the rhizosphere than the root endosphere. Quantitative PCR results indicated that the copy number of the 16S rRNA gene ranged from 1012~1013 and 107~108 g-1 sample in rhizosphere and root endosphere, respectively. The nifH gene copy number ranged from 105~106 and 105 g-1 sample in rhizosphere and root endosphere, respectively. The total culturable bacteria number ranged from 109~1010 and 107~108 CFU g-1 sample in rhizosphere and 104~105 and 104 CFU g-1 sample in root endosphere using LB and NM-1 media, respectively. Indirect counts of putative N2-fixing bacteria were 103 and 102~103 CFU g-1 sample in rhizosphere and root endosphere using NFb medium, respectively. Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from randomly selected putative N2-fixing bacteria revealed the presence of members of Proteobacteria (Bosea and Roseomonas), Actinobacteria (Georgenia, Mycobacterium, Microbacterium, Leifsonia, and Arthrobacter), Bacteroidetes (Chitinophaga) and Firmicutes (Bacillus and Psychrobacillus) taxa. Differences in 16S rRNA and putative nifH-containing bacterial communities between rhizosphere and root endosphere were shown by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). This study shows a compartmentalization between rhizosphere and root endosphere for both the abundance and diversity of total (16S rRNA) and putative N2-fixing bacterial communities on wheat plants grown in Chilean Andisols. This information can be relevant for the design and application of agronomic strategies to enhance sustainable N-utilization in cereal crops in Chile.
Project description:Background Understanding the genetic and environmental factors that structure plant microbiomes is necessary for leveraging these interactions to address critical needs in agriculture, conservation, and sustainability. Legumes, which form root nodule symbioses with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia, have served as model plants for understanding the genetics and evolution of beneficial plant-microbe interactions for decades, and thus have added value as models of plant-microbiome interactions. Here we use a common garden experiment with 16S rRNA gene amplicon and shotgun metagenomic sequencing to study the drivers of microbiome diversity and composition in three genotypes of the model legume Medicago truncatula grown in two native soil communities. Results Bacterial diversity decreased between external (rhizosphere) and internal plant compartments (root endosphere, nodule endosphere, and leaf endosphere). Community composition was shaped by strong compartment × soil origin and compartment × plant genotype interactions, driven by significant soil origin effects in the rhizosphere and significant plant genotype effects in the root endosphere. Nevertheless, all compartments were dominated by Ensifer, the genus of rhizobia that forms root nodule symbiosis with M. truncatula, and additional shotgun metagenomic sequencing suggests that the nodulating Ensifer were not genetically distinguishable from those elsewhere in the plant. We also identify a handful of OTUs that are common in nodule tissues, which are likely colonized from the root endosphere. Conclusions Our results demonstrate strong host filtering effects, with rhizospheres driven by soil origin and internal plant compartments driven by host genetics, and identify several key nodule-inhabiting taxa that coexist with rhizobia in the native range. Our results set the stage for future functional genetic experiments aimed at expanding our pairwise understanding of legume-rhizobium symbiosis toward a more mechanistic understanding of plant microbiomes. Video Abstract
Project description:Root-associated microbial communities are very important in the adaptation of halophytes to coastal environments. However, little has been reported on microbial community structures related to halophytes, or on comparisons of their compositions among halophytic plant species. Here, we studied the diversity and community structure of both rhizosphere and root endosphere bacteria in two halophytic plants: Glaux maritima and Salicornia europaea. We sampled the rhizosphere, the root endosphere, and bulk control soil samples, and performed bacterial 16S rRNA sequencing using the Illumina MiSeq platform to characterize the bacterial community diversities in the rhizosphere and root endosphere of both halophytes. Among the G. maritima samples, the richness and diversity of bacteria in the rhizosphere were higher than those in the root endosphere but were lower than those of the bulk soil. In contrast for S. europaea, the bulk soil, the rhizosphere, and the root endosphere all had similar bacterial richness and diversity. The number of unique operational taxonomic units within the root endosphere, the rhizosphere, and the bulk soil were 181, 366, and 924 in G. maritima and 126, 416, and 596 in S. europaea, respectively, implying habitat-specific patterns for each halophyte. In total, 35 phyla and 566 genera were identified. The dominant phyla across all samples were Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Actinobacteria was extremely abundant in the root endosphere from G. maritima. Beneficial bacterial genera were enriched in the root endosphere and rhizosphere in both halophytes. Rhizobium, Actinoplanes, and Marinomonas were highly abundant in G. maritima, whereas Sulfurimonas and Coleofasciculus were highly abundant in S. europaea. A principal coordinate analysis demonstrated significant differences in the microbiota composition associated with the plant species and type of sample. These results strongly indicate that there are clear differences in bacterial community structure and diversity between G. maritima and S. europaea. This is the first report to characterize the root microbiome of G. maritima, and to compare the diversity and community structure of rhizosphere and root endosphere bacteria between G. maritima and S. europaea.
Project description:Cycads are among the few plants that have developed specialized roots to host nitrogen-fixing bacteria. We describe the bacterial diversity of the coralloid roots from seven Dioon species and their surrounding rhizosphere and soil. Using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, we found that all coralloid roots are inhabited by a broad diversity of bacterial groups, including cyanobacteria and Rhizobiales among the most abundant groups. The diversity and composition of the endophytes are similar in the six Mexican species of Dioon that we evaluated, suggesting a recent divergence of Dioon populations and/or similar plant-driven restrictions in maintaining the coralloid root microbiome. Botanical garden samples and natural populations have a similar taxonomic composition, although the beta diversity differed between these populations. The rhizosphere surrounding the coralloid root serves as a reservoir and source of mostly diazotroph and plant growth-promoting groups that colonize the coralloid endosphere. In the case of cyanobacteria, the endosphere is enriched with Nostoc spp and Calothrix spp that are closely related to previously reported symbiont genera in cycads and other early divergent plants. The data reported here provide an in-depth taxonomic characterization of the bacterial community associated with coralloid root microbiome. The functional aspects of the endophytes, their biological interactions, and their evolutionary history are the next research step in this recently discovered diversity within the cycad coralloid root microbiome.
Project description:The increased worldwide commercial cultivation of transgenic crops during the past 20 years is accompanied with potential effects on the soil microbial communities, because many rhizosphere and endosphere bacteria play important roles in promoting plant health and growth. Previous studies reported that transgenic plants exert differential effects on soil microbial communities, especially rhizobacteria. Thus, this study compared the soybean root-associated bacterial communities between a 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase -transgenic soybean line (ZUTS31 or simply Z31) and its recipient cultivar (Huachun3 or simply HC3) at the vegetative, flowering, and seed-filling stages. High-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene (16S rDNA) V4 hypervariable region amplicons via Illumina MiSeq and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) were performed. Our results revealed no significant differences in the overall alpha diversity of root-associated bacterial communities at the three developmental stages and in the beta diversity of root-associated bacterial communities at the flowering stage between Z31 and HC3 under field growth. However, significant differences in the beta diversity of rhizosphere bacterial communities were found at the vegetative and seed-filling stages between the two groups. Furthermore, the results of next generation sequencing and qPCR showed that the relative abundances of root-associated main nitrogen-fixing bacterial genera, especially Bradyrhizobium in the roots, evidently changed from the flowering stage to the seed-filling stage. In conclusion, Z31 exerts transitory effects on the taxonomic diversity of rhizosphere bacterial communities at the vegetative and seed-filling stages compared to the control under field conditions. In addition, soybean developmental change evidently influences the main symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterial genera in the roots from the flowering stage to the seed-filling stage.
Project description:The genus Bradyrhizobium harbors many endosymbionts of legumes, but recent research has shown their widespread presence in soils and in non-legumes, notably in roots of sugarcane. This study aimed to investigate the Bradyrhizobium sp. community density in the endosphere and the rhizosphere of two commercial sugarcane cultivars. Samples of the rhizosphere and root endosphere of two Brazilian sugarcane cultivars (RB867515 and IACSP95-5000) were collected, serially diluted, and inoculated on axenic cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and the induction of nodules was evaluated. Based on the results, a density was estimated of at least 1.6?×?104 rhizobia g root-1 in rhizosphere samples and up to 105 rhizobia g root -1 in endosphere. BOX-PCR profiling of 93 Bradyrhizobium isolates revealed genetic variability, with some dominant (up to 18 representants) and less dominant genotypes. 16S rRNA and ITS sequence analyses confirmed nine phylotypes, six of which pertained to the B. elkanii clade and three to the B. japonicum clade. Five isolates were genetically similar to the recently described species B. sacchari. There was no effect of the factors "plant cultivar" and "root compartment" on Bradyrhizobium sp. community composition and the most abundant genotypes occurred both in rhizosphere and endosphere of both cultivars. Therefore, this study confirms the natural presence of diverse Bradyrhizobium spp. in sugarcane root systems (mainly the rhizosphere) and indicates that certain Bradyrhizobium phylotypes have a special affinity for sugarcane root colonization.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The plant compartments of Vitis vinifera, including the rhizosphere, rhizoplane, root endosphere, phyllosphere and carposphere, provide unique niches that drive specific bacterial microbiome associations. The majority of phyllosphere endophytes originate from the soil and migrate up to the aerial compartments through the root endosphere. Thus, the soil and root endosphere partially define the aerial endosphere in the leaves and berries, contributing to the terroir of the fruit. However, V. vinifera cultivars are invariably grafted onto the rootstocks of other Vitis species and hybrids. It has been hypothesized that the plant species determines the microbiome of the root endosphere and, as a consequence, the aerial endosphere. In this work, we test the first part of this hypothesis. We investigate whether different rootstocks influence the bacteria selected from the surrounding soil, affecting the bacterial diversity and potential functionality of the rhizosphere and root endosphere. METHODS:Bacterial microbiomes from both the root tissues and the rhizosphere of Barbera cultivars, both ungrafted and grafted on four different rootstocks, cultivated in the same soil from the same vineyard, were characterized by 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing. To assess the influence of the root genotype on the bacterial communities' recruitment in the root system, (i) the phylogenetic diversity coupled with the predicted functional profiles and (ii) the co-occurrence bacterial networks were determined. Cultivation-dependent approaches were used to reveal the plant-growth promoting (PGP) potential associated with the grafted and ungrafted root systems. RESULTS:Richness, diversity and bacterial community networking in the root compartments were significantly influenced by the rootstocks. Complementary to a shared bacterial microbiome, different subsets of soil bacteria, including those endowed with PGP traits, were selected by the root system compartments of different rootstocks. The interaction between the root compartments and the rootstock exerted a unique selective pressure that enhanced niche differentiation, but rootstock-specific bacterial communities were still recruited with conserved PGP traits. CONCLUSION:While the rootstock significantly influences the taxonomy, structure and network properties of the bacterial community in grapevine roots, a homeostatic effect on the distribution of the predicted and potential functional PGP traits was found.
Project description:Drought is among the most destructive abiotic stresses limiting crop growth and yield worldwide. Although most research has focused on the contribution of plant-associated microbial communities to plant growth and disease suppression, far less is known about the microbes involved in drought resistance among desert plants. In the present study, we applied 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to determine the structure of rhizosphere and root endosphere microbiomes of Alhagi sparsifolia Compared to those of the rhizosphere, endosphere microbiomes had lower diversity but contained several taxa with higher relative abundance; many of these taxa were also present in the roots of other desert plants. We isolated a Pseudomonas strain (LTGT-11-2Z) that was prevalent in root endosphere microbiomes of A. sparsifolia and promoted drought resistance during incubation with wheat. Complete genome sequencing of LTGT-11-2Z revealed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminases, siderophore, spermidine, and colanic acid biosynthetic genes, as well as type VI secretion system (T6SS) genes, which are likely involved in biofilm formation and plant-microbe interactions. Together, these results indicate that drought-enduring plants harbor bacterial endophytes favorable to plant drought resistance, and they suggest that novel endophytic bacterial taxa and gene resources may be discovered among these desert plants.IMPORTANCE Understanding microbe-mediated plant resistance to drought is important for sustainable agriculture. We performed 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and culture-dependent functional analyses of Alhagi sparsifolia rhizosphere and root endosphere microbiomes and identified key endophytic bacterial taxa and their genes facilitating drought resistance in wheat. This study improves our understanding of plant drought resistance and provides new avenues for drought resistance improvement in crop plants under field conditions.
Project description:Kuwait is a semi-arid region with soils that are relatively nitrogen-poor. Thus, biological nitrogen fixation is an important natural process in which N2-fixing bacteria (diazotrophs) convert atmospheric nitrogen into plant-usable forms such as ammonium and nitrate. Currently, there is limited information on free-living and root-associated nitrogen-fixing bacteria and their potential to fix nitrogen and aid natural plant communities in the Kuwait desert. In this study, free living N2-fixing diazotrophs were enriched and isolated from the rhizosphere soil associated with three native keystone plant species; Rhanterium epapposum, Farsetia aegyptia, and Haloxylon salicornicum. Root-associated bacteria were isolated from the root nodules of Vachellia pachyceras. The result showed that the strains were clustered in five groups represented by class: ?-proteobacteria, and ?-proteobacteria; phyla: Actinobacteria being the most dominant, followed by phyla: Firmicutes, and class: ?-proteobacteria. This study initially identified 50 nitrogen-fixers by16S rRNA gene sequencing, of which 78% were confirmed to be nitrogen-fixers using the acetylene reduction assay. Among the nitrogen fixers identified, the genus Rhizobium was predominant in the rhizosphere soil of R. epapposum and H. salicornicum, whereas Pseudomonas was predominant in the rhizosphere soil of F. aegyptia, The species Agrobacterium tumefaciens was mainly found to be dominant among the root nodules of V. pachyceras and followed by Cellulomonas, Bacillus, and Pseudomonas genera as root-associated bacteria. The variety of diazotrophs revealed in this study, signifying the enormous importance of free-living and root-associated bacteria in extreme conditions and suggesting potential ecological importance of diazotrophs in arid ecosystem. To our knowledge, this study is the first to use culture-based isolation, molecular identification, and evaluation of N2-fixing ability to detail diazotroph diversity in Kuwaiti desert soils.
Project description:Rising atmospheric concentrations of CO<sub>2</sub> and O<sub>3</sub> are key features of global environmental change. To investigate changes in the belowground bacterial community composition in response to elevated CO<sub>2</sub> and O<sub>3</sub> (eCO<sub>2</sub> and eO<sub>3</sub>) the endosphere, rhizosphere and soil were sampled from soybeans under eCO<sub>2</sub> and maize under eO<sub>3</sub>. The maize rhizosphere and endosphere ?-diversity was higher than soybean, which may be due to a high relative abundance of Rhizobiales. Only the rhizosphere microbiome composition of the soybeans changed in response to eCO<sub>2</sub>, associated with an increased abundance of nitrogen fixing microbes. In maize, the microbiome composition was altered by the genotype and linked to differences in root exudate profiles. The eO<sub>3</sub> treatment did not change the microbial communities in the rhizosphere, but altered the soil communities where hybrid maize was grown. In contrast to previous studies that focused exclusively on the soil, this study provides new insights into the effects of plant root exudates on the composition of the belowground microbiome in response to changing atmospheric conditions. Our results demonstrate that plant species and plant genotype were key factors driving the changes in the belowground bacterial community composition in agroecosystems that experience rising levels of atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub> and O<sub>3</sub>.
Project description:The bacterial microbiota of plants is diverse, with 1000s of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) associated with any individual plant. In this work, we used phenotypic analysis, comparative genomics, and metabolic models to investigate the differences between 19 sequenced Pseudomonas fluorescens strains. These isolates represent a single OTU and were collected from the rhizosphere and endosphere of Populus deltoides. While no traits were exclusive to either endosphere or rhizosphere P. fluorescens isolates, multiple pathways relevant for plant-bacterial interactions are enriched in endosphere isolate genomes. Further, growth phenotypes such as phosphate solubilization, protease activity, denitrification and root growth promotion are biased toward endosphere isolates. Endosphere isolates have significantly more metabolic pathways for plant signaling compounds and an increased metabolic range that includes utilization of energy rich nucleotides and sugars, consistent with endosphere colonization. Rhizosphere P. fluorescens have fewer pathways representative of plant-bacterial interactions but show metabolic bias toward chemical substrates often found in root exudates. This work reveals the diverse functions that may contribute to colonization of the endosphere by bacteria and are enriched among closely related isolates.