Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudarthrobacter sp. Strain AG30, Isolated from a Gold and Copper Mine in China.
ABSTRACT: Here, we report the features and draft genome sequence of Pseudarthrobacter sp. strain AG30, isolated from the Zijin gold and copper mine in China. The genome size of Pseudarthrobacter sp. AG30 was 4,618,494?bp, with a G+C content of 66.2%. Interesting genes and operons putatively conferring resistance to copper and arsenic were identified.
Project description:The aim of this study was characterization of the isolated dissimilatory arsenate reducing bacteria in the context of their potential for arsenic removal from primary arsenic minerals through reductive dissolution. Four strains, Shewanella sp. OM1, Pseudomonas sp. OM2, Aeromonas sp. OM4, and Serratia sp. OM17, capable of anaerobic growth with As (V) reduction, were isolated from microbial mats from an ancient gold mine. All of the isolated strains: (i) produced siderophores that promote dissolution of minerals, (ii) were resistant to dissolved arsenic compounds, (iii) were able to use the dissolved arsenates as the terminal electron acceptor, and (iii) were able to use copper minerals containing arsenic minerals (e.g., enargite) as a respiratory substrate. Based on the results obtained in this study, we postulate that arsenic can be released from some As-bearing polymetallic minerals (such as copper ore concentrates or middlings) under reductive conditions by dissimilatory arsenate reducers in indirect processes.
Project description:The adaptive process in bacteria is driven by specific genetic elements which regulate phenotypic characteristics such as tolerance to high metal ion concentrations and the secretion of protective biofilms. Extreme environments such as those associated with heavy metal pollution and extremes of acidity offer opportunities to study the adaptive mechanisms of microorganisms. This study focused on the genome analysis of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt MCMY1), a gram positive rod shaped bacterium isolated from an acid mine drainage site in Sabah, Malaysia by using a combination of Single Molecule Real Time DNA Sequencing, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The genome size of Bt MCMY1 was determined to be 5,458,152 bases which was encoded on a single chromosome. Analysis of the genome revealed genes associated with resistance to Copper, Mercury, Arsenic, Cobalt, Zinc, Cadmium and Aluminum. Evidence from SEM and FTIR indicated that the bacterial colonies form distinct films which bear the signature of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) and this finding was supported by the genome data indicating the presence of a genetic pathway associated with the biosynthesis of PHAs. This is the first report of a Bacillus sp. isolated from an acid mine drainage site in Sabah, Malaysia and the genome sequence will provide insights into the manner in which B. thuringiensis adapts to acid mine drainage.
Project description:Soluble arsenic (As) in acidic feed solution may inhibit the copper (Cu) bioleaching process within mine heaps. To clarify the effect of soluble arsenic on the live biomass and bioxidative activity in heaps, toxicological assays were performed using a synthetic feed solution given by a mine company. The microorganisms had previously been isolated from two heap samples at up to 66 m depth, and cultured using specific media for chemolithotrophic acidophiles (pH 1-2) and moderate thermophiles (48°C), for arsenic tolerance assay. The four media with the highest biomass were selected to assay As-resistance; one culture (Q63h) was chosen to assay biooxidative activity, using a heap sample that contained chalcopyrite and covellite. We found that 0.5 g/L of As does not affect living biomass or biooxidative activity on Cu sulfides, but it dissolves Cu, while As precipitates as arsenic acid (H3AsO4·½H2O). The arsenic tolerant community, as identified by 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis, was composed of three main metabolic groups: chemolithotrophs (Leptospirillum, Sulfobacillus); chemolithoheterotrophs and organoheterotrophs as Acidovorax temperans, Pseudomonas alcaligenes, P. mendocina and Sphingomonas spp. Leptospirillum spp. and S. thermosulfidooxidans were the dominant taxa in the Q63-66 cultures from the deepest sample of the oldest, highest-temperature heap. The results indicated arsenic resistance in the microbial community, therefore specific primers were used to amplify ars (arsenic resistance system), aio (arsenite oxidase), or arr (arsenate respiratory reduction) genes from total sample DNA. Presence of arsB genes in S. thermosulfidooxidans in the Q63-66 cultures permits H3AsO4-As(V) detoxification and strengthens the community's response to As.
Project description:We report here the draft genome sequence of Geobacter sp. strain SVR, isolated from antimony mine soil in Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. The genome sequence data in this study will provide useful information for understanding bacterial antimonate reduction.
Project description:A realistic estimation of the health risk of human exposure to solid-phase arsenic (As) derived from historic mining operations is a major challenge to redevelopment of California's famed "Mother Lode" region. Arsenic, a known carcinogen, occurs in multiple solid forms that vary in bioaccessibility. X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (XAFS) was used to identify and quantify the forms of As in mine wastes and biogenic solids at the Lava Cap Mine Superfund (LCMS) site, a historic "Mother Lode" gold mine. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to assess variance within water chemistry, solids chemistry, and XAFS spectral datasets. Linear combination, least-squares fits constrained in part by PCA results were then used to quantify arsenic speciation in XAFS spectra of tailings and biogenic solids.The highest dissolved arsenic concentrations were found in Lost Lake porewater and in a groundwater-fed pond in the tailings deposition area. Iron, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, specific conductivity, and As were the major variables in the water chemistry PCA. Arsenic was, on average, 14 times more concentrated in biologically-produced iron (hydr)oxide than in mine tailings. Phosphorous, manganese, calcium, aluminum, and As were the major variables in the solids chemistry PCA. Linear combination fits to XAFS spectra indicate that arsenopyrite (FeAsS), the dominant form of As in ore material, remains abundant (average: 65%) in minimally-weathered ore samples and water-saturated tailings at the bottom of Lost Lake. However, tailings that underwent drying and wetting cycles contain an average of only 30% arsenopyrite. The predominant products of arsenopyrite weathering were identified by XAFS to be As-bearing Fe (hydr)oxide and arseniosiderite (Ca2Fe(AsO4)3O3•3H2O). Existence of the former species is not in question, but the presence of the latter species was not confirmed by additional measurements, so its identification is less certain. The linear combination, least-squares fits totals of several samples deviate by more than ± 20% from 100%, suggesting that additional phases may be present that were not identified or evaluated in this study.Sub- to anoxic conditions minimize dissolution of arsenopyrite at the LCMS site, but may accelerate the dissolution of As-bearing secondary iron phases such as Fe3+-oxyhydroxides and arseniosiderite, if sufficient organic matter is present to spur anaerobic microbial activity. Oxidizing, dry conditions favor the stabilization of secondary phases, while promoting oxidative breakdown of the primary sulfides. The stability of both primary and secondary As phases is likely to be at a minimum under cyclic wet-dry conditions. Biogenic iron (hydr)oxide flocs can sequester significant amounts of arsenic; this property may be useful for treatment of perpetual sources of As such as mine adit water, but the fate of As associated with natural accumulations of floc material needs to be assessed.
Project description:Contamination of water and sediments with arsenic and heavy metals is a global issue affecting human health. Regions covered with Quaternary deposits have received little attention from the point of view of the flux of arsenic and heavy metals from sediments to surface water. This study aims to determine the flux of arsenic and other heavy metals from Quaternary sediments to surface waters in an area affected by the former Z?oty Stok gold and arsenic mine. Contamination in surface waters and sediments was caused by arsenic, whereas concentrations of metals were usually within water quality standards. Arsenic contamination of surface water increased in the lower part of the basin covered by Quaternary sediments, and exceeded water quality standards by 2 orders of magnitude. Arsenic mass flux exceeded 8 kg/day near the confluence of the Truj?ca River with the Nysa K?odzka, a main tributary of the Oder River. An increase in arsenic concentration in the lower part of the basin is related to mine tailings and preferential flow of groundwater through Quaternary sediments. In future, water resources scarcity may lead to an increase in arsenic contamination in surface and groundwater.
Project description:Here, we report on the draft genome of a copper-resistant and acidophilic Desulfosporosinus sp. BG, isolated from the tailings of a molybdenum-tungsten mine in Transbaikal area. The draft genome has a size of 4.52 Mb and encodes transporters of heavy metals. The phylogenetic analysis based on concatenated ribosomal proteins revealed that strain BG clusters together with the other acidophilic copper-resistant strains Desulfosporosinus sp. OT and Desulfosporosinus sp. I2. The K+-ATPase, Na+/H+ antiporter and amino acid decarboxylases may participate in enabling growth at low pH. The draft genome sequence and annotation have been deposited at GenBank under the accession number NZ_MASS00000000.
Project description:Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Arthrobacter sp. strain ATCC 49987, consisting of three contigs with a total length of 4.4 Mbp. Based on the genome sequence, we suggest reclassification of Arthrobacter sp. strain ATCC 49987 as Pseudarthrobacter sp. strain ATCC 49987.
Project description:In August 2009 a combined epidemiological and ecological pilot study was conducted to investigate allegations of human rights abuses in the form of exposures to toxic metals experienced by mine workers and Indigenous Mam Mayan near the Marlin Mine in Guatemala. In the human study there were no differences in blood and urine metals when comparing five mine workers with eighteen non-mine workers, and there were no discernible relationships between metal exposures and self-reported health measures in any study group. On the other hand, individuals residing closest to the mine had significantly higher levels of certain metals (urinary mercury, copper, arsenic, and zinc) when compared to those living further away. The levels of blood aluminum, manganese, and cobalt were elevated in comparison to established normal ranges in many individuals; however, there was no apparent relationship to proximity to the mine or occupation, and thus are of unclear significance. In the ecological study, several metals (aluminum, manganese, and cobalt) were found significantly elevated in the river water and sediment sites directly below the mine when compared to sites elsewhere. When the human and ecological results are combined, they suggest that exposures to certain metals may be elevated in sites near the mine but it is not clear if the current magnitude of these elevations poses a significant threat to health. The authors conclude that more robust studies are needed while parallel efforts to minimize the ecological and human impacts of mining proceed. This is critical particularly as the impact of the exposures found could be greatly magnified by expected increases in mining activity over time, synergistic toxicity between metals, and susceptibility for the young and those with pre-existing disease.