Complete Genome Sequence of the Arcobacter halophilus Type Strain CCUG 53805.
ABSTRACT: Many Arcobacter spp. are free living and are routinely recovered from marine environments. Arcobacter halophilus was isolated from hypersaline lagoon water in the Hawaiian islands, and it was demonstrated to be an obligate halophile. This study describes the complete whole-genome sequence of the A. halophilus type strain, CCUG 53805 (= LA31BT = ATCC BAA-1022T).
Project description:Arcobacter species are highly abundant in sewage where they often comprise approximately 5-11% of the bacterial community. Oligotyping of sequences amplified from the V4V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene revealed Arcobacter populations from different cities were similar and dominated by 1-3 members, with extremely high microdiversity in the minor members. Overall, nine subgroups within the Arcobacter genus accounted for >80% of the total Arcobacter sequences in all samples analyzed. The distribution of oligotypes varied by both sample site and temperature, with samples from the same site generally being more similar to each other than other sites. Seven oligotypes matched with 100% identity to characterized Arcobacter species, but the remaining 19 abundant oligotypes appear to be unknown species. Sequences representing the two most abundant oligotypes matched exactly to the reference strains for A. cryaerophilus group 1B (CCUG 17802) and group 1A (CCUG 17801(T)), respectively. Oligotype 1 showed generally lower relative abundance in colder samples and higher relative abundance in warmer samples; the converse was true for Oligotype 2. Ten other oligotypes had significant positive or negative correlations between temperature and proportion in samples as well. The oligotype that corresponded to A. butzleri, the Arcobacter species most commonly isolated by culturing in sewage studies, was only the eleventh most abundant oligotype. This work suggests that Arcobacter populations within sewer infrastructure are modulated by temperature. Furthermore, current culturing methods used for identification of Arcobacter fail to identify some abundant members of the community and may underestimate the presence of species with affinities for growth at lower temperatures. Understanding the ecological factors that affect the survival and growth of Arcobacter spp. in sewer infrastructure may better inform the risks associated with these emerging pathogens.
Project description:We report the 3.98-Mbp first draft genome sequence of Sediminibacillus halophilus strain NSP9.3, a moderate halophile isolated from a seasonal salt marsh of the Great Rann of Kutch, India. Exploring the genome of this organism will facilitate the understanding of the mechanism(s) of osmotolerance and survival in differential osmolarity.
Project description:Arcobacter species have been recovered from food and/or food animals, and several of these species are potential human pathogens. Arcobacter trophiarum was recovered from fecal samples taken from pigs on two Belgian farms. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the A. trophiarum type strain LMG 25534 (=64T =CCUG 59229T).
Project description:Arcobacter skirrowii is a species of veterinary importance, originally recovered from the feces, aborted fetuses, and preputial fluids of livestock. We present here the whole-genome sequence of the A. skirrowii type strain LMG 6621 (= 449/80T = CCUG 10374T), isolated in the United Kingdom from a lamb diarrheal fecal sample.
Project description:The gram-positive, aerobic, moderately halophilic bacterium Halobacillus halophilus is challenged in its environment by frequently changing salt (NaCl) concentrations. Recently, H. halophilus was shown to be the first prokaryote that is dependent on Cl(-) for growth. In a search for the biological function of Cl(-) in this prokaryote, we identified different Cl(-)-dependent processes, which suggests a more general role for Cl(-) in the metabolism of H. halophilus. To analyze the effect of Cl(-) in more detail, we concentrated on one model system, the Cl(-)-dependent production of flagella, and aimed to identify the molecular basis for the Cl(-) dependence of flagellum production. Here, we report that synthesis of the major subunit of the flagellum, FliC, is dependent on the Cl(-) concentration of the medium, as determined by Western blot analyses. The gene encoding FliC was cloned and sequenced, and Northern blot as well as reverse transcriptase PCR analyses revealed that expression of fliC is Cl(-) dependent. FliC is the first protein of known function demonstrated to be synthesized in a Cl(-)-dependent manner in a prokaryote. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of cells grown under different conditions revealed five more Cl(-)-induced proteins; these were identified by N-terminal sequencing and database searches to be orthologs of proteins involved in stress response in Bacillus subtilis. The data indicate that Cl(-) is an important environmental signal in this moderate halophile and regulates protein synthesis and gene expression. Furthermore, the data may suggest that Cl(-) plays a role in the signal transduction involved in salt perception by this bacterium.
Project description:Tetragenococcus halophilus is a halophilic lactic acid bacterium that exists in the traditional Japanese seasoning miso-a fermented soy paste. Considering the popularity of miso as a component of healthy diet, we attempted to evaluate the immunoregulatory functions of T. halophilus spices isolated from miso. We screened 56 strains that facilitated the upregulation of activation markers such as CD86 and CD69 on B cells and T cells in vitro. Of these, 7 strains (Nos. 1, 3, 13, 15, 19, 30, and 31) were found to preferentially induce the CD86 expression on B cells. Furthermore, DNA microarray analysis revealed that T. halophilus strain No. 1 significantly augmented the gene expressions of CD86, CD70, IL-10, INF-?, and IL-22 in B cells. We confirmed these results at the protein level by flow cytometry. Mice feeding diet containing 1% T. halophilus No. 1 exhibited significantly greater IgA production in the serum. Furthermore, a diet containing 1% T. halophilus No. 1 augmented ovoalbumin (OVA)-specific IgG titer in mice upon OVA/alum immunization. Thus, we demonstrated that T. halophilus No. 1 is a strong immunomodulatory strain with potential as a probiotic.
Project description:A novel dissimilatory perchlorate-reducing bacterium (DPRB), Arcobacter sp. strain CAB, was isolated from a marina in Berkeley, CA. Phylogenetically, this halophile was most closely related to Arcobacter defluvii strain SW30-2 and Arcobacter ellisii. With acetate as the electron donor, strain CAB completely reduced perchlorate (ClO4(-)) or chlorate (ClO3(-)) [collectively designated (per)chlorate] to innocuous chloride (Cl(-)), likely using the perchlorate reductase (Pcr) and chlorite dismutase (Cld) enzymes. When grown with perchlorate, optimum growth was observed at 25 to 30°C, pH 7, and 3% NaCl. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) preparations were dominated by free-swimming straight rods with 1 to 2 polar flagella per cell. Strain CAB utilized a variety of organic acids, fructose, and hydrogen as electron donors coupled to (per)chlorate reduction. Further, under anoxic growth conditions strain CAB utilized the biogenic oxygen produced as a result of chlorite dismutation to oxidize catechol via the meta-cleavage pathway of aerobic catechol degradation and the catechol 2,3-dioxygenase enzyme. In addition to (per)chlorate, oxygen and nitrate were alternatively used as electron acceptors. The 3.48-Mb draft genome encoded a distinct perchlorate reduction island (PRI) containing several transposases. The genome lacks the pcrC gene, which was previously thought to be essential for (per)chlorate reduction, and appears to use an unrelated Arcobacter c-type cytochrome to perform the same function. IMPORTANCE The study of dissimilatory perchlorate-reducing bacteria (DPRB) has largely focused on freshwater, mesophilic, neutral-pH environments. This study identifies a novel marine DPRB in the genus Arcobacter that represents the first description of a DPRB associated with the Campylobacteraceae. Strain CAB is currently the only epsilonproteobacterial DPRB in pure culture. The genome of strain CAB lacks the pcrC gene found in all other DPRB tested, demonstrating a new variation on the (per)chlorate reduction pathway. The ability of strain CAB to oxidize catechol via the oxygenase-dependent meta-cleavage pathway in the absence of external oxygen by using the biogenic oxygen produced from the dismutation of chlorite provides a valuable model for understanding the anaerobic degradation of a broad diversity of xenobiotics which are recalcitrant to anaerobic metabolism but labile to oxygenase-dependent mechanisms.
Project description:Arcobacter thereius is a species associated with human disease. A group of A. thereius pork strains (represented by strain LMG 24487) clustered separately from the type strain (LMG 24486T) in the 16S rRNA and multilocus phylogenetic trees. In silico DNA-DNA hybridization and average nucleotide identity results between their genomes (93.3 and 51.1%) confirmed 'Arcobacter porcinus' (LMG 24487T) as a new species.
Project description:The genus Arcobacter encompasses gram-negative, aerotolerant, spiral-shaped bacteria formerly designated Campylobacter cryaerophila. Two genus-specific 16S rRNA-based oligonucleotide DNA probes (23-mer and 27-mer) were developed. The probes hybridized with strains of Arcobacter butzleri (n = 58), Arcobacter cryaerophilus (n = 19), and Arcobacter skirrowii (n = 17). The probes did not cross-react with any of the reference strains of Campylobacter, Helicobacter, including "Flexispira rappini," or Wolinella. The 27-mer hybridized with 61 Arcobacter spp. field isolates originating from late-term aborted porcine (n = 54) and equine (n = 2) fetuses and humans with enteritis (n = 5). The species of Arcobacter isolates (n = 56) recovered from aborted livestock fetuses were determined by ribotyping and were as follows: A. cryaerophilus group 1A (11 of 56; 20%), A. cryaerophilus group 1B (37 of 56; 66%), A. butzleri (5 of 56; 9%), and unknown (3 of 56; 5%). The five human field strains were identified as A. butzleri. A species-specific DNA probe (24-mer) for A. butzleri was also developed since there is evidence that this organism may be a human pathogen. This probe hybridized with previously characterized strains of A. butzleri (n = 58), with 10 field strains identified as A. butzleri by ribotyping and with 2 strains having an indeterminate ribotype. The A. butzleri-specific probe did not cross-react with strains of A. skirrowii (n = 17) and A. cryaerophilus (n = 19).