Genome Sequences of Five Bacteriophages Infecting the Marine Roseobacter Bacterium Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3.
ABSTRACT: We report the complete genome sequences of five bacteriophages infecting Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3, a member of the marine Roseobacter lineage. The genomic sequences of these five bacteriophages are almost identical and are closely related to members of the Chivirus genus. The genes associated with the lysogenic cycle were also found.
Project description:Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3 is a model Roseobacter marine bacterium, particularly regarding its catabolism of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), an abundant anti-stress molecule made by marine phytoplankton. We found a novel gene, dddW, which encodes a DMSP lyase that cleaves DMSP into acrylate plus the environmentally important volatile dimethyl sulfide (DMS). Mutations in dddW reduced, but did not abolish DMS production. Transcription of dddW was greatly enhanced by pre-growth of cells with DMSP, via a LysR-type regulator. Close DddW homologs occur in only one other Roseobacter species, and there are no close homologs and only a few related sequences in metagenomes of marine bacteria. In addition to DddW, R. pomeroyi DSS-3 had been shown to have two other, different, DMSP lyases, DddP and DddQ, plus an enzyme that demethylates DMSP, emphasizing the importance of this substrate for this model bacterium.
Project description:The Roseobacter clade is a group of alphaproteobacteria that have diverse metabolic and regulatory capabilities. They are abundant in marine environments and have a substantial role in marine ecology and biogeochemistry. However, interactions between roseobacters and other bacterioplankton have not been extensively explored. In this study, we identify a killing mechanism in the model roseobacter Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3 by coculturing it with a group of phylogenetically diverse bacteria. The killing mechanism is diffusible and occurs when cells are grown both on surfaces and in suspension and is dependent on cell density. A screen of random transposon mutants revealed that the killing phenotype, as well as resistance to killing, require genes within an ?8-kb putative gamma-butyrolactone synthesis gene cluster, which resembles similar pheromone-sensing systems in actinomycetes that regulate secondary metabolite production, including antimicrobials. Transcriptomics revealed the gene cluster is highly upregulated in wild-type DSS-3 compared to a nonkiller mutant when grown in liquid coculture with a roseobacter target. Our findings show that R. pomeroyi has the capability to eliminate closely and distantly related competitors, providing a mechanism to alter the community structure and function in its native habitats.IMPORTANCE Bacteria carry out critical ecological and biogeochemical processes and form the foundations of ecosystems. Identifying the factors that influence microbial community composition and the functional capabilities encoded within them is key to predicting how microbes impact an ecosystem. Because microorganisms must compete for limited space and nutrients to promote their own propagation, they have evolved diverse mechanisms to outcompete or kill competitors. However, the genes and regulatory strategies that promote such competitive abilities are largely underexplored, particularly in free-living marine bacteria. Here, genetics and omics techniques are used to investigate how a model marine bacterium is capable of quickly eliminating natural competitors in coculture. We determined that a previously uncharacterized horizontally acquired gene cluster is required for this bacterium to kill diverse competitors. This work represents an important step toward understanding the mechanisms bacterial populations can use to become dominant members in marine microbial communities.
Project description:Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is an important nitrogen source for marine bacteria. TMAO can also be metabolized by marine bacteria into volatile methylated amines, the precursors of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide. However, it was not known how TMAO is recognized and imported by bacteria. Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3, a marine Roseobacter, has an ATP-binding cassette transporter, TmoXWV, specific for TMAO. TmoX is the substrate-binding protein of the TmoXWV transporter. In this study, the substrate specificity of TmoX of R. pomeroyi DSS-3 was characterized. We further determined the structure of the TmoX/TMAO complex and studied the TMAO-binding mechanism of TmoX by biochemical, structural, and mutational analyses. A Ca(2+) ion chelated by an extended loop in TmoX was shown to be important for maintaining the stability of TmoX. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that TmoX can alternate between "open" and "closed" states for binding TMAO. In the substrate-binding pocket, four tryptophan residues interact with the quaternary amine of TMAO by cation-? interactions, and Glu131 forms a hydrogen bond with the polar oxygen atom of TMAO. The ?-? stacking interactions between the side chains of Phe and Trp are also essential for TMAO binding. Sequence analysis suggests that the TMAO-binding mechanism of TmoX may have universal significance in marine bacteria, especially in the marine Roseobacter clade. This study sheds light on how marine microorganisms utilize TMAO.Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is an important nitrogen source for marine bacteria. The products of TMAO metabolized by bacteria are part of the precursors of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide. It is unclear how TMAO is recognized and imported by bacteria. TmoX is the substrate-binding protein of a TMAO-specific transporter. Here, the substrate specificity of TmoX of Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3 was characterized. The TMAO-binding mechanism of TmoX was studied by biochemical, structural, and mutational analyses. Moreover, our results suggest that the TMAO-binding mechanism may have universal significance in marine bacteria. This study sheds light on how marine microorganisms utilize TMAO and should lead to a better understanding of marine nitrogen cycling.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The structural and functional annotation of genomes is now heavily based on data obtained using automated pipeline systems. The key for an accurate structural annotation consists of blending similarities between closely related genomes with biochemical evidence of the genome interpretation. In this work we applied high-throughput proteogenomics to Ruegeria pomeroyi, a member of the Roseobacter clade, an abundant group of marine bacteria, as a seed for the annotation of the whole clade. RESULTS: A large dataset of peptides from R. pomeroyi was obtained after searching over 1.1 million MS/MS spectra against a six-frame translated genome database. We identified 2006 polypeptides, of which thirty-four were encoded by open reading frames (ORFs) that had not previously been annotated. From the pool of 'one-hit-wonders', i.e. those ORFs specified by only one peptide detected by tandem mass spectrometry, we could confirm the probable existence of five additional new genes after proving that the corresponding RNAs were transcribed. We also identified the most-N-terminal peptide of 486 polypeptides, of which sixty-four had originally been wrongly annotated. CONCLUSIONS: By extending these re-annotations to the other thirty-six Roseobacter isolates sequenced to date (twenty different genera), we propose the correction of the assigned start codons of 1082 homologous genes in the clade. In addition, we also report the presence of novel genes within operons encoding determinants of the important tricarboxylic acid cycle, a feature that seems to be characteristic of some Roseobacter genomes. The detection of their corresponding products in large amounts raises the question of their function. Their discoveries point to a possible theory for protein evolution that will rely on high expression of orphans in bacteria: their putative poor efficiency could be counterbalanced by a higher level of expression. Our proteogenomic analysis will increase the reliability of the future annotation of marine bacterial genomes.
Project description:When the genome of Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3 was published in 2004, it represented the first sequence from a heterotrophic marine bacterium. Over the last ten years, the strain has become a valuable model for understanding the cycling of sulfur and carbon in the ocean. To ensure that this genome remains useful, we have updated 69 genes to incorporate functional annotations based on new experimental data, and improved the identification of 120 protein-coding regions based on proteomic and transcriptomic data. We review the progress made in understanding the biology of R. pomeroyi DSS-3 and list the changes made to the genome.
Project description:The organosulfur compound dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is produced by phytoplankton and is ubiquitous in the surface ocean. Once released from phytoplankton, marine bacteria degrade DMSP by either the cleavage pathway to form the volatile gas dimethylsulfide (DMS) or the demethylation pathway, yielding methanethiol (MeSH), which is readily assimilated or oxidized. The enzyme DmdB, a methylmercaptopropionate (MMPA)-coenzyme A (CoA) ligase, catalyzes the second step in the demethylation pathway and is a major regulatory point. The two forms of DmdB present in the marine roseobacter Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3, RPO_DmdB1 and RPO_DmdB2, and the single form in the SAR11 clade bacterium "Candidatus Pelagibacter ubique" HTCC1062, PU_DmdB1, were characterized in detail. DmdB enzymes were also examined from Ruegeria lacuscaerulensis ITI-1157, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, and Burkholderia thailandensis E264. The DmdB enzymes separated into two phylogenetic clades. All enzymes had activity with MMPA and were sensitive to inhibition by salts, but there was no correlation between the clades and substrate specificity or salt sensitivity. All Ruegeria species enzymes were inhibited by physiological concentrations (70 mM) of DMSP. However, ADP reversed the inhibition of RPO_DmdB1, suggesting that this enzyme was responsive to cellular energy charge. MMPA reversed the inhibition of RPO_DmdB2 as well as both R. lacuscaerulensis ITI-1157 DmdB enzymes, suggesting that a complex regulatory system exists in marine bacteria. In contrast, the DmdBs of the non-DMSP-metabolizing P. aeruginosa PAO1 and B. thailandensis E264 were not inhibited by DMSP, suggesting that DMSP inhibition is a specific adaptation of DmdBs from marine bacteria.
Project description:In oligotrophic ocean waters where bacteria are often subjected to chronic nutrient limitation, community transcriptome sequencing has pointed to the presence of highly abundant small RNAs (sRNAs). The role of sRNAs in regulating response to nutrient stress was investigated in a model heterotrophic marine bacterium Ruegeria pomeroyi grown in continuous culture under carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) limitation. RNAseq analysis identified 99 putative sRNAs. Sixty-nine were cis-encoded and located antisense to a presumed target gene. Thirty were trans-encoded and initial target prediction was performed computationally. The most prevalent functional roles of genes anti-sense to the cis-sRNAs were transport, cell-cell interactions, signal transduction, and transcriptional regulation. Most sRNAs were transcribed equally under both C and N limitation, and may be involved in a general stress response. However, 14 were regulated differentially between the C and N treatments and may respond to specific nutrient limitations. A network analysis of the predicted target genes of the R. pomeroyi cis-sRNAs indicated that they average fewer connections than typical protein-encoding genes, and appear to be more important in peripheral or niche-defining functions encoded in the pan genome.
Project description:The heterotrophic marine bacterium, Ruegeria pomeroyi, was experimentally cultured under environmentally realistic carbon conditions and with a tracer-level addition of 13C-labeled leucine to track bacterial protein biosynthesis through growth phases. A combination of methods allowed observation of real-time bacterial protein production to understand metabolic priorities through the different growth phases. Over 2000 proteins were identified in each experimental culture from exponential and stationary growth phases. Within two hours of the 13C-labeled leucine addition, R. pomeroyi significantly assimilated the newly encountered substrate into new proteins. This dataset provides a fundamental baseline for understanding growth phase differences in molecular physiology of a cosmopolitan marine bacterium.
Project description:Microorganisms secrete into their extracellular environment numerous compounds that are required for their survival. Many of these compounds could be of great interest for biotechnology applications and their genes used in synthetic biology design. The secreted proteins and the components of the translocation systems themselves can be scrutinized in-depth by the most recent proteomic tools. While the secretomes of pathogens are well-documented, those of non-pathogens remain largely to be established. Here, we present the analysis of the exoproteome from the marine bacterium Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3 grown in standard laboratory conditions. We used a shotgun approach consisting of trypsin digestion of the exoproteome, and identification of the resulting peptides by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Three different proteins that have domains homologous to those observed in RTX toxins were uncovered and were semi-quantified as the most abundantly secreted proteins. One of these proteins clearly stands out from the catalogue, representing over half of the total exoproteome. We also listed many soluble proteins related to ABC and TRAP transporters implied in the uptake of nutrients. The Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3 case-study illustrates the power of the shotgun nano-LC-MS/MS strategy to decipher the exoproteome from marine bacteria and to contribute to environmental proteomics.
Project description:Bacteria in the Roseobacter lineage have been studied extensively due to their significant biogeochemical roles in the marine ecosystem. However, our knowledge on bacteriophage which infects the Roseobacter clade is still very limited. Here, we report a new bacteriophage, phage DSS3?8, which infects marine roseobacter Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3. DSS3?8 is a lytic siphovirus. Genomic analysis showed that DSS3?8 is most closely related to a group of siphoviruses, CbK-like phages, which infect freshwater bacterium Caulobacter crescentus. DSS3?8 contains a smaller capsid and has a reduced genome size (146?kb) compared to the CbK-like phages (205-279?kb). DSS3?8 contains the DNA polymerase gene which is closely related to T7-like podoviruses. DSS3?8 also contains the integrase and repressor genes, indicating its potential to involve in lysogenic cycle. In addition, four GTA (gene transfer agent) genes were identified in the DSS3?8 genome. Genomic analysis suggests that DSS3?8 is a highly mosaic phage that inherits the genetic features from siphoviruses, podoviruses, prophages and GTAs. This is the first report of CbK-like phages infecting marine bacteria. We believe phage isolation is still a powerful tool that can lead to discovery of new phages and help interpret the overwhelming unknown sequences in the viral metagenomics.