Breaking the Vicious Cycle of Antibiotic Killing and Regrowth of Biofilm-Residing Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
ABSTRACT: Biofilm-residing bacteria embedded in an extracellular matrix are protected from diverse physicochemical insults. In addition to the general recalcitrance of biofilm bacteria, high bacterial loads in biofilm-associated infections significantly diminish the efficacy of antimicrobials due to a low per-cell antibiotic concentration. Accordingly, present antimicrobial treatment protocols that have been established to serve the eradication of acute infections fail to clear biofilm-associated chronic infections. In the present study, we applied automated confocal microscopy on Pseudomonas aeruginosa to monitor dynamic killing of biofilm-grown bacteria by tobramycin and colistin in real time. We revealed that the time required for surviving bacteria to repopulate the biofilm could be taken as a measure for effectiveness of the antimicrobial treatment. It depends on the (i) nature and concentration of the antibiotic, (ii) duration of antibiotic treatment, (iii) application as monotherapy or combination therapy, and (iv) interval of drug administration. The vicious cycle of killing and repopulation of biofilm bacteria could also be broken in an in vivo model system by applying successive antibiotic dosages at intervals that do not allow full reconstitution of the biofilm communities. Treatment regimens that consider the important aspects of antimicrobial killing kinetics bear the potential to improve control of biofilm regrowth. This is an important and underestimated factor that is bound to ensure sustainable treatment success of chronic infections.
Project description:Infections caused by bacterial biofilms are an emerging threat to human health. Conventional antibiotic therapies are ineffective against biofilms due to poor penetration of the extracellular polymeric substance secreted by colonized bacteria coupled with the rapidly growing number of antibiotic-resistant strains. Essential oils are promising natural antimicrobial agents; however, poor solubility in biological conditions limits their applications against bacteria in both dispersed (planktonic) and biofilm settings. We report here an oil-in-water cross-linked polymeric nanocomposite (?250 nm) incorporating carvacrol oil that penetrates and eradicates multidrug-resistant (MDR) biofilms. The therapeutic potential of these materials against challenging wound biofilm infections was demonstrated through specific killing of bacteria in a mammalian cell-biofilm coculture wound model.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Implant associated infections such as periprosthetic joint infections are difficult to treat as the bacteria form a biofilm on the prosthetic material. This biofilm complicates surgical and antibiotic treatment. With rising antibiotic resistance, alternative treatment options are needed to treat these infections in the future. The aim of this article is to provide proof-of-principle data required for further development of radioimmunotherapy for non-invasive treatment of implant associated infections. METHODS:Planktonic cells and biofilms of Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus are grown and treated with radioimmunotherapy. The monoclonal antibodies used, target wall teichoic acids that are cell and biofilm specific. Three different radionuclides in different doses were used. Viability and metabolic activity of the bacterial cells and biofilms were measured by CFU dilution and XTT reduction. RESULTS:Alpha-RIT with Bismuth-213 showed significant and dose dependent killing in both planktonic MRSA and biofilm. When planktonic bacteria were treated with 370 kBq of 213Bi-RIT 99% of the bacteria were killed. Complete killing of the bacteria in the biofilm was seen at 185 kBq. Beta-RIT with Lutetium-177 and Actinium-225 showed little to no significant killing. CONCLUSION:Our results demonstrate the ability of specific antibodies loaded with an alpha-emitter Bismuth-213 to selectively kill staphylococcus aureus cells in vitro in both planktonic and biofilm state. RIT could therefore be a potentially alternative treatment modality against planktonic and biofilm-related microbial infections.
Project description:The chronic infections related to biofilm and intracellular bacteria are always hard to be cured because of their inherent resistance to both antimicrobial agents and host defenses. Herein we develop a facile approach to overcome the above conundrum through phosphatidylcholine-decorated Au nanoparticles loaded with gentamicin (GPA NPs). The nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectra which demonstrated that GPA NPs with a diameter of approximately 180 nm were uniform. The loading manner and release behaviors were also investigated. The generated GPA NPs maintained their antibiotic activities against planktonic bacteria, but more effective to damage established biofilms and inhibited biofilm formation of pathogens including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In addition, GPA NPs were observed to be nontoxic to RAW 264.7 cells and readily engulfed by the macrophages, which facilitated the killing of intracellular bacteria in infected macrophages. These results suggested GPA NPs might be a promising antibacterial agent for effective treatment of chronic infections due to microbial biofilm and intracellular bacteria.
Project description:Bovine mastitis affects the health of dairy cows and the profitability of herds worldwide. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the most frequently isolated pathogens in bovine intramammary infection. Based on the wide range of antimicrobial, mucoadhesive and immunostimulant properties demonstrated by chitosan, we have evaluated therapy efficiency of chitosan incorporation to cloxacillin antibiotic as well as its effect against different bacterial lifestyles of seven CNS isolates from chronic intramammary infections. The therapeutic effects of combinations were evaluated on planktonic cultures, bacterial biofilms and intracellular growth in mammary epithelial cells. We found that biofilms and intracellular growth forms offered a strong protection against antibiotic therapy. On the other hand, we found that chitosan addition to cloxacillin efficiently reduced the antibiotic concentration necessary for bacterial killing in different lifestyle. Remarkably, the combined treatment was not only able to inhibit bacterial biofilm establishment and increase preformed biofilm eradication, but it also reduced intracellular bacterial viability while it increased IL-6 secretion by infected epithelial cells. These findings provide a new approach to prophylactic drying therapy that could help to improve conventional antimicrobial treatment against different forms of bacterial growth in an efficient, safer and greener manner reducing multiresistant bacteria generation and spread.
Project description:Biofilm formation is a major pathogenicity strategy of Staphylococcus epidermidis causing various medical-device infections. Persister cells have been implicated in treatment failure of such infections. We sought to profile bacterial subpopulations residing in S. epidermidis biofilms, and to establish persister-targeting treatment strategies to eradicate biofilms. Population analysis was performed by challenging single biofilm cells with antibiotics at increasing concentrations ranging from planktonic minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) to biofilm MBCs (MBCbiofilm). Two populations of "persister cells" were observed: bacteria that survived antibiotics at MBCbiofilm for 24/48?hours were referred to as dormant cells; those selected with antibiotics at 8 X MICs for 3?hours (excluding dormant cells) were defined as tolerant-but-killable (TBK) cells. Antibiotic regimens targeting dormant cells were tested in vitro for their efficacies in eradicating persister cells and intact biofilms. This study confirmed that there are at least three subpopulations within a S. epidermidis biofilm: normal cells, dormant cells, and TBK cells. Biofilms comprise more TBK cells and dormant cells than their log-planktonic counterparts. Using antibiotic regimens targeting dormant cells, i.e. effective antibiotics at MBCbiofilm for an extended period, might eradicate S. epidermidis biofilms. Potential uses for this strategy are in antibiotic lock techniques and inhaled aerosolized antibiotics.
Project description:The selection and dose of antibiotic therapy for biofilm-related infections are based on traditional pharmacokinetic studies using planktonic bacteria. The objective of this study was to characterize the time course and spatial activity of human exposure levels of meropenem and tobramycin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms grown in an in vitro flow-chamber model.Pharmacokinetic profiles of meropenem and tobramycin used in human therapy were administered to GFP-labelled P. aeruginosa PAO1 grown in flow chambers for 24 or 72?h. Images were acquired using confocal laser scanning microscopy throughout antibiotic treatment. Bacterial biomass was measured using COMSTAT and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models were fitted using NONMEM7.Meropenem treatment resulted in more rapid and sustained killing of both the 24 and 72?h PAO1 biofilm compared with tobramycin. Biofilm regrowth after antibiotic treatment occurred fastest with tobramycin. Meropenem preferentially killed subpopulations within the mushroom cap of the biofilms, regardless of biofilm maturity. The spatial killing by tobramycin varied with biofilm maturity. A tobramycin-treated 24?h biofilm resulted in live and dead cells detaching from the biofilm, while treatment of a 72?h biofilm preferentially killed subpopulations on the periphery of the mushroom stalk. Regrowth occurred primarily on the mushroom caps. Combination meropenem and tobramycin therapy resulted in rapid and efficient killing of biofilm cells, with a spatial pattern similar to meropenem alone.Simulated human concentrations of meropenem and tobramycin in young and mature PAO1 biofilms exhibited differences in temporal and spatial patterns of killing and antibiotic tolerance development.
Project description:In contrast to planktonic cells, bacteria imbedded biofilms are notoriously refractory to treatment by antibiotics or bacteriophage (phage) used alone. Given that the mechanisms of killing differ profoundly between drugs and phages, an obvious question is whether killing is improved by combining antibiotic and phage therapy. However, this question has only recently begun to be explored. Here, in vitro biofilm populations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 were treated singly and with combinations of two phages and bactericidal antibiotics of five classes. By themselves, phages and drugs commonly had only modest effects in killing the bacteria. However some phage-drug combinations reduced bacterial densities to well below that of the best single treatment; in some cases, bacterial densities were reduced even below the level expected if both agents killed independently of each other (synergy). Furthermore, there was a profound order effect in some cases: treatment with phages before drugs achieved maximum killing. Combined treatment was particularly effective in killing in Pseudomonas biofilms grown on layers of cultured epithelial cells. Phages were also capable of limiting the extent to which minority populations of bacteria resistant to the treating antibiotic ascend. The potential of combined antibiotic and phage treatment of biofilm infections is discussed as a realistic way to evaluate and establish the use of bacteriophage for the treatment of humans.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus epidermidis is the major bacterial species found in biofilm-related infections on indwelling medical devices. Microbial biofilms are communities of bacteria adhered to a surface and surrounded by an extracellular polymeric matrix. Biofilms have been associated with increased antibiotic tolerance to the immune system. This increased resistance to conventional antibiotic therapy has lead to the search for new antimicrobial therapeutical agents. Farnesol, a quorum-sensing molecule in Candida albicans, has been described as impairing growth of several different microorganisms and we have previously shown its potential as an adjuvant in antimicrobial therapy against S. epidermidis. However, its mechanism of action in S. epidermidis is not fully known. In this work we better elucidate the role of farnesol against S: epidermidis biofilms using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). FINDINGS: 24 h biofilms were exposed to farnesol, vancomycin or rifampicin and were analysed by CLSM, after stained with a Live/Dead stain, a known indicator of cell viability, related with cell membrane integrity. Biofilms were also disrupted by sonication and viable and cultivable cells were quantified by colony forming units (CFU) plating. Farnesol showed a similar effect as vancomycin, both causing little reduction of cell viability but at the same time inducing significant changes in the biofilm structure. On the other hand, rifampicin showed a distinct action in S. epidermidis biofilms, by killing a significant proportion of biofilm bacteria. CONCLUSIONS: While farnesol is not very efficient at killing biofilm bacteria, it damages cell membrane, as determined by the live/dead staining, in a similar way as vancomycin. Furthermore, farnesol might induce biofilm detachment, as determined by the reduced biofilm biomass, which can partially explain the previous findings regarding its role as a possible chemotherapy adjuvant.
Project description:Chronic infections resulting from biofilm formation are difficult to eradicate with current antimicrobial agents and consequently new therapies are needed. This work demonstrates that the carbon monoxide-releasing molecule CORM-2, previously shown to kill planktonic bacteria, also attenuates surface-associated growth of the gram-negative pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa by both preventing biofilm maturation and killing bacteria within the established biofilm. CORM-2 treatment has an additive effect when combined with tobramycin, a drug commonly used to treat P. aeruginosa lung infections. CORM-2 inhibited biofilm formation and planktonic growth of the majority of clinical P. aeruginosa isolates tested, for both mucoid and non-mucoid strains. While CORM-2 treatment increased the production of reactive oxygen species by P. aeruginosa biofilms, this increase did not correlate with bacterial death. These data demonstrate that CO-RMs possess potential novel therapeutic properties against a subset of P. aeruginosa biofilm related infections.
Project description:Biofilms consist of groups of bacteria attached to surfaces and encased in a hydrated polymeric matrix. Bacteria in biofilms are more resistant to the immune system and to antibiotics than their free-living planktonic counterparts. Thus, biofilm-related infections are persistent and often show recurrent symptoms. The metal chelator EDTA is known to have activity against biofilms of gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus. EDTA can also kill planktonic cells of Proteobacteria like Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this study we demonstrate that EDTA is a potent P. aeruginosa biofilm disrupter. In Tris buffer, EDTA treatment of P. aeruginosa biofilms results in 1,000-fold greater killing than treatment with the P. aeruginosa antibiotic gentamicin. Furthermore, a combination of EDTA and gentamicin results in complete killing of biofilm cells. P. aeruginosa biofilms can form structured mushroom-like entities when grown under flow on a glass surface. Time lapse confocal scanning laser microscopy shows that EDTA causes a dispersal of P. aeruginosa cells from biofilms and killing of biofilm cells within the mushroom-like structures. An examination of the influence of several divalent cations on the antibiofilm activity of EDTA indicates that magnesium, calcium, and iron protect P. aeruginosa biofilms against EDTA treatment. Our results are consistent with a mechanism whereby EDTA causes detachment and killing of biofilm cells.