Transcriptional profiling analysis predicts potential biomarkers for glaucoma: HGF, AKR1B10 and AKR1C3.
ABSTRACT: Glaucoma results in damage to the optic nerve and vision loss. The aim of this study was to screen more accurate biomarkers and targets for glaucoma. The datasets E-GEOD-7144 and E-MEXP-3427 were screened for differently expressed genes (DEGs) by significance analysis of microarrays. Functional and pathway enrichment analysis were processed. Pathway relationship networks and gene co-expression networks were constructed. DEGs of disease and treatment with the same symbols were of interest. RT-qPCR was processed to verify the expression of key DEGs. A total of 1,019 DEGs of glaucoma were identified and 93 DEGs in transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and TGF-β1-2 treatment cases compared with the normal control group. Pathway relationship network of glaucoma was constructed with 25 nodes. The pathway relationship network of TGF-β1 and -2 treatment groups was constructed with 11 nodes. Glaucoma-related DEGs in GO terms and pathways were inserted and 180 common DEGs were obtained. Then, gene co-expression network of glaucoma-related DEGs was constructed with 91 nodes. Furthermore, DEGs of TGF-β1 and -2 treated glaucoma in GO terms and pathways were inserted, and 29 common DEGs were identified. Based on these DEGs, gene co-expression network was constructed with 12 nodes and 16 edges. Finally, a total of 6 important DEGs of disease and treatment were inserted and obtained. They were HGF, AKR1B10, AKR1C3, PPAP2B, INHBA and BCAT1. The expression of HGF, AKR1B10 and AKR1C3 was decreased in glaucoma samples and treatment samples. In conclusion, HGF, AKR1B10 and AKR1C3 may be key genes for glaucoma diagnosis and treatment.
Project description:Background:Glaucoma is a common cause of irreversible blindness. Transforming growth factor beta-1(TGF-β1) is the main isoform of TGF-β superfamily in the eye. Overexpression of TGF-β1 is shown to be related with the glaucoma. Studies have shown that the presence of mutant T allele of TGF-β1 -509C>T polymorphism (rs1800469) is associated with increased gene expression. So, in present study, association of the TGF-β1-509C>T gene polymorphism and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) in patients from north east of Iran was investigated. Methods:A case-control study was conducted on 112 POAG patients and 112 control participants. TGF-β1- 509C>T genotyping was done by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method using Bsu36I restriction enzyme. Moreover, cup to disk ratio(CDR), intraocular pressure (IOP) and visual acuity (VA) were measured. The obtained results were statistically analyzed. Results:The highest frequency of genotype in the control group was related to CC genotype (44.6%), but the heterozygous CT genotype (45.6%) was observed as the highest frequency of genotypes in patient group (P value: 0.022, OR for TT genotype: 2.54 CI95% for OR: 1.22, 5.27). Also, the frequency of the T mutant allele showed a significant difference between case and control groups (P value: 0.005, OR: 1.73 CI95% for OR: 1.18, 2.53). Conclusion:In conclusion, a significant association was seen between TGF-β1 -509C>T gene polymorphism and POAG disease and inheritance of mutant T allele is considered to be a risk factor for glaucoma in patients living in North Eastern part of Iran.
Project description:Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a life-threatening disease with a poor prognosis. Therefore, it is crucial to identify molecular prognostic biomarkers for CRC. The present study aimed to identify potential key genes that could be used to predict the prognosis of patients with CRC. Three CRC microarray datasets (GSE20916, GSE73360 and GSE44861) were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, and one dataset was obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. The three GEO datasets were analyzed to detect differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using the BRB-ArrayTools software. Functional and pathway enrichment analyses of these DEGs were performed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery tool. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of DEGs was constructed, hub genes were extracted, and modules of the PPI network were analyzed. To investigate the prognostic values of the hub genes in CRC, data from the CRC datasets of TCGA were used to perform the survival analyses based on the sample splitting method and Cox regression model. Correlation among the hub genes was evaluated using Spearman's correlation analysis. In the three GEO datasets, a total of 105 common DEGs were identified, including 51 down- and 54 up-regulated genes in CRC compared with normal colorectal tissues. A PPI network consisting of 100 DEGs and 551 edges was constructed, and 44 nodes were identified as hub genes. Among these 44 genes, the four hub genes TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 1 (TIMP1), solute carrier family 4 member 4 (SLC4A4), aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B10 (AKR1B10) and ATP binding cassette subfamily E member 1 (ABCE1) were associated with overall survival (OS) in patients with CRC. Three significant modules were extracted from the PPI network. The hub gene TIMP1 was present in Module 1, ABCE1 was involved in Module 2 and SLC4A4 was identified in Module 3. Univariate analysis revealed that TIMP1, SLC4A4, AKR1B10 and ABCE1 were associated with the OS of patients with CRC. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that SLC4A4 may be an independent prognostic factor associated with OS. Furthermore, the results from correlation analysis revealed that there was no correlation between TIMP1, SLC4A4 and ABCE1, whereas AKR1B10 was positively correlated with SLC4A4. In conclusion, the four key genes TIMP1, SLC4A4, AKR1B10 and ABCE1 associated with the OS of patients with CRC were identified by integrated bioinformatics analysis. These key genes may be used as prognostic biomarkers to predict the survival of patients with CRC, and may therefore represent novel therapeutic targets for CRC.
Project description:Panax Notoginseng is a well-known Chinese medicinal herb which has been used in China for treatment of bone fracture for hundreds of years. However, the specific biological mechanisms of osteogenic effect of PNS are not well understood.In this study, newborn rabbit BMSCs were isolated, and then identified by the positive expression rates of cell surface markers, including CD29, CD45 and HLA-DR, which were detected by flow cytometry(FCM). After the lentivirus-induced cell model of TGF-β1 gene silencing was established, the interference efficiency was tested by q-PCR and Western blot, and the growth curve of silencing cells was drawn by MTT so as to grasp the growth rhythm of silencing cells. In the alizarin red-staining experiment, the effect of 100 mg/L PNS on the activity of intracellular ALP of TGF-β1 gene silencing BMSCs was detected, so as to observe the effect of 100 mg/L PNS on the formation of calcium nodes of gene silencing BMSCs.By separating rabbit BMSCs, the lentivirus-induced cell model of TGF-β1 gene silencing was established. Both TGF-β1 mRNA and protein expression were restrained significantly, and the target gene kept silence stably via the verification of q-PCR and Western blot; there was no significant differences of the growth curve between RNAi cells and normal cells; the activity of intracellular APL in 100 mg RNAi group was obviously lower than that in 100 mg group (p < 0.05), but higher than that in the normal group; in the alizarin red-staining experiment, it focused on the effects of PNS on the formation of calcium nodes of gene silencing BMSCs, which showed that calcium nodes could be formed in 100 mg RNAi group but its quantity was lower than that of 100 mg group (p < 0.05).It was shown that silencing TGF-β1 gene could interrupt the osteogenic effects of PNS. PNS may have a promoting effect on osteogenic differentiation of rabbits' BMSCs in vitro by up-regulating the gene expression of TGF-β1.
Project description:Several aldo-keto reductase (AKR) enzymes from subfamilies 1B and 1C show retinaldehyde reductase activity, having low K(m) and k(cat) values. Only AKR1B10 and 1B12, with all-trans-retinaldehyde, and AKR1C3, with 9-cis-retinaldehyde, display high catalytic efficiency. Major structural determinants for retinaldehyde isomer specificity are located in the external loops (A and C for AKR1B10, and B for AKR1C3), as assessed by site-directed mutagenesis and molecular dynamics. Cellular models have shown that AKR1B and 1C enzymes are well suited to work in vivo as retinaldehyde reductases and to regulate retinoic acid (RA) biosynthesis at hormone pre-receptor level. An additional physiological role for the retinaldehyde reductase activity of these enzymes, consistent with their tissue localization, is their participation in ?-carotene absorption. Retinaldehyde metabolism may be subjected to subcellular compartmentalization, based on enzyme localization. While retinaldehyde oxidation to RA takes place in the cytosol, reduction to retinol could take place in the cytosol by AKRs or in the membranes of endoplasmic reticulum by microsomal retinaldehyde reductases. Upregulation of some AKR1 enzymes in different cancer types may be linked to their induction by oxidative stress and to their participation in different signaling pathways related to cell proliferation. AKR1B10 and AKR1C3, through their retinaldehyde reductase activity, trigger a decrease in the RA biosynthesis flow, resulting in RA deprivation and consequently lower differentiation, with an increased cancer risk in target tissues. Rational design of selective AKR inhibitors could lead to development of novel drugs for cancer treatment as well as reduction of chemotherapeutic drug resistance.
Project description:In this study, we aimed to explore the molecular mechanisms of and genetic factors influencing diabetic nephropathy (DN). Gene expression profiles associated with DN were obtained from the GEO database (Accession no. GSE20844). The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between diabetic mice and non-diabetic mice were screened. Subsequently, the DEGs were subjected to functional and pathway analysis. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed and the transcription factors (TFs) were screened among the DEGs. A total of 92 upregulated and 118 downregulated genes were screened. Pathway analysis revealed that the p53 signaling pathway, the transforming growth factor (TGF)-? signaling pathway and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway were significantly enriched by upregulated genes. Serpine1 (also known as plasminogen activator inhibitor-1), early growth response 1 (Egr1) and Mdk were found to be significant nodes in the PPI network by three methods. A total of 12 TFs were found to be differentially expressed, of which nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 1 (Nr4a1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg) were found to have multiple interactions with other DEGs. We demonstrated that the p53 signaling pathway, the TGF-? signaling pathway and the MAPK signaling pathway were dysregulated in the diabetic mice. The significant nodes (Serpine1, Egr1 and Mdk) and differentially expressed TFs (Nr4a1 and Pparg) may provide a novel avenue for the targeted therapy of DN.
Project description:Microarray analysis reveals up-regulation of retinoic acid and hepatocyte growth factor related signaling pathways by pro-insulin C-peptide in kidney proximal tubular cells: Antagonism of the pro-fibrotic effects of TGF-b1 Novel signaling roles for C-peptide have recently been discovered with evidence that it can ameliorate complications of type 1 diabetes. Here we sought to identify new pathways regulated by C-peptide of relevance to the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy. Microarray analysis was performed to identify genes regulated by either C-peptide and/or transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) in a human proximal tubular cell line, HK-2. Expression of retinoic acid receptor β (RARβ), hepatcoyte growth factor (HGF), cellular retinoic acid binding protein II (CRABPII), vimentin, E-cadherin, Snail and β-catenin was assessed by immunoblotting. The cellular localisation of vimentin and β-catenin was determined by immunocytochemistry. Changes in cell morphology were assessed by phase contrast microscopy. Gene expression profiling demonstrated differential expression of 953 and 1,458 genes after C-peptide exposure for 18h or 48h respectively. From these, members of the anti-fibrotic retinoic acid (RA) and HGF signaling pathways were selected. Immunoblotting demonstrated that C-peptide increased RARβ, CRABPII and HGF. We confirmed a role for RA in reversal of TGF-β1-induced changes associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), including expression changes in Snail, E-cadherin, vimetin and redistribution of β-catenin. Importantly, these TGF-β1-induced changes were inhibited by C-peptide. Further, effects of TGF-β1 on Snail and E-cadherin expression were blocked by HGF and inhibitory effects of C-peptide were removed by blockade of HGF activity. This study identifies a novel role for HGF as an effector of C-peptide, possibly via an RA signaling pathway, highlighting C-peptide as a potential therapy for diabetic nephropathy. Overall design: For microarray analyses, all treatments were performed in triplicate to yield 18 flasks, and RNA from each flask hybridized to a separate chip to give an n of 3 for each of 6 treatments. Flasks were subjected to identical media changes and cells cultured for identical periods in media without supplements. In all experiments, cells were serum-starved overnight before agonist addition. Treatments were initiated such that 18h and 48h incubation periods ended coincidentally and all RNA was prepared at this point.
Project description:In the present study, we explored the influence of cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking on gene expression level and related functions and pathways on the development of ischemic stroke (IS) disease. The gene expression profile of E-GEOD-22255 was obtained from 20 IS samples (7 patients without smoking or drinking history and 13 patients with smoking or drinking history) and 20 controls (9 normal controls without smoking or drinking history and 11 controls with smoking or drinking history). The correlation degree between gene expression and grouping were measured by significance analysis of microarray (SAM). Smoking or drinking-related DEGs were screened. GO functional and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses were processed. Based on the KEGG database, a pathway relationship network was constructed. DEGs in significant functions and pathways were inserted and regarded as key DEGs. Gene co-expression network was constructed based on the expression value of key genes. In total, 319 IS-related DEGs, which were induced by smoking and drinking, were screened and enriched in various functions and pathways, including inflammatory response, nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) signaling pathway and influenza A. Pathway relationship network was constructed with 44 nodes and the hub node was the MAPK signaling pathway. After merging, 87 key DEGs were obtained. The gene co-expression network with 43 node edges was constructed and the hub node was prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2. In IS patients, smoking and drinking may induce different expression of many genes, including PTGS2, TNFAIP3, ZFP36 and NFKBIZ. In addition, these genes participated in various pathways, such as inflammatory response.
Project description:The aim of the present study was to screen the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with glaucoma and investigate the changing patterns of the expression of these genes. The GSE2378 gene microarray data of glaucoma was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, which included seven normal samples and eight glaucoma astrocyte samples. Taking into account the corresponding associations between the probe ID and gene symbols, the DEGs were identified prior to and subsequent to the summation of probe level values using the Limma package in R language, followed by Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analyses. Interaction networks of the DEGs were constructed using the Biomolecular Interaction Network Database, and cluster analysis of the genes in the networks was performed using ClusterONE. Subsequent to the summation of probe value, a total of 223 genes were identified as DEGs between the normal and glaucoma samples, including 74 downregulated and 149 upregulated genes. In addition, the DEGs were found to be associated with several functions, including response to wounding, extracellular region part and calcium ion binding. The most significantly enriched pathways were complement and coagulation cascades, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy and extracellular matrix (ECM)?receptor interaction. Furthermore, interaction networks were constructed of the DEGs prior to and subsequent to the summation of probe values, and HNF4A and CEBPD were identified as hub genes. Additionally, 37 and 31 GO terms were identified to be enriched in the two DEGs of the networks prior to and subsequent to summation, respectively. The results indicated the identified genes associated with ECM as important, and the CEBPD gene was considered to be a critical gene in glaucoma. The findings of the present study offer a potential reference value in further investigations of glaucoma at the gene level.
Project description:The aim of the present study was to investigate more colon cancer-related genes in different stages. Gene expression profile E-GEOD-62932 was extracted for differentially expressed gene (DEG) screening. Series test of cluster analysis was used to obtain significant trending models. Based on the Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases, functional and pathway enrichment analysis were processed and a pathway relation network was constructed. Gene co-expression network and gene signal network were constructed for common DEGs. The DEGs with the same trend were clustered and in total, 16 clusters with statistical significance were obtained. The screened DEGs were enriched into small molecule metabolic process and metabolic pathways. The pathway relation network was constructed with 57 nodes. A total of 328 common DEGs were obtained. Gene signal network was constructed with 71 nodes. Gene co-expression network was constructed with 161 nodes and 211 edges. ABCD3, CPT2, AGL and JAM2 are potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of colon cancer.
Project description:Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is present in porcine enamel extracts and is critical for proper mineralization of tooth enamel. Here, we show that the mRNA of latent TGF-β1 is expressed throughout amelogenesis. Latent TGF-β1 is activated by matrix metalloproteinase 20 (MMP20), coinciding with amelogenin processing by the same proteinase. Activated TGF-β1 binds to the major amelogenin cleavage products, particularly the neutral-soluble P103 amelogenin, to maintain its activity. The P103 amelogenin-TGF-β1 complex binds to TGFBR1 to induce TGF-β1 signalling. The P103 amelogenin-TGF-β1 complex is slowly cleaved by kallikrein 4 (KLK4), which is secreted into the transition- and maturation-stage enamel matrix, thereby reducing TGF-β1 activity. To exert the multiple biological functions of TGF-β1 for amelogenesis, we propose that TGF-β1 is activated or inactivated by MMP20 or KLK4 and that the amelogenin cleavage product is necessary for the in-solution mobility of TGF-β1, which is necessary for binding to its receptor on ameloblasts and retention of its activity.