Synthesis of [4-(2-hydroxyphenyl)thiazol-2-yl]methanones as potential bioisosteres of salicylidene acylhydrazides.
ABSTRACT: A focused library of [4-(2-hydroxyphenyl)thiazol-2-yl]methanones was prepared in a four-step synthesis with the aim to obtain potent inhibitors of type III secretion in Gram-negative bacteria. The compounds are potential bioisosteres of salicylidene acylhydrazides that are a known class of type III secretion inhibitors.
Project description:Chlamydiae are widespread Gram-negative pathogens of humans and animals. Salicylidene acylhydrazides, developed as inhibitors of type III secretion system (T3SS) in Yersinia spp., have an inhibitory effect on chlamydial infection. However, these inhibitors also have the capacity to chelate iron, and it is possible that their antichlamydial effects are caused by iron starvation. Therefore, we have explored the modification of salicylidene acylhydrazides with the goal to uncouple the antichlamydial effect from iron starvation. We discovered that benzylidene acylhydrazides, which cannot chelate iron, inhibit chlamydial growth. Biochemical and genetic analyses suggest that the derivative compounds inhibit chlamydiae through a T3SS-independent mechanism. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in a Chlamydia muridarum variant resistant to benzylidene acylhydrazides, but it may be necessary to segregate the mutations to differentiate their roles in the resistance phenotype. Benzylidene acylhydrazides are well tolerated by host cells and probiotic vaginal Lactobacillus species and are therefore of potential therapeutic value.
Project description:Salicylidene acylhydrazides (SAHs) inhibit the type III secretion system (T3S) of Yersinia and other Gram-negative bacteria. In addition, SAHs restrict the growth and development of Chlamydia species. However, since the inhibition of Chlamydia growth by SAH is suppressed by the addition of excess iron and since SAHs have an iron-chelating capacity, their role as specific T3S inhibitors is unclear. We investigated here whether SAHs exhibit a function on C. trachomatis that goes beyond iron chelation. We found that the iron-saturated SAH INP0341 (IS-INP0341) specifically affects C. trachomatis infectivity with reduced generation of infectious elementary body (EB) progeny. Selection and isolation of spontaneous SAH-resistant mutant strains revealed that mutations in hemG suppressed the reduced infectivity caused by IS-INP0341 treatment. Structural modeling of C. trachomatis HemG predicts that the acquired mutations are located in the active site of the enzyme, suggesting that IS-INP0341 inhibits this domain of HemG and that protoporphyrinogen oxidase (HemG) and heme metabolism are important for C. trachomatis infectivity.
Project description:Salicylidene acylhydrazides belong to a class of compounds shown to inhibit bacterial type III secretion (T3S) in pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. This class of compounds also inhibits growth and replication of Chlamydiae, strict intracellular bacteria that possess a T3S system. In this study a library of 58 salicylidene acylhydrazides was screened to identify inhibitors of Chlamydia growth. Compounds inhibiting growth of both Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydophila pneumoniae were tested for cell toxicity and seven compounds were selected for preliminary pharmacokinetic analysis in mice using cassette dosing. Two compounds, ME0177 and ME0192, were further investigated by individual pharmacokinetic analysis. Compound ME0177 had a relatively high peak plasma concentration (C(max)) and area under curve and therefore may be considered for systemic treatment of Chlamydia infections. The other compound, ME0192, had poor pharmacokinetic properties but the highest anti-chlamydial activity in vitro and therefore was tested for topical treatment in a mouse vaginal infection model. ME0192 administered vaginally significantly reduced the infectious burden of C. trachomatis and the number of infected mice.
Project description:Salicylidene acylhydrazides identified as inhibitors of virulence-mediating type III secretion systems (T3SSs) potentially target their inner membrane export apparatus. They also lead to inhibition of flagellar T3SS-mediated swimming motility in Salmonella enterica serovar. Typhimurium. We show that INP0404 and INP0405 act by reducing the number of flagella/cell. These molecules still inhibit motility of a Salmonella ?fliH-fliI-fliJ/flhB((P28T)) strain, which lacks three soluble components of the flagellar T3S apparatus, suggesting that they are not the target of this drug family. We implemented a genetic screen to search for the inhibitors' molecular target(s) using motility assays in the ?fliH-fliI/flhB((P28T)) background. Both mutants identified were more motile than the background strain in the absence of the drugs, although HM18 was considerably more so. HM18 was more motile than its parent strain in the presence of both drugs while DI15 was only insensitive to INP0405. HM18 was hypermotile due to hyperflagellation, whereas DI15 was not hyperflagellated. HM18 was also resistant to a growth defect induced by high concentrations of the drugs. Whole-genome resequencing of HM18 indicated two alterations within protein coding regions, including one within atpB, which encodes the inner membrane a-subunit of the F(O)F(1)-ATP synthase. Reverse genetics indicated that the alteration in atpB was responsible for all of HM18's phenotypes. Genome sequencing of DI15 uncovered a single A562P mutation within a gene encoding the flagellar inner membrane protein FlhA, the direct role of which in mediating drug insensitivity could not be confirmed. We discuss the implications of these findings in terms of T3SS export apparatus function and drug target identification.
Project description:A class of anti-virulence compounds, the salicylidene acylhydrazides, has been widely reported to block the function of the type three secretion system of several Gram-negative pathogens by a previously unknown mechanism. In this work we provide the first identification of bacterial proteins that are targeted by this group of compounds. We provide evidence that their mode of action is likely to result from a synergistic effect arising from a perturbation of the function of several conserved proteins. We also examine the contribution of selected target proteins to the pathogenicity of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and to expression of virulence genes in Escherichia coli O157.
Project description:Thiol peroxidase, Tpx, has been shown to be a target protein of the salicylidene acylhydrazide class of antivirulence compounds. In this study we present the crystal structures of Tpx from Y. pseudotuberculosis (ypTpx) in the oxidised and reduced states, together with the structure of the C61S mutant. The structures solved are consistent with previously solved atypical 2-Cys thiol peroxidases, including that for "forced" reduced states using the C61S mutant. In addition, by investigating the solution structure of ypTpx using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), we have confirmed that reduced state ypTpx in solution is a homodimer. The solution structure also reveals flexibility around the dimer interface. Notably, the conformational changes observed between the redox states at the catalytic triad and at the dimer interface have implications for substrate and inhibitor binding. The structural data were used to model the binding of two salicylidene acylhydrazide compounds to the oxidised structure of ypTpx. Overall, the study provides insights into the binding of the salicylidene acylhydrazides to ypTpx, aiding our long-term strategy to understand the mode of action of this class of compounds.
Project description:Type 3 secretion systems (T3SSs) are major virulence factors in Gram-negative bacteria. <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i> expresses two T3SSs, namely, an injectisome (iT3SS) translocating effector proteins in the host cell cytosol and a flagellum (fT3SS) ensuring bacterial motility. Inhibiting these systems is an appealing therapeutic strategy for acute infections. This study examines the protective effects of the salicylidene acylhydrazide INP0341 and of the hydroxyquinoline INP1750 (previously described as T3SS inhibitors in other species) toward cytotoxic effects of <i>P. aeruginosa</i><i>in vitro</i> Both compounds reduced cell necrosis and inflammasome activation induced by reference strains or clinical isolates expressing T3SS toxins or only the translocation apparatus. INP0341 inhibited iT3SS transcriptional activation, including in strains with constitutive iT3SS expression, and reduced the total expression of toxins, suggesting it targets iT3SS gene transcription. INP1750 inhibited toxin secretion and flagellar motility and impaired the activity of the YscN ATPase from <i>Yersinia pseudotuberculosis</i> (homologous to the ATPase present in the basal body of <i>P. aeruginosa</i> iT3SS and fT3SS), suggesting that it rather targets a T3SS core constituent with high homology among iT3SS and fT3SS. This mode of action is similar to that previously described for INP1855, another hydroxyquinoline, against <i>P. aeruginosa</i> Thus, although acting by different mechanisms, INP0341 and INP1750 appear as useful inhibitors of the virulence of <i>P. aeruginosa</i> Hydroxyquinolines may have a broader spectrum of activity by the fact they act upon two virulence factors (iT3SS and fT3SS).
Project description:The type III secretion system (T3SS) and exopolysaccharide (EPS) amylovoran are two essential pathogenicity factors in Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of the serious bacterial disease fire blight. In this study, small molecules that inhibit T3SS gene expression in E. amylovora under hrp (hypersensitive response and pathogenicity)-inducing conditions were identified and characterized using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter. These compounds belong to salicylidene acylhydrazides and also inhibit amylovoran production. Microarray analysis of E. amylovora treated with compounds 3 and 9 identified a total of 588 significantly differentially expressed genes. Among them, 95 and 78 genes were activated and suppressed by both compounds, respectively, when compared with the dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) control. The expression of the majority of T3SS genes in E. amylovora, including hrpL and the avrRpt2 effector gene, was suppressed by both compounds. Compound 3 also suppressed the expression of amylovoran precursor and biosynthesis genes. However, both compounds induced significantly the expression of glycogen biosynthesis genes and siderophore biosynthesis, regulatory and transport genes. Furthermore, many membrane, lipoprotein and exported protein-encoding genes were also activated by both compounds. Similar expression patterns were observed for compounds 1, 2 and 4. Using crab apple flower as a model, compound 3 was capable of reducing disease development in pistils. These results suggest a common inhibition mechanism shared by salicylidene acylhydrazides and indicate that small-molecule inhibitors that disable T3SS function could be explored to control fire blight disease.
Project description:Gram-negative bacteria Yersinia secrete virulence factors that invade eukaryotic cells via type III secretion system. One particular virulence member, Yersinia outer protein E (YopE), targets Rho family of small GTPases by mimicking regulator GAP protein activity, and its secretion mainly induces cytoskeletal disruption and depolymerization of actin stress fibers within the host cell. In this work, potent drug-like inhibitors of YopE are investigated with virtual screening approaches. More than 500,000 unique small molecules from ZINC database were screened with a five-point pharmacophore, comprising three hydrogen acceptors, one hydrogen donor, and one ring, and derived from different salicylidene acylhydrazides. Binding modes and features of these molecules were investigated with a multistep molecular docking approach using Glide software. Virtual screening hits were further analyzed based on their docking score, chemical similarity, pharmacokinetic properties, and the key Arg144 interaction along with other active site residue interactions with the receptor. As a final outcome, a diverse set of ligands with inhibitory potential were proposed.
Project description:The identification of chemical compounds that prevent and combat bacterial diseases is fundamental for crop production. Bacterial virulence inhibitors are a promising alternative to classical control treatments, because they have a low environmental impact and are less likely to generate bacterial resistance. The major virulence determinant of most animal and plant bacterial pathogens is the type III secretion system (T3SS). In this work, we screened nine plant extracts and 12 isolated compounds-including molecules effective against human pathogens-for their capacity to inhibit the T3SS of plant pathogens and for their applicability as virulence inhibitors for crop protection. The screen was performed using a luminescent reporter system developed in the model pathogenic bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum. Five synthetic molecules, one natural product and two plant extracts were found to down-regulate T3SS transcription, most through the inhibition of the regulator hrpB. In addition, for three of the molecules, corresponding to salicylidene acylhydrazide derivatives, the inhibitory effect caused a dramatic decrease in the secretion capacity, which was translated into impaired plant responses. These candidate virulence inhibitors were then tested for their ability to protect plants. We demonstrated that salicylidene acylhydrazides can limit R. solanacearum multiplication in planta and protect tomato plants from bacterial speck caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Our work validates the efficiency of transcription reporters to discover compounds or natural product extracts that can be potentially applied to prevent bacterial plant diseases.