Responses of Morphology, Gas Exchange, Photochemical Activity of Photosystem II, and Antioxidant Balance in Cyclocarya paliurus to Light Spectra.
ABSTRACT: Light quality is a critical factor regulating photosynthetic capacity which directly affects the final yield of plants. Cyclocarya paliurus is a multiple function tree species and its leaves are widely used as tea production and ingredient in functional foods in China. However, the effects of varying light quality on photosynthetic process and the photoprotective mechanisms remains unexplored in-depth. In this study, the biomass accumulation, morphology changes, photosynthetic capacity, stomata ultrastructure, pigments content, PSII activity, reactive oxygen species production, antioxidant enzymes, and phenolic content of C. paliurus plants under different light-emitting diodes (LED) light treatments were investigated to test a hypothesis that the difference in photosynthetic efficiency of C. paliurus plants under differential light quality is related to the degree of photoinhibition and the activation of photoprotection. We found that C. paliurus plants performed better under the treatments of WL (white light, 445 and 560 nm) and BL (blue light, 456 nm) than the treatment of GL (green light, 514 nm) and RL (red light, 653 nm). The better performances were characterized by higher values of photosynthetic capacity, total biomass, pigments content, specific leaf mass per area, seeding height increment, leaf thickness and palisade length. In contrast, plants under the treatments of GL and RL suffered significant photoinhibition but effectively developed photoprotective mechanisms. Results of this study provide not only some insights of the response mechanisms of plant photosynthesis to light quality but also a scientific basis for improving the cultivation of C. paliurus plantations.
Project description:Photosynthetic pigments of plants capture light as a source of energy for photosynthesis. However, the amount of energy absorbed often exceeds its utilization, thus causing damage to the photosynthetic apparatus. Plants possess several mechanisms to minimize such risks, including non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), which allows them to dissipate excess excitation energy in the form of harmless heat. However, under non-stressful conditions in indoor farming, it would be favorable to restrict the NPQ activity and increase plant photosynthetic performance by optimizing the light spectrum. Towards this goal, we investigated the dynamics of NPQ, photosynthetic properties, and antioxidant activity in the leaves of tomato plants grown under different light qualities: monochromatic red (R), green (G), or blue (B) light (L) at 80 µmol m<sup>-2</sup> s<sup>-1</sup> and R:G:B = 1:1:1 (referred to as the white light (WL)) at 120 µmol m<sup>-2</sup> s<sup>-1</sup>. The results confirm that monochromatic BL increased the quantum efficiency of PSII and photosynthetic pigments accumulation. The RL and BL treatments enhanced the NPQ amplitude and showed negative effects on antioxidant enzyme activity. In contrast, plants grown solely under GL or WL presented a lower amplitude of NPQ due to the reduced accumulation of NPQ-related proteins, photosystem II (PSII) subunit S (PsbS), PROTON GRADIENT REGULATION-LIKE1 (PGRL1), cytochrome <i>b</i><sub>6</sub><i>f</i> subunit <i>f</i> (cyt<i>f</i>) and violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE). Additionally, we noticed that plants grown under GL or RL presented an increased rate of lipid peroxidation. Overall, our results indicate the potential role of GL in lowering the NPQ amplitude, while the role of BL in the RGB spectrum is to ensure photosynthetic performance and photoprotective properties.
Project description:Light is an important factor for determining photosynthetic performance in land plants. At high light intensity, land plants develop photosynthetic activity by increasing electron sinks, such as the Calvin cycle and photorespiration and photoprotective mechanisms in photosystem II (PSII), to effectively utilize light and protect them from photoinhibition. In addition to PSII, photosystem I (PSI) has a risk of undergoing photoinhibition under high light intensity because of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced within PSI. However, the acclimation response has hardly been evaluated in the relationship of PSI photoprotection to growth light. In this study, we studied the effect of growth light intensity on the photoprotective mechanisms in PSI using six wheat cultivars. To evaluate the susceptibility of PSI to its photoinhibition, we used the repetitive short-pulse (rSP) illumination method to cause O2-dependent PSI photoinhibition. We found that PSI photoinhibition induced by rSP illumination was much more alleviated in wheat cultivars grown under high-light conditions compared to those grown under low-light conditions. Here, we observed that wheat plant grown under high-light conditions lowered the susceptibility of PSI to its photoinhibition compared to those grown under low-light conditions. Furthermore, the acclimation response toward PSI photoinhibition was significantly different among the studied wheat cultivars, although the quantum yields both of PSII and PSI were increased by high-light acclimation in all wheat cultivars as reported previously. Interestingly, we observed that total chlorophyll content in leaves correlated with the susceptibility of PSI to its photoinhibition. On the basis of these results, we suggest that high-light acclimation induces protection mechanisms against PSI photoinhibition in land plants, and the increase in the leaf chlorophyll content relates to the susceptibility of PSI photoinhibition in wheat plants.
Project description:The impacts of wavelengths in 500-600 nm on plant response and their underlying mechanisms remain elusive and required further investigation. Here, we investigated the effect of light quality on leaf area growth, biomass, pigments content, and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) across three Arabidopsis thaliana accessions, along with changes in transcription, photosynthates content, and antioxidative enzyme activity. Eleven-leaves plants were treated with BL; 450 nm, AL; 595 nm, RL; 650 nm, and FL; 400-700 nm as control. RL significantly increased leaf area growth, biomass, and promoted Pn. BL increased leaf area growth, carotenoid and anthocyanin content. AL significantly reduced leaf area growth and biomass, while Pn remained unaffected. Petiole elongation was further observed across accessions under AL. To explore the underlying mechanisms under AL, expression of key marker genes involved in light-responsive photosynthetic reaction, enzymatic activity of antioxidants, and content of photosynthates were monitored in Col-0 under AL, RL (as contrast), and FL (as control). AL induced transcription of GSH2 and PSBA, while downregulated NPQ1 and FNR2. Photosynthates, including proteins and starches, showed lower content under AL. SOD and APX showed enhanced enzymatic activity under AL. These results provide insight into physiological and photosynthetic responses to light quality, in addition to identifying putative protective-mechanisms that may be induced to cope with lighting-stress in order to enhance plant stress tolerance.
Project description:We have studied the transcriptional, metabolic and photo-physiological responses to light of different spectral quality in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum through time-series studies of cultures exposed to equal doses of photosynthetically usable radiation of blue, green and red light. The experiments showed that short-term differences in gene expression and profiles are mainly light quality-dependent. Transcription of photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes was activated mainly through a light quality-independent mechanism likely to rely on chloroplast-to-nucleus signaling. In contrast, genes encoding proteins important for photoprotection and PSII repair were highly dependent on a blue light receptor-mediated signal. Changes in energy transfer efficiency by light-harvesting pigments were spectrally dependent; furthermore, a declining trend in photosynthetic efficiency was observed in red light. The combined results suggest that diatoms possess a light quality-dependent ability to activate photoprotection and efficient repair of photodamaged PSII. In spite of approximately equal numbers of PSII-absorbed quanta in blue, green and red light, the spectral quality of light is important for diatom responses to ambient light conditions. Continuous, axenic culturing of P. tricornutum was done as described in Nymark et al. (2009). The cultures were incubated at 15M-BM-0C under cool white fluorescent light (Philips TLD 36W/96) providing a scalar irradiance (EPAR) of 100 M-NM-<mol m-2 s-1 under continuous white light (CWL) conditions. Upon the onset of the experiment the cultures were synchronized by 48 h dark-treatment (D48). Thereafter the algae were exposed to blue light (BL), green light (GL) or red light (RL) provided by a waveband specific LED panel (SL3500, Photon Systems Instruments). The algae were exposed to 0.5 h, 6 h or 24 h of: 1) 230 M-NM-<mol m-2 s-1 of RL, 2) 100 M-NM-<mol m-2 s-1 of GL, 3) 50 M-NM-<mol m-2 s-1 of BL or 4) 100 M-NM-<mol m-2 s-1 of WL respectively. Three biological replicas for each of the treatments were harvested. Data for the white light exposure and 48h dark treatment is described in GSE42039, PMID: 23520530.
Project description:The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the acclimation to different light intensities in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum is controlled by light quality perception mechanisms. Therefore, semi-continuous cultures of P. tricornutum were illuminated with equal amounts of photosynthetically absorbed radiation of blue (BL), white (WL), and red light (RL) and in combination of two intensities of irradiance, low (LL) and medium light (ML). Under LL conditions, growth rates and photosynthesis rates were similar for all cultures. However, BL cultures were found to be in an acclimation state with an increased photoprotective potential. This was deduced from an increased capacity of non-photochemical quenching, a larger pool of xanthophyll cycle pigments, and a higher de-epoxidation state of xanthophyll cycle pigments compared to WL and RL cultures. Furthermore, in the chloroplast membrane proteome of BL cells, an upregulation of proteins involved in photoprotection, e.g. the Lhcx1 protein and zeaxanthin epoxidase, was evident. ML conditions induced increased photosynthesis rates and a further enhanced photoprotective potential for algae grown under BL and WL. In contrast, RL cultures exhibited no signs of acclimation towards increased irradiance. The data implicate that in diatoms the photoacclimation to high light intensities requires the perception of blue light.
Project description:Photosynthetic organisms are able to sense energy imbalances brought about by the overexcitation of photosystem II (PSII) through the redox state of the photosynthetic electron transport chain, estimated as the chlorophyll fluorescence parameter 1-q<sub>L</sub>, also known as PSII excitation pressure. Plants employ a wide array of photoprotective processes that modulate photosynthesis to correct these energy imbalances. Low temperature and light are well established in their ability to modulate PSII excitation pressure. The acquisition of freezing tolerance requires growth and development a low temperature (cold acclimation) which predisposes the plant to photoinhibition. Thus, photosynthetic acclimation is essential for proper energy balancing during the cold acclimation process. <i>Eutrema salsugineum</i> (<i>Thellungiella salsuginea</i>) is an extremophile, a close relative of <i>Arabidopsis thaliana</i>, but possessing much higher constitutive levels of tolerance to abiotic stress. This comparative study aimed to characterize the photosynthetic properties of <i>Arabidopsis</i> (Columbia accession) and two accessions of <i>Eutrema</i> (Yukon and Shandong) isolated from contrasting geographical locations at cold acclimating and non-acclimating conditions. In addition, three different growth regimes were utilized that varied in temperature, photoperiod and irradiance which resulted in different levels of PSII excitation pressure. This study has shown that these accessions interact differentially to instantaneous (measuring) and long-term (acclimation) changes in PSII excitation pressure with regard to their photosynthetic behaviour. <i>Eutrema</i> accessions contained a higher amount of photosynthetic pigments, showed higher oxidation of P700 and possessed more resilient photoprotective mechanisms than that of <i>Arabidopsis</i>, perhaps through the prevention of PSI acceptor-limitation. Upon comparison of the two <i>Eutrema</i> accessions, Shandong demonstrated the greatest PSII operating efficiency (?<sub>PSII</sub>) and P700 oxidizing capacity, while Yukon showed greater growth plasticity to irradiance. Both of these <i>Eutrema</i> accessions are able to photosynthetically acclimate but do so by different mechanisms. The Shandong accessions demonstrate a stable response, favouring energy partitioning to photochemistry while the Yukon accession shows a more rapid response with partitioning to other (non-photochemical) strategies.
Project description:UV-B radiation has been previously reported to induce protective or deleterious effects on plants depending on the UV-B irradiation doses. To elucidate how these contrasting events are physiologically coordinated, we exposed sweet basil plants to two UV-B doses: low (8.5 kJ m-2 day-1, 30 min exposure) and high (68 kJ m-2 day-1, 4 h exposure), with the plants given both doses once continuously in a single day. Physiological tests during and after both UV-B exposures were performed by comparing the stress-induced damage and adverse effects on photosynthetic activity, the concentration and composition of photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic pigments, and stress-related hormones biosynthesis in basil plants. Our results showed that upon receiving a high UV-B dose, a severe inactivation of oxygen evolving complex (OEC) activity at the PSII donor side and irreversible PSII photodamage caused primarily by limitation of the acceptor side occurred, which overloaded protective mechanisms and finally led to the death of the plants. In contrast, low UV-B levels did not induce any signs of UV-B stress injuries. The OEC partial limitation and the inactivation of the electron transport chain allowed the activation of photoprotective mechanisms, avoiding irreversible damage to PSII. Overall results indicate the importance of a specific response mechanisms regulating photoprotection vs irreversible photoinhibition in basil that were modulated depending on the UV-B doses.
Project description:The xanthophyll zeaxanthin is synthesized in chloroplasts upon high light exposure of plants and serves central photoprotective functions. The reconversion of zeaxanthin to violaxanthin is catalyzed by the zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP). ZEP shows highest activity after short and moderate high light periods, but becomes gradually down-regulated in response to increasing high light stress along with down-regulation of photosystem II (PSII) activity. ZEP activity and ZEP protein levels were studied in response to high light stress in four plant species: Arabidopsis thaliana, Pisum sativum, Nicotiana benthamiana and Spinacia oleracea. In all species, ZEP protein was degraded during photoinhibition of PSII in parallel with the D1 protein of PSII. In the presence of streptomycin, an inhibitor of chloroplast protein synthesis, photoinhibition of PSII and ZEP activity as well as degradation of D1 and ZEP protein was strongly increased, indicating a close correlation of ZEP regulation with PSII photoinhibition and repair. The concomitant high light-induced inactivation/degradation of ZEP and D1 prevents the reconversion of zeaxanthin during photoinhibition and repair of PSII. This regulation of ZEP activity supports a coordinated degradation of D1 and ZEP during photoinhibition/repair of PSII and an essential photoprotective function of zeaxanthin during the PSII repair cycle.
Project description:Light spectrum of growing environment is a determinant factor for plant growth and photosynthesis. Plants under different light spectra exhibit different growth and photosynthetic behaviors. To unravel the effects of light spectra on plant growth, photosynthetic pigments and electron transport chain reactions, purple and green basil varieties were grown under five different light spectra including white (W: 400-730 nm), blue (B: 400-500 nm), red (R: 600-700 nm) and two combinations of R and B lights (R50B50 and R70B30), with same PPFD (photosynthetic photon flux density). Almost all values for shoot and root growth traits were higher in purple variety and were improved by combinational R and B lights (especially under R70B30), while they were negatively influenced by B monochromatic light when compared to growth traits of W-grown plants. Highest concentration of photosynthetic pigments was detected in R70B30. Biophysical properties of photosynthetic electron transport chain showed higher florescence intensity at all steps of OJIP kinetics in plants grown under R light in both varieties. Oxygen evolving complex activity (Fv/Fo) and PSII maximum quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm) in R-grown plants were lower than plants grown under other light spectra. Values for parameters related to specific energy fluxes per reaction center (ABS/RC, TRo/RC, ETo/RC and DIo/RC) were increased under R light (especially for purple variety). Performance index was significantly decreased under R light in both varieties. In conclusion, light spectra other than RB combination, induced various limitations on pigmentations, efficiency of electron transport and growth of basil plants and the responses were cultivar specific.
Project description:Plastoquinone-9 is known as a photosynthetic electron carrier to which has also been attributed a role in the regulation of gene expression and enzyme activities via its redox state. Here, we show that it acts also as an antioxidant in plant leaves, playing a central photoprotective role. When Arabidopsis plants were suddenly exposed to excess light energy, a rapid consumption of plastoquinone-9 occurred, followed by a progressive increase in concentration during the acclimation phase. By overexpressing the plastoquinone-9 biosynthesis gene SPS1 (solanesyl diphosphate synthase 1) in Arabidopsis, we succeeded in generating plants that specifically accumulate plastoquinone-9 and its derivative plastochromanol-8. The SPS1-overexpressing lines were much more resistant to photooxidative stress than the wild type, showing marked decreases in leaf bleaching, lipid peroxidation and PSII photoinhibition under excess light. Comparison of the SPS1 overexpressors with other prenyl quinone mutants indicated that the enhanced phototolerance of the former plants is directly related to their increased capacities for plastoquinone-9 biosynthesis.