Mapping the Nonstructural Protein Interaction Network of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus.
ABSTRACT: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a positive-stranded RNA virus belonging to the family Arteriviridae Synthesis of the viral RNA is directed by replication/transcription complexes (RTC) that are mainly composed of a network of PRRSV nonstructural proteins (nsps) and likely cellular proteins. Here, we mapped the interaction network among PRRSV nsps by using yeast two-hybrid screening in conjunction with coimmunoprecipitation (co-IP) and cotransfection assays. We identified a total of 24 novel interactions and found that the interactions were centered on open reading frame 1b (ORF1b)-encoded nsps that were mainly connected by the transmembrane proteins nsp2, nsp3, and nsp5. Interestingly, the interactions of the core enzymes nsp9 and nsp10 with transmembrane proteins did not occur in a straightforward manner, as they worked in the co-IP assay but were poorly capable of finding each other within intact mammalian cells. Further proof that they can interact within cells required the engineering of N-terminal truncations of both nsp9 and nsp10. However, despite the poor colocalization relationship in cotransfected cells, both nsp9 and nsp10 came together with membrane proteins (e.g., nsp2) at the viral replication and transcription complexes (RTC) in PRRSV-infected cells. Thus, our results indicate the existence of a complex interaction network among PRRSV nsps and raise the possibility that the recruitment of key replicase proteins to membrane-associated nsps may involve some regulatory mechanisms during infection.IMPORTANCE Synthesis of PRRSV RNAs within host cells depends on the efficient and correct assembly of RTC that takes places on modified intracellular membranes. As an important step toward dissecting this poorly understood event, we investigated the interaction network among PRRSV nsps. Our studies established a comprehensive interaction map for PRRSV nsps and revealed important players within the network. The results also highlight the likely existence of a regulated recruitment of the PRRSV core enzymes nsp9 and nsp10 to viral membrane nsps during PRRSV RTC assembly.
Project description:The RNA synthesis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a positive-strand RNA virus, is compartmentalized in virus-induced double-membrane vesicles where viral proteins and some cellular proteins assemble into replication and transcription complexes (RTCs). The viral replicase proteins are the major components of the RTCs but the physical associations among these non-structural proteins (nsps) remain elusive. In this study, we investigated the potential interactions between PRRSV nsps by yeast two-hybrid (Y2H), bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) and pull-down assays. Our analyses revealed a complex network of interactions involving most of PRRSV nsps. Among them, nsp9 and nsp12 were identified as the hubs of the nsp interactome; transmembrane proteins nsp2 and nsp5 both interacted with nsp3, indicating that the three membrane-bound proteins might bind together to form the scaffold to support the association of RTCs with the intracellular membrane. The PRRSV nsp interactions identified in this study may provide valuable clues for future researches on the RTC formation and function.
Project description:Our knowledge about the structure and function of the nonstructural proteins (nsps) encoded by the arterivirus replicase gene has advanced in recent years. The continued characterization of the nsps of the arterivirus prototype equine arteritis virus has not only corroborated several important functional predictions, but also revealed various novel features of arteriviral replication. For porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), based on bioinformatics predictions and experimental studies, a processing map for the pp1a and pp1ab replicase polyproteins has been developed. Crystal structures have been resolved for two of the PRRSV nonstructural proteins that possess proteinase activity (nsp1? and nsp4). The functional characterization of the key enzymes for arterivirus RNA synthesis, the nsp9 RNA polymerase and nsp10 helicase, has been initiated. In addition, progress has been made on nsp functions relating to the regulation of subgenomic mRNAs synthesis (nsp1), the induction of replication-associated membrane rearrangements (nsp2 and nsp3), and an intriguing replicative endoribonuclease (nsp11) for which the natural substrate remains to be identified. The role of nsps in viral pathogenesis and host immunity is also being explored, and specific nsps (including nsp1?/?, nsp2, nsp4, nsp7, and nsp11) have been implicated in the modulation of host immune responses to PRRSV infection. The nsp3-8 region was identified as containing major virulence factors, although mechanistic information is scarce. The biological significance of PRRSV nsps in virus-host interactions and the technical advancements in engineering the PRRSV genome by reverse genetics are also reflected in recent developments in the area of vaccines and diagnostic assays.
Project description:SUMOylation is a reversible post-translational modification that regulates the function of target protein. In this study, we first predicted by software that the multiple proteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) could be sumoylated. Next, we confirmed that Nsp1?, Nsp4, Nsp9, Nsp10 and nucleocapsid (N) protein of PRRSV could interact with the sole SUMO E2 conjugating enzyme Ubc9, and Ubc9 could be co-localized with Nsp1?, Nsp4, Nsp9 and Nsp10 in the cytoplasm, while with N protein in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. Finally, we demonstrated that N protein could be sumoylated by either SUMO1 or SUMO2/3. In addition, the overexpression of Ubc9 could inhibit viral genomic replication at early period of PRRSV infection and the knockdown of Ubc9 by siRNA could promote the virus replication. These findings reveal the SUMOylation property of PRRSV N protein and the involvement of Ubc9 in PRRSV replication through interaction with multiple proteins of PRRSV. To our knowledge, this is the first study indicating the interplay between SUMO modification system and PRRSV.
Project description:Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a member within the family Arteriviridae of the order Nidovirales. Replication of this positive-stranded RNA virus within the host cell involves expression of viral replicase proteins encoded by two ORFs, namely ORF1a and ORF1b. In particular, translation of ORF1b depends on a -1-ribosomal frameshift strategy. Thus, nonstructural protein 9 (nsp9), the first protein within ORF1b that specifies the function of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, is expressed as the C-terminal extension of nsp8, a small nsp that is encoded by ORF1a. However, it has remained unclear whether the mature form of nsp9 in virus-infected cells still retains nsp8, addressing which is clearly critical to understand the biological function of nsp9. By taking advantage of specific antibodies to both nsp8 and nsp9, we report the following findings. (1) In infected cells, PRRSV nsp9 was identified as a major product with a size between 72 and 95 kDa (72-95 KDa form), which exhibited the similar mobility on the gel to the in vitro expressed nsp8-9ORF1b, but not the ORF1b-coded portion (nsp9ORF1b). (2) The antibodies to nsp8, but not to nsp7 or nsp10, could detect a major product that had the similar mobility to the 72-95 KDa form of nsp9. Moreover, nsp9 could be co-immunoprecipitated by antibodies to nsp8, and vice versa. (3) Neither nsp4 nor nsp2 PLP2 was able to cleave nsp8-nsp9 in vitro. Together, our studies provide experimental evidence to suggest that nsp8 is an N-terminal extension of nsp9. Our findings here paves way for further charactering the biological function of PRRSV nsp9.
Project description:Atypical porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), which is caused by the Chinese highly pathogenic PRRS virus (HP-PRRSV), has resulted in large economic loss to the swine industry since its outbreak in 2006. However, to date, the region(s) within the viral genome that are related to the fatal virulence of HP-PRRSV remain unknown. In the present study, we generated a series of full-length infectious cDNA clones with swapped coding regions between the highly pathogenic RvJXwn and low pathogenic RvHB-1/3.9. Next, the in vitro and in vivo replication and pathogenicity for piglets of the rescued chimeric viruses were systematically analyzed and compared with their backbone viruses. First, we swapped the regions including the 5'UTR+ORF1a, ORF1b, and structural proteins (SPs)-coding region between the two viruses and demonstrated that the nonstructural protein-coding region, ORF1b, is directly related to the fatal virulence and increased replication efficiency of HP-PRRSV both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we substituted the nonstructural protein (Nsp) 9-, Nsp10-, Nsp11- and Nsp12-coding regions separately; or Nsp9- and Nsp10-coding regions together; or Nsp9-, Nsp10- and Nsp11-coding regions simultaneously between the two viruses. Our results indicated that the HP-PRRSV Nsp9- and Nsp10-coding regions together are closely related to the replication efficiency in vitro and in vivo and are related to the increased pathogenicity and fatal virulence for piglets. Our findings suggest that Nsp9 and Nsp10 together contribute to the fatal virulence of HP-PRRSV emerging in China, helping to elucidate the pathogenesis of this virus.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) is an inducible transcription factor that plays a key role in inflammation and immune responses, as well as in the regulation of cell proliferation and survival. Previous studies by our group and others have demonstrated that porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection could activate NF-?B in MARC-145 cells and alveolar macrophages. The nucleocapsid (N) protein was identified as an NF-?B activator among the structural proteins encoded by PRRSV; however, it remains unclear whether the nonstructural proteins (Nsps) contribute to NF-?B activation. In this study, we identified which Nsps can activate NF-?B and investigated the potential mechanism(s) by which they act. RESULTS: By screening the individual Nsps of PRRSV strain WUH3, Nsp2 exhibited great potential to activate NF-?B in MARC-145 and HeLa cells. Overexpression of Nsp2 induced I?B? degradation and nuclear translocation of NF-?B. Furthermore, Nsp2 also induced NF-?B-dependent inflammatory factors, including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, COX-2, and RANTES. Compared with the Nsp2 of the classical PRRSV strain, the Nsp2 of highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) strains that possess a 30 amino acid (aa) deletion in Nsp2 displayed greater NF-?B activation. However, the 30-aa deletion was demonstrated to not be associated with NF-?B activation. Further functional domain analyses revealed that the hypervariable region (HV) of Nsp2 was essential for NF-?B activation. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these data indicate that PRRSV Nsp2 is a multifunctional protein participating in the modulation of host inflammatory response, which suggests an important role of Nsp2 in pathogenesis and disease outcomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Autophagy is an essential process in eukaryotic cells in which autophagosomes form to deliver cellular organelles and long-lived proteins to lysosomes for degradation. Many studies have recently identified the regulatory mechanisms involved in the interaction between viral infection and autophagy. METHODS:LC3 turnover and the proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway were investigated using western blot analysis. The formation and degradation of autophagosomes were detected using immunofluorescence staining. RESULTS:Autophagy was activated by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) NSP3, NSP5 and NSP9, which are two transmembrane proteins and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, respectively. The formation of autophagosomes was induced by NSP3 and NSP5 and developed from the ER; the fusion of these autophagosomes with lysosomes was limited. Although NSP3 and NSP5 are ER transmembrane proteins, these proteins did not activate the ER stress signaling pathways. In addition, the cytoplasmic domain of NSP3 plays a pivotal role in activating autophagy. CONCLUSIONS:The data presented in this study reveal an important relationship between PRRSV NSPs and autophagy and provide new insights that improve our understanding of the involvement of PRRSV NSPs in the autophagy process.
Project description:The international Covid19-NMR consortium aims at the comprehensive spectroscopic characterization of SARS-CoV-2 RNA elements and proteins and will provide NMR chemical shift assignments of the molecular components of this virus. The SARS-CoV-2 genome encodes approximately 30 different proteins. Four of these proteins are involved in forming the viral envelope or in the packaging of the RNA genome and are therefore called structural proteins. The other proteins fulfill a variety of functions during the viral life cycle and comprise the so-called non-structural proteins (nsps). Here, we report the near-complete NMR resonance assignment for the backbone chemical shifts of the non-structural protein 10 (nsp10). Nsp10 is part of the viral replication-transcription complex (RTC). It aids in synthesizing and modifying the genomic and subgenomic RNAs. Via its interaction with nsp14, it ensures transcriptional fidelity of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and through its stimulation of the methyltransferase activity of nsp16, it aids in synthesizing the RNA cap structures which protect the viral RNAs from being recognized by the innate immune system. Both of these functions can be potentially targeted by drugs. Our data will aid in performing additional NMR-based characterizations, and provide a basis for the identification of possible small molecule ligands interfering with nsp10 exerting its essential role in viral replication.
Project description:Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has had a devastating impact on the pig industry in China, and monitoring its genetic diversity is important for epidemiological surveillance and understanding its evolution. Here, we determine the complete genome sequences of two PRRSV strains, GXYL1403 and GXNN1839. Comparative, phylogenetic, and recombination detection program analyses show that the two isolates are recombinant strains with large-fragment amino acid deletions in nsp2. GXYL1403 possesses a unique deletion region of 124 amino acids in nsp2, and GXNN1839 contains a deletion of 131 amino acids in nsp2 as compared with VR2332. Further analysis of the full-length sequence suggests that GXYL1403 is a natural recombinant between sublineages 8.1 (CH-1a like) and 8.3 (JXA1-like). The recombination site of GXYL1403 is located in nsp9-nsp12 (8961nt-11181nt). GXNN1839 is a natural recombinant between the lineage 5 (VR-2332-like) and lineage 1 (NADC30-like) strains. The recombination events occurred in nsp9 (7872nt-8162nt) and in ORF2 (12587nt-13282nt) in the genome of GXNN1839. These results provide new evidence that PRRSV strains circulating in the environment have undergone recombination among the different lineages or sublineages of field strains, and these add to our understanding of RNA combination events that occur in PRRSV.
Project description:Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an Arterivirus that has caused tremendous economic losses in the global swine industry since it was discovered in the late 1980s. Inducing host translation shutoff is a strategy used by many viruses to optimize their replication and spread. Here, we demonstrate that PRRSV infection causes host translation suppression, which is strongly dependent on viral replication. By screening PRRSV-encoded nonstructural proteins (nsps), we found that nsp2 participates in the induction of host translation shutoff and that its transmembrane (TM) domain is required for this process. nsp2-induced translation suppression is independent of protein degradation pathways and the phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2? (eIF2?). However, the overexpression of nsp2 or its TM domain significantly attenuated the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, an alternative pathway for modulating host gene expression. PRRSV infection also attenuated the mTOR signaling pathway, and PRRSV-induced host translation shutoff could be partly reversed when the attenuated mTOR phosphorylation was reactivated by an activator of the mTOR pathway. PRRSV infection still negatively regulated the host translation when the effects of eIF2? phosphorylation were completely reversed. Taken together, our results demonstrate that PRRSV infection induces host translation shutoff and that nsp2 is associated with this process. Both eIF2? phosphorylation and the attenuation of the mTOR signaling pathway contribute to PRRSV-induced host translation arrest.IMPORTANCE Viruses are obligate parasites, and the production of progeny viruses relies strictly on the host translation machinery. Therefore, the efficient modulation of host mRNA translation benefits viral replication, spread, and evolution. In this study, we provide evidence that porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection induces host translation shutoff and that the viral nonstructural protein nsp2 is associated with this process. Many viruses induce host translation shutoff by phosphorylating eukaryotic initiation factor 2? (eIF2?). However, PRRSV nsp2 does not induce eIF2? phosphorylation but attenuates the mTOR signaling pathway, another pathway regulating the host cell translational machinery. We also found that PRRSV-induced host translation shutoff was partly reversed by eliminating the effects of eIF2? phosphorylation or reactivating the mTOR pathway, indicating that PRRSV infection induces both eIF2? phosphorylation-dependent and -independent host translation shutoff.