Effects of Cimicifuga racemosa extract Ze450 on mitochondria in models of oxidative stress in neuronal cells.
ABSTRACT: This data article describes the influence of Cimicifuga racemosa extract Ze 450 on neuronal cells in models of glutamate-induced excitotoxicity and cell death induced by oxidative stress. Effects of Ze 450 on glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity were assessed in primary cortical rat and mouse neurons and, further, glutamate-mediated oxidative stress was analyzed in HT22 cells lacking ionotropic glutamate receptors. This study especially focusses on mitochondrial parameters like mitochondrial ROS formation, mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP production and mitochondrial integrity. Further the effects of Ze 450 on lipid-peroxidation, metabolic activity, cell proliferation and cell death were assessed under control conditions and oxidative challenge evoked by millimolar concentrations of glutamate in HT22 cells. These data support the findings in HT22, mHypo and HepG2 liver cells (Rabenau et al., 2018) .
Project description:Recently, we reported that the <i>Cimicifuga racemosa</i> extract Ze 450 mediated protection from oxidative cell damage through a metabolic shift from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of Ze 450 against ferroptosis in neuronal cells, with a particular focus on mitochondria. The effects of Ze 450 on respiratory complex activity and hallmarks of ferroptosis were studied in isolated mitochondria and in cultured neuronal cells, respectively. In addition, <i>Caenorhabditis elegans</i> served as a model organism to study mitochondrial damage and longevity in vivo. We found that Ze 450 directly inhibited complex I activity in mitochondria and enhanced the metabolic shift towards glycolysis via cMyc and HIF1α regulation. The protective effects against ferroptosis were mediated independently of estrogen receptor activation and were distinct from effects exerted by metformin. In vivo, Ze 450 protected <i>C. elegans</i> from the mitochondrial toxin paraquat and promoted longevity in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, Ze 450 mediated a metabolic shift to glycolysis via direct effects on mitochondria and altered cell signaling, thereby promoting sustained cellular resilience to oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>To compare the influence of Cimicifuga racemosa extract (CR, Ze 450) and menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) on metabolic parameters and body weight in symptomatic menopausal women.<h4>Methods</h4>In this monocentric retrospective cohort study, women over 40 years old with a first consultation between 2009 and 2016 were screened. Included in the final analysis were women treated with either MHT or CR and having at least one follow-up consultation. Metabolic serum parameters (lipids, glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR), body weight, and menopausal symptoms [Menopause Rating Scale (MRS)-II] were the main outcome measures. Statistical analysis by uni- and multi-variable linear mixed-effects regression models assuming a linear effect of time.<h4>Results</h4>174 women were included in the final analysis (CR n?=?32, MHT n?=?142). There was no difference between the groups regarding baseline characteristics (age, BMI, serum metabolic parameters, hormones, and blood pressure) and total MRS-II score, while reproductive stage differed significantly with more postmenopausal women treated with CR (83%) than MHT (55%) (p?=?0.038). Median follow-up time was 12 months. In both groups, metabolic serum parameters and body weight did not change over the follow-up period, while total and MRS-II subscores improved.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Menopausal symptoms improved significantly in both groups (MHT and CR), while serum metabolic parameters and body weight did not change in MHT- or CR-treated women.
Project description:Epilepsy is the most common childhood neurologic disorder. Status epilepticus (SE), which refers to continuous epileptic seizures, occurs more frequently in children than in adults, and approximately 40–50% of all cases occur in children under 2 years of age. Conventional antiepileptic drugs currently used in clinical practice have a number of adverse side effects. Drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) can progressively develop in children with persistent SE, necessitating the development of novel therapeutic drugs. During SE, the persistent activation of neurons leads to decreased glutamate clearance with corresponding glutamate accumulation in the synaptic extracellular space, increasing the chance of neuronal excitotoxicity. Our previous study demonstrated that after developmental seizures in rats, E-64d exerts a neuroprotective effect on the seizure-induced brain damage by modulating lipid metabolism enzymes, especially ApoE and ApoJ/clusterin. In this study, we investigated the impact and mechanisms of E-64d administration on neuronal excitotoxicity. To test our hypothesis that E-64d confers neuroprotective effects by regulating autophagy and mitochondrial pathway activity, we simulated neuronal excitotoxicity in vitro using an immortalized hippocampal neuron cell line (HT22). We found that E-64d improved cell viability while reducing oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis. In addition, E-64d treatment regulated mitochondrial pathway activity and inhibited chaperone-mediated autophagy in HT22 cells. Our findings indicate that E-64d may alleviate glutamate-induced damage via regulation of mitochondrial fission and apoptosis, as well as inhibition of chaperone-mediated autophagy. Thus, E-64d may be a promising therapeutic treatment for hippocampal injury associated with SE.
Project description:As an extension of work on the recently discovered nitrogenous metabolites from Cimicifuga/Actaea species, three new guanidine alkaloids have been isolated and characterized from C. racemosa (syn. A. racemosa) roots. Of these, cyclo-cimipronidine (1) and cimipronidine methyl ester (2) are congeners of cimipronidine (3), whereas dopargine (5) is a derivative of dopamine. By employing NMR- and MS-guided chemodiversity profiling of a polar serotonergic (5-HT(7)) fraction, the guanidine alkaloids were initially detected in a clinical extract of black cohosh and were isolated along with a congener of salsolinol 4, 5, and 3-hydroxytyrosol 3-O-glucoside (7). The structures of 1, 2, and 5 were confirmed by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy as well as LC-MS and HRMS spectroscopy. A plausible biosynthetic relationship may be inferred between the homoproline-analogue cimipronidines and the dopamine-derived Cimicifuga alkaloids. These strongly basic and frequently zwitterionic nitrogenous metabolites contribute considerable chemical diversity to the polar serotonergic fraction of black cohosh.
Project description:Recent evidence indicates that autophagy-mediated mitochondrial homeostasis is crucial for oxidative stress-related brain damage and repair. The highest concentration of melatonin is in the mitochondria of cells, and melatonin exhibits well-known antioxidant properties. We investigated the impact and mechanism involved in mitochondrial function and the mitochondrial oxidative stress/autophagy regulator parameters of glutamate cytotoxicity in mouse HT22 hippocampal neurons. We tested the hypothesis that melatonin confers neuroprotective effects via protecting against mitochondrial impairment and mitophagy. Cells were divided into four groups: the control group, melatonin alone group, glutamate injury group, and melatonin pretreatment group. We found that glutamate induced significant changes in mitochondrial function/oxidative stress-related parameters. Leptin administration preserved mitochondrial function, and this effect was associated with increased superoxide dismutase, glutathione (GSH), and mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased GSSG (oxidized glutathione) and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. Melatonin significantly reduced the fluorescence intensity of mitophagy via the Beclin-1/Bcl-2 pathway, which involves Beclin-1 and Bcl-2 proteins. The mitophagy inhibitor CsA corrected these glutamate-induce changes, as measured by the fluorescence intensity of Mitophagy-Tracker Red CMXROS, mitochondrial ROS, and mitochondrial membrane potential changes. These findings indicate that melatonin exerts neuroprotective effects against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity by reducing mitophagy-related oxidative stress and maintaining mitochondrial function.
Project description:Extracts from the roots and rhizomes of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) are widely used as dietary supplements to alleviate menopausal symptoms. State-of-the-art quality control measures involve phytochemical fingerprinting of the triterpene glycosides for species identification and chemical standardization by HPLC. In the course of developing materials and methods for standardization procedures, the major C. racemosa triterpene glycoside (1) was isolated and initially thought to be cimicifugoside (2). Detailed HR-LC-MS and 1D and 2D NMR analysis of 1 and 2 unambiguously revealed that 1 is the chlorine-containing derivative of 2, namely, 25-chlorodeoxycimigenol-3-O-beta-d-xyloside. Accordingly, HPLC profiles of black cohosh preparations require revision of the assignments of the chlorinated (1) and nonchlorinated (2) pair. Besides explaining the substantial shift in polarity (DeltatR[RP-18] ca. 20 min), 25-deoxychlorination opens a new pathway of structural diversification in triterpene glycoside chemistry. As chemical conversion of 2 into 1 could be demonstrated, deoxychlorination may be interpreted as artifact formation. Simultaneously, however, it is a potentially significant pathway for the gastric in vivo conversion ("nature's prodrug") of the relatively polar triterpene glycosides into significantly less polar chlorinated derivatives with altered pharmacological properties.
Project description:Glutamate induced excitotoxicity is common in diverse neurological disorders. RNF146 as an E3 ubiquitin ligase protects neurons against excitotoxicity via interfering with Poly (ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymer-induced cell death (parthanatos). However, the neuroprotective role of RNF146 has not been fully understood. We aimed to investigate the role of RNF146 in modulating autophagy in HT22 cells under glutamate excitotoxicity injury. Here we found that induction of RNF146 decreased the cellular damage and excitotoxicity induced by glutamate. RNF146 also suppressed the excessive autophagy, which is detrimental to HT22 cells survival, induced by glutamate or rapamycin treatment. In addition, we find that Wnt/?-catenin was a negative regulation factor for autophagy in glutamate excitotoxicity. Over-expression of RNF146 promoted Wnt/?-catenin signaling, which was related to destabilization of ?-catenin destruction complex. These results indicated that RNF146 acted as a neuroprotective agent against glutamate-induced excitatory damage, and this neuroprotection might be at least partly dependent on the inhibition of excessive autophagy by regulating Wnt/?-catenin signaling.
Project description:Cellular mechanisms involved in multiple neurodegenerative diseases converge on mitochondria to induce overproduction of reactive oxygen species, damage to mitochondria, and subsequent cytochrome c release. Little is currently known regarding the contribution mitochondrial dynamics play in cytochrome c release following oxidative stress in neurodegenerative disease. Here we induced oxidative stress in the HT22 cell line with glutamate and investigated key mediators of mitochondrial dynamics to determine the role this process may play in oxidative stress induced neuronal death. We report that glutamate treatment in HT22 cells induces increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), release of the mitochondrial fusion protein Opa1 into the cytosol, with concomitant release of cytochrome c. Furthermore, following the glutamate treatment alterations in cell signaling coincide with mitochondrial fragmentation which culminates in significant cell death in HT22 cells. Finally, we report that treatment with the antioxidant tocopherol attenuates glutamate induced-ROS increase, release of mitochondrial Opa1 and cytochrome c, and prevents cell death.
Project description:Glutamate excitotoxicity leads to fragmented mitochondria in neurodegenerative diseases, mediated by nitric oxide and S-nitrosylation of dynamin-related protein 1, a mitochondrial outer membrane fission protein. Optic atrophy gene 1 (OPA1) is an inner membrane protein important for mitochondrial fusion. Autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA), caused by mutations in OPA1, is a neurodegenerative disease affecting mainly retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Here, we showed that OPA1 deficiency in an ADOA model influences N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor expression, which is involved in glutamate excitotoxicity and oxidative stress. Opa1(enu/+) mice show a slow progressive loss of RGCs, activation of astroglia and microglia, and pronounced mitochondrial fission in optic nerve heads as found by electron tomography. Expression of NMDA receptors (NR1, 2A, and 2B) in the retina of Opa1(enu/+) mice was significantly increased as determined by western blot and immunohistochemistry. Superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) expression was significantly decreased, the apoptotic pathway was activated as Bax was increased, and phosphorylated Bad and BcL-xL were decreased. Our results conclusively demonstrate that not only glutamate excitotoxicity and/or oxidative stress alters mitochondrial fission/fusion, but that an imbalance in mitochondrial fission/fusion in turn leads to NMDA receptor upregulation and oxidative stress. Therefore, we propose a new vicious cycle involved in neurodegeneration that includes glutamate excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dynamics.
Project description:Protein kinase A (PKA) is a ser/thr kinase that is critical for maintaining essential neuronal functions including mitochondrial homeostasis, bioenergetics, neuronal development, and neurotransmission. The endogenous pool of PKA is targeted to the mitochondrion by forming a complex with the mitochondrial scaffold A-kinase anchoring protein 121 (AKAP121). Enhanced PKA signaling via AKAP121 leads to PKA-mediated phosphorylation of the fission modulator Drp1, leading to enhanced mitochondrial networks and thereby blocking apoptosis against different toxic insults. In this study, we show for the first time that AKAP121/PKA confers neuroprotection in an in vitro model of oxidative stress induced by exposure to excess glutamate. Unexpectedly, treating mouse hippocampal progenitor neuronal HT22 cells with an acute dose or chronic exposure of glutamate robustly elevates PKA signaling, a beneficial compensatory response that is phenocopied in HT22 cells conditioned to thrive in the presence of excess glutamate but not in parental HT22 cells. Secondly, redirecting the endogenous pool of PKA by transiently transfecting AKAP121 or transfecting a constitutively active mutant of PKA targeted to the mitochondrion (OMM-PKA) or of an isoform of AKAP121 that lacks the KH and Tudor domains (S-AKAP84) are sufficient to significantly block cell death induced by glutamate toxicity but not in an oxygen deprivation/reperfusion model. Conversely, transient transfection of HT22 neuronal cells with a PKA-binding-deficient mutant of AKAP121 is unable to protect against oxidative stress induced by glutamate toxicity suggesting that the catalytic activity of PKA is required for AKAP121's protective effects. Mechanistically, AKAP121 promotes neuroprotection by enhancing PKA-mediated phosphorylation of Drp1 to increase mitochondrial fusion, elevates ATP levels, and elicits an increase in the levels of antioxidants GSH and superoxide dismutase 2 leading to a reduction in the level of mitochondrial superoxide. Overall, our data supports AKAP121/PKA as a new molecular target that confers neuroprotection against glutamate toxicity by phosphorylating Drp1, to stabilize mitochondrial networks and mitochondrial function and to elicit antioxidant responses.