Three-dimensional non-parametric method for limbus detection.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:To present a novel non-parametric algorithm for detecting the position of the human eye limbus in three dimensions and a new dynamic method for measuring the full 360° visible iris boundary known as white-to-white distance along the eye horizontal line. METHODS:The study included 88 participants aged 23 to 65 years (37.7±9.7), 47 females and 41 males. Clinical characteristics, height data and the apex coordinates and 1024×1280 pixel digital images of the eyes were taken by an Eye Surface Profiler and processed by custom-built MATLAB codes. A dynamic light intensity frequency based white-to-white detection process and a novel three-dimensional method for limbus detection is presented. RESULTS:Evidence of significant differences (p<0.001) between nasal-temporal and superior-inferior white-to-white distances in both right and left eyes were found (nasal-temporal direction; 11.74±0.42 mm in right eyes and 11.82±0.47 mm in left eyes & superior-inferior direction; 11.52±0.45 mm in right eyes and 11.55±0.46 mm in left eyes). Average limbus nasal-temporal diameters were 13.64±0.55 mm for right eyes, and 13.74±0.40 mm for left eyes, however the superior-inferior diameters were 13.65±0.54 mm, 13.75±0.38 mm for right and left eyes, respectively. No significant difference in limbus contours has been observed either between the nasal-temporal direction (p = 0.91) and the superior-inferior direction (p = 0.83) or between the right (p = 0.18) and left eyes (p = 0.16). Evidence of tilt towards the nasal-temporal side in the three-dimensional shape of the limbus was found. The right eyes mean limbus contour tilt around the X-axis was -0.3±1.35° however, their mean limbus contour tilt around the Y-axis was 1.76±0.9°. Likewise, the left eyes mean limbus contour tilt around the X-axis was 0.77±1.25° and the mean limbus contour tilt around the Y-axis was -1.54±0.89°. CONCLUSIONS:The white-to-white distance in the human eye is significantly larger in the nasal-temporal direction than in the superior-inferior direction. The human limbus diameter was found not to vary significantly in these directions. The 3D measures show that the limbus contour does not lay in one plane and tends to be higher on the nasal-inferior side of the eye.
Project description:PURPOSE:To present a three-dimensional non-parametric method for detecting scleral asymmetry using corneoscleral topography data that are free of edge-effect artefacts. METHODS:The study included 88 participants aged 23 to 65 years (37.7±9.7), 47 women and 41 men. The eye topography data were exported from the Eye Surface Profiler software in MATLAB binary data container format then processed by custom built MATLAB codes entirely independent from the profiler software. Scleral asymmetry was determined initially from the unprocessed topography before being determined again after removing the edge-effect noise. Topography data were levelled around the limbus, then edge-effect was eliminated using a robust statistical moving median technique. In addition to comparing raw elevation data, scleral elevation was also compared through fitting a sphere to every single scleral surface and determining the relative elevation from the best-fit sphere reference surface. RESULTS:When considering the averaged raw topography elevation data in the scleral section of the eye at radius 8 mm, the average raw elevations of the right eyes' sclera were -1.5±1.77, -1.87±2.12, -1.36±1.82 and -1.57±1.87 mm. In the left eyes at the same radius the average raw elevations were -1.62±1.78, -1.82±2.07, -1.28±1.76 and -1.68±1.93 mm. While, when considering the average raw elevation of the sclera after removing the edge effect, the average raw elevations of the right eyes were -3.71±0.25, -4.06±0.23, -3.95±0.19 and -3.95±0.23 mm. In the left eyes at the same radius the average raw elevations were -3.71±0.19, -3.97±0.22, -3.96±0.19 and -3.96±0.18 mm in the nasal, temporal, superior and inferior sides respectively. Maximum raw elevation asymmetry in the averaged scleral raw elevation was 1.6647±0.9015 mm in right eyes and 1.0358±0.6842 mm in left eyes, both detected at -38° to the nasal side. Best-fit sphere-based relative elevation showed that sclera is more elevated in three main meridians at angles -40°, 76°, and 170° in right eyes and -40°, 76°, and 170° in left eyes, all measured from the nasal meridian. Maximum recorded relative elevation asymmetries were 0.0844±0.0355 mm and 0.068±0.0607 mm at angular positions 76° and 63.5° for right and left eyes in turn. CONCLUSIONS:It is not possible to use corneoscleral topography data to predict the scleral shape without considering a method of removing the edge-effect from the topography data. The nasal side of the sclera is higher than the temporal side, therefore, rotationally symmetric scleral contact lenses are more likely to be translated towards the temporal side. The scleral shape is best described by levelled raw elevation rather than relative elevation.
Project description:To investigate changes in limbal basal epithelial cell density in eyes with limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) using in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy.Retrospective observational comparative study.A total of 43 eyes of 30 patients diagnosed with LSCD were included in the study. Ten eyes from normal subjects were included as control. Confocal imaging of the central cornea, and the superior, nasal, inferior and temporal limbus were collected using the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph III Rostock Corneal Module. Basal cell density in all locations was measured by 2 independent observers.The mean basal cell density of the normal group was 9264 ± 598 cells/mm(2) in the cornea and 7120 ± 362 cells/mm(2) in the limbus. In the LSCD group, the mean basal cell density in the cornea decreased 31.0% (6389 ± 1820 cells/mm(2), P < .001) and in the limbus decreased 23.6% (5440 ± 1123 cells/mm(2), P < .001) compared to that in the control. There was a trend of basal cell density decline in more advanced stages of LSCD. The basal cell density declined in the unaffected regions at a similar degree as that in the affected region in sectoral LSCD (P > .05). The basal cell diameter increased by 24.6% in the cornea (14.7 ?m) and by 15.7% in the limbus (15.5 ?m) compared to the control.Basal cell density in both central cornea and limbus decreases in LSCD. Limbal stem cells (LSCs) are affected globally and basal cell density could be used as a parameter to measure LSC function at the early stages of the disease process.
Project description:Purpose:We investigate the interocular symmetry of fixation, optic disc, and corneal astigmatism in bilateral high myopia, and evaluate the predictive relationships between them. Methods:We enrolled 202 cases with bilateral high myopia. Fixation, in terms of the bivariate contour ellipse area (BCEA), was evaluated with the Macular Integrity Assessment microperimetry. Optic disc features, including orientation, tilt, and rotation, were evaluated with ultrawide-field retinal photographs. Corneal topography was performed with Pentacam. Interocular symmetry of fixation, optic disc, and corneal astigmatism was assessed, and the predictive relationships between these parameters were investigated. Results:Axial length differences between the two eyes were: ≥0 to ≤1 mm, 67.8%; 1 to ≤2 mm, 20.3%; 2 to ≤3 mm, 9.4%; and >3 mm, 2.5%. Axial length, 95% BCEA, and magnitude of corneal astigmatism showed good interocular symmetry, whereas the optic disc tilt, rotation, and axis of corneal astigmatism (mirror axes) showed less symmetry (all P < 0.05). No interocular symmetry was observed in the direction of the fixation ellipse. In both eyes, the corneal steep meridian more often was consistent with the optic disc orientation than inconsistent (right eye [OD], P < 0.001; left eye [OS], P = 0.029). Conclusions:As different parameters presented different degrees of symmetry, cautions are needed when including both eyes or only one lateral eye in cases of bilateral high myopia for clinical investigations. The optic disc orientation, to some extent, may indicate the steep meridian of the cornea. Translational Relevance:Our study provided evidences for selection of eye laterality in clinical investigations of highly myopic eyes.
Project description:Background:To measure the crystalline lens tilt in eyes with various degrees of myopia before cataract surgery using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Methods:We used SS-OCT (IOLMaster 700) to scan 131 emmetropic eyes (axial length?<?24.5?mm), 25 mild/moderate myopic eyes (axial length 24.5-26?mm), and 123 high myopic eyes (52, 29, and 42 eyes with axial lengths of 26-28, 28-30, and?>?30?mm, respectively) as part of the routine preoperative examination before cataract surgery. SS-OCT involved B-scans along six meridians. The data were analyzed to assess the magnitude and orientation of the lens tilt and their correlation with other optical biometric parameters. Result:The mean tilt was 3.36?±?0.98° in emmetropic eyes, 3.07?±?1.04° in mild/medium myopic eyes, and 2.35?±?1.01° in high myopic eyes. Tilt correlated significantly and inversely with axial length (Pearson's r?=?-?0.427, P?<?0.001). The crystalline lens tilt predominantly faced the upper outer quadrant relative to the visual axis, symmetrically in both eyes, with mean angles of 24.32° and 147.36° in the right and left eyes, respectively. The variability in the lens tilt direction increased with increasing axial length (?2 test, P?<?0.001). Conclusion:The magnitude of crystalline lens tilt decreased with increasing axial length. The direction of tilt was predominantly towards the upper outer quadrant in both eyes. The variability in the tilt orientation increased with increasing axial length. Trial registration:NIH (clinicaltrial.gov), NCT03062085. Registered 23 February 2017.
Project description:Tessellated fundus is found as common and early-phase characteristic of myopic eyes and their locations are varied among patients. However, the relationship between their locations and morphological parameters of the eyes is still unknown. The purpose is this study is to determine the locations of the tessellations in the ocular fundus of young healthy eyes, and to determine relationships between their locations and morphological parameters of the eyes. This is a prospective observational cross sectional study of 126 eyes of 126 healthy volunteers (mean age 26.0±4.1 years). The eyes were classified into eight groups based on the location of the tessellations; no tessellation, temporal, infra-temporal, inferior, nasal, peripapillary, whole retina, and unclassified tessellations. The degree of optic disc tilt was quantified using a sine curve fitting program on the optical coherence tomographic circle scan images. The correlations between each tessellation location and the axial length, area of the optic disc plus conus (AOC), and optic disc tilt were determined. Forty-four eyes were place in the no tessellation group, 12 eyes in the temporal, 21 eyes in the infra-temporal, 9 eyes in the inferior, 8 eyes in the nasal, 15 eyes in the peripapillary, 11 eyes in the whole, and 6 eyes in the unclassified groups. The differences in the axial lengths between the no tessellation group and the infra-temporal groups were significant. A significant difference was found in the AOC between the no tessellation and the inferior, infra-temporal, and peripapilalry groups. A significant difference was found in the optic disc tilt between the no tessellation and infra-temporal groups (P<0.05). The tessellations are located at specific sites in the fundus of young healthy eyes with the infra-temporal location most frequent. It was correlated with some parameters associated with myopia.
Project description:Corneal thickness (CT) maps of the central (2-mm diameter), para-central (2 to 5-mm diameter), peripheral (5 to 6-mm diameter), and minimum (5-mm diameter) cornea were measured in normal Chinese school children aged 7 to 15 years old using Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. Multiple regression analyses were performed to explore the effect of associated factors [age, gender, refraction, axial length and corneal curvature radius (CCR)] on CT and the relationship between central corneal thickness (CCT) and intraocular pressure (IOP). A total of 1228 eyes from 614 children were analyzed. The average CCT was 532.96 ± 28.33 ?m for right eyes and 532.70 ±28.45 ?m for left eyes. With a 10 ?m increase in CCT, the IOP was elevated by 0.37 mm Hg, as measured by noncontact tonometry. The CT increased gradually from the center to the periphery. The superior and superior nasal regions had the thickest CTs, while the thinnest points were primarily located in the inferior temporal cornea. The CCT was associated with CCR (p = 0.008) but not with gender (p = 0.075), age (p = 0.286), axial length (p = 0.405), or refraction (p = 0.985). In the para-central region and the peripheral cornea, increased CT was associated with younger age, male gender, and a flatter cornea.
Project description:To evaluate a possible clinical application of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) using en-face module for the imaging of the corneoscleral limbus in normal subjects and dry eye patients.Seventy-six subjects were included in this study. Seventy eyes of 35 consecutive patients with dry eye disease and 82 eyes of 41 healthy control subjects were investigated. All subjects were examined with the Avanti RTVue® anterior segment OCT. En-face OCT images of the corneoscleral limbus were acquired in four quadrants (inferior, superior, nasal and temporal) and then were analyzed semi-quantitatively according to whether or not palisades of Vogt (POV) were visible. En-face OCT images were then compared to in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) in eleven eyes of 7 healthy and dry eye patients.En-face SD-OCT showed POV as a radially oriented network, located in superficial corneoscleral limbus, with a good correlation with IVCM features. It provided an easy and reproducible identification of POV without any special preparation or any direct contact, with a grading scale from 0 (no visualization) to 3 (high visualization). The POV were found predominantly in superior (P<0.001) and inferior (P<0.001) quadrants when compared to the nasal and temporal quadrants for all subjects examined. The visibility score decreased with age (P<0.001) and was lower in dry eye patients (P<0.01). In addition, the score decreased in accordance with the severity of dry eye disease (P<0.001).En-face SD-OCT is a non-contact imaging technique that can be used to evaluate the POV, thus providing valuable information about differences in the limbal anatomy of dry eye patients as compared to healthy patients.
Project description:We enrolled 500 highly myopic eyes and 50 controls in this hospital-based prospective cohort study. The fixation ellipse angle and area in terms of the bivariate contour ellipse area (BCEA) were measured with Macular Integrity Assessment microperimetry. Optic disc tilt and rotation were evaluated with retinal images. The associations between fixation and optic disc changes were assessed. Both 63% and 95% BCEA correlated positively with axial length (AL) (both r?=?0.230, P?=?0.001) in highly myopic group, and were significantly higher than the control group (both P?<?0.001). The direction of fixation ellipse presented clockwise rotation in the right eyes and anti-clockwise rotation in the left eyes with the increase of AL in highly myopic group (AL ?30 vs <30?mm: OD 76.12?±?51.17°: vs 90.60°?±?51.28°, P?=?0.029; OS 94.73?±?57.45° vs 87.82?±?55.15°, P?=?0.371). The angle between the long axis of the fixation ellipse and the long axis of the optic disc (AngleF-D) distributed in various directions: 0-30° (34.6% almost parallel) ?60-90° (34.4% almost vertical) >30-60° (31% oblique). AngleF-D increased slightly with the AL (r?=?0.105, P?=?0.024). In highly myopic eyes, fixation stability decreased with the AL, and superior rotation of the fixation ellipse increased with AL. The long axis of fixation ellipse and the long axis of optic disc became less parallel to each other with increasing AL. Our data may provide clues for improvement of fixation evaluation designs of biometric instruments.
Project description:Purpose:To evaluate the tilt, decentration, and internal higher-order aberrations (HOAs) of sutured posterior-chamber intraocular lenses (IOLs) in patients with open globe injuries. Methods:46 consecutive patients (47 eyes) who underwent transsclerally sutured IOL implantation were enrolled in this prospective cohort study. Nineteen eyes had a history of open globe injury. The tilt and decentration of the IOLs and the visual quality were measured 1 month after surgery. Results:The horizontal tilt and decentration of the IOLs in the open-globe-injury group were significantly higher than those in the control group (both P < 0.05). In the open-globe-injury group, the horizontal decentration was significantly greater in the limbus-sclera-involved group (n = 11) than in the only-cornea-involved group (n = 8, P = 0.040). The internal coma, 3rd-order, and total HOA values at pupil sizes of 4?mm (P = 0.006) and 6?mm (P = 0.013) were significantly higher in the open-globe-injury group than in the controls. Consequently, the optical quality data for the modulation transfer function and the Strehl ratio (all P < 0.05) were significantly poorer in the open-globe-injury group. Conclusions:Open globe injuries damage the structural integrity of the eyeball, resulting in more-misaligned sutured IOLs and poorer visual quality.
Project description:The purpose of this article is to evaluate optic nerve head (ONH) characteristics in an ethnically diverse cohort of young U.S. adults.In this study, 409 myopes and 206 nonmyopes (median age 22 years) completed measures including biometry and spectral domain optical coherence tomography from enface (ovality and torsion) and cross-sectional (tilt and crescent width) scans. Associated factors were evaluated using multivariable models.In myopic versus nonmyopic right eyes, median tilt (6.0° vs. 2.4°; P < 0.0001) and frequency of crescents (49% vs. 10%; P < 0.0001) were higher in myopes. Right eyes with crescents had higher median tilts (8.8° [myopic], 9.0° [nonmyopic]) than those without crescent (2.5° [myopic], 2.1° [nonmyopic]), irrespective of refractive group (both P < 0.0001). Torsion was similar between groups, with a slight difference in ovality (0.89 vs. 0.91; P < 0.03). Data in the left eyes were similar, and modeling was done only for the right myopic eyes. Multivariable models showed that an increased tilt was associated with ethnicity (P < 0.001), the presence of crescent (P < 0.001), and smaller ONH diameter (P < 0.0031), with interactions between ethnicity and crescent (P = 0.002). Specifically, ONH tilt was significantly higher in Asian eyes without crescent (P < 0.0001 for all comparisons), and crescent width was associated with increased tilt in non-Asian eyes (P < 0.02). Crescent width was associated with ethnicity (greatest in Asians) and disc tilt. Interactions were observed between tilt and ethnicity, whereby tilt had a greater effect on crescent width in non-Asian eyes, and crescent width was associated with increased tilt in non-Asian eyes.The data clarify the influence of ethnicity and myopia on ONH characteristics in young adults and may inform future studies of biomechanical properties or of retinal pathology of the myopic eye.