Antibiotic Use on Goat Farms: An Investigation of Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors of Missouri Goat Farmers.
ABSTRACT: Use of low dose, prophylactic antibiotics contributes to the emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria. In one study, goat meat in Missouri was found to have a higher percentage of antibiotic residues at slaughter than the national average, so we attempted to identify factors related to goat production that may contribute to this issue. Using the knowledge, attitude, and behavior (KAB) model, we interviewed 11 Missouri goat farmers about factors affecting antibiotic use. Most of the farmers did not have specific protocols for managing illnesses and only relied on veterinarians for major health issues. Many felt veterinarians lacked knowledge about goat medicine so instead relied on other farmers' or their own experiences for treatment modalities. While most agreed that antibiotic resistance was a concern, only 4 of the 11 indicated that they only used antibiotics when prescribed by the veterinarian. Veterinarians should be relied on and valued for their medical expertise, but they are not always being utilized in this manner. Therefore, veterinary education should emphasize goat health management to a greater extent than it currently does, and soft skills to build collaborative relationships with farmers should be taught to promote preventative health measures and more judicious use of antibiotics.
Project description:In the spring of 2006, four human cases of parapoxvirus infections in Missouri residents were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), two of which were initially diagnosed as cutaneous anthrax. This investigation was conducted to determine the level of recognition of zoonotic parapoxvirus infections and prevention measures, the degree to which veterinarians may be consulted on human infections and what forces were behind this perceived increase in reported infections. Interviews were conducted and clinical and environmental sampling was performed. Swab and scab specimens were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), whereas serum specimens were evaluated for parapoxvirus antibodies. Three case patients were found to have fed ill juvenile animals without using gloves. Forty-six percent of veterinarians reported having been consulted regarding suspected human orf infections. Orf virus DNA was detected from five of 25 asymptomatic sheep. Analysis of extracellular envelope gene sequences indicated that sheep and goat isolates clustered in a species-preferential fashion. Parapoxvirus infections are common in Missouri ruminants and their handlers. Infected persons often do not seek medical care; some may seek advice from veterinarians rather than physicians. The initial perception of increased incidence in Missouri may have arisen from a reporting artifact stemming from heightened concern about anthrax. Asymptomatic parapoxvirus infections in livestock may be common and further investigation warranted.
Project description:Background:Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major global public health issue. In India, access to medicines is poorly regulated and therefore antibiotics in dairy cattle are commonly used by farmers without consulting with veterinarians. This study was conducted to understand practices and knowledge related to antibiotic use and AMR among dairy farmers and veterinary professionals in selected urban and peri-urban areas of India. Methods:A total of 28 focus group discussions with farmers and 53 interviews with veterinary professionals were carried out. Results:Mastitiswas identified as the main animal health challenge. Antibiotic consultation behavior of farmers depended on the availability of veterinarians. Except in Bangalore, farmers were found to often treat animals on their own. They were found unaware of the concept of AMR, but knew the importance of vaccination. Veterinarians included in the study had a good understanding of antibiotics, AMR, and zoonotic diseases. Conclusion:The knowledge level and practices observed in the study related to the use/abuse of antibiotics can potentially increase the risk of development of AMR and its transfer in the community. Our findings can help support AMR - mitigation efforts in the country, including the design of better policies on antibiotic use in dairy.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Over-consumption of antibiotics in the pig industry is of concern in relation to antimicrobial resistance. False positive disease diagnosis may result in the treatment of healthy animals. In Denmark, diarrhoea is the most common cause of antibiotic treatment in pigs. Farm personnel are not professional clinicians, which could result in inappropriate antibiotic treatments of diarrhoea.The primary objectives of this pilot study using digital pictures of faecal pools was to evaluate farmers' diagnostic performance in the assessment of faecal consistency in nursery pigs and to investigate the effect of different co-variables, including practical experience. A secondary objective was to compare the diagnostic performance of farmers with that of veterinarians.At a pig congress, observers (farm personnel and veterinarians) working professionally with pigs participated in a faecal consistency test consisting of 16 pictures of faecal pools (eight diarrhoeic and eight non-diarrhoeic). The faecal pools had previously been collected and subjected to faecal dry matter determination. The true status of the faecal pools was determined by the faecal dry matter content (diarrhoea: faecal dry matter???18%). The true status was used to evaluate the farmers' and veterinarians' diagnostic performance.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 119 farmers and 18 veterinarians were included in the statistical analysis. For the farmers, the mean proportion of faecal pools assessed as diarrhoeic was 0.48, the mean proportion of correctly classified faecal pools was 0.84, the mean diagnostic sensitivity was 0.83 and the mean diagnostic specificity was 0.86. Farmers with less than four years of practical experience detected clinical diarrhoea more accurately than farmers with more than four years of practical experience (p?<?0.05). No significantly differences between farmers and veterinarians was observed (p?>?0.20).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The results, using digital pictures of faecal pools, suggest that farmers and veterinarians have similar diagnostic performance in relation to diarrhoea. False positive classification of non-diarrhoeic pigs appears to be a larger problem than false negative classification of diarrhoeic pigs under Danish conditions. If these results can be confirmed under practical conditions, training in, and validation of, clinical diagnoses may be an important factor in reducing antibiotic consumption in the pig industry.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Antimicrobial resistance (AMR), recognised as a serious and growing threat to global health, is promoted by multiple drivers, including antibiotic use in the livestock sector. Thus, understanding factors influencing antibiotic use in livestock production is essential to the design and implementation of effective interventions to reduce AMR. This qualitative study aimed to explore the experiences and views of the key actors associated with the use of antibiotics for pig farming in Thailand, from local farmers to officers in central government institutions.<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 31 in-depth interviews were conducted with different categories of actors: pig farmers (n?=?13), drug retailers (n?=?5), veterinarians (n?=?7), government officers (n?=?3) and representatives of animal and human health associations (n?=?2). Themes emerging from the interviews were identified and explored using thematic analysis. In addition, direct observations were conducted in the pig farms.<h4>Results</h4>The findings highlight the multi-faceted nature of the views and practices that may contribute to misuse or overuse of antibiotics in the study locations, including misconceptions about the nature of antibiotics and AMR (particularly among smallholders), lack of facilities and financial means to establish an antibiotic-free farm, lack of sufficient training on AMR and antibiotic prescribing for veterinarians, the profit motive of pharmaceutical companies and their ties to farm consultants, and lack of sufficient regulatory oversight.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our study indicates a clear need to improve antibiotic use for pig production in Thailand. Farmers need better access to veterinary services and reliable information about animal health needs and antibiotics. Innovative investments in biosecurity could improve farm management and decrease reliance on antibiotics, although the cost of these interventions should be low to ensure wide uptake in the livestock sector. Lastly, further development of professional training and clinical guidelines, and the establishment of a code of conduct, would help improve antibiotic dispensing practices.
Project description:Ensuring the safety, health, and overall well-being of animals raised for food is both an ethical obligation and a critical component of providing safe food products. The use of antibiotics for maintaining animal health has come under scrutiny in recent years due to the rise of antibiotic resistance globally. Some U.S. producers, especially in the poultry industry, have responded by eliminating their antibiotic use. The number of animals raised without antibiotics (RWA) is growing in the U.S., but there are concerns that RWA practices might negatively impact animal health and welfare. Therefore, the objective of this study was to survey U.S. veterinarians and producers about their experiences and opinions regarding RWA production. Veterinarians, farmers, ranchers, producers, and other stakeholders involved in raising broilers, turkeys, swine, beef cattle or dairy cattle were surveyed. Of the 565 completed responses received, 442 self-reported as practicing veterinarians or producers. Just over half of respondents reported having past or current experience with RWA programs. The main indicated reasons for raising animals without antibiotics were market driven; switching to RWA production was less commonly made for health-related reasons, such as to reduce antibiotic resistance or to improve animal health and welfare. Although respondents felt that RWA production has negative impacts on animal health and welfare, they overwhelmingly (>70%) indicated that the customer (retailer/restaurant/food service) believes that animal and health welfare will be significantly improved. Veterinarians and producers indicated that RWA programs will increase production costs with questionable effect on meat, egg or dairy consumer demand. Many respondents felt that there are times when the RWA label takes priority over animal health and welfare. Respondents generally felt that there was a need for increased auditing/assessment of animal health and welfare in RWA systems.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Helminthic infections, in particular those caused by gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN), are found worldwide and are among the most economically important diseases of goats. Anthelmintic resistance (AR) in GIN of goats is currently present worldwide, and single- or multidrug resistant species are widespread. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of AR to benzimidazoles (BZ), macrocyclic lactones (ML) and imidazothiazoles represented by levamisole (LEV) in the Polish goat herds by using an in vitro larval development test, which is useful especially in large-scale epidemiological surveys.<h4>Results</h4>This cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2018 to June 2019 and enrolled 42 dairy goat herds scattered over the entire country. The most commonly used anthelmintic class in goat herds in Poland were BZ (92%), followed by ML (85%) and LEV (13%). BZ-resistant GIN populations were found in 37 herds (88%, CI 95%: 75 to 95%), ML-resistant GIN populations in 40 herds (95%, CI 95, 84 to 99%), and LEV-resistant GIN populations in 5 herds (12%, CI 95%: 5 to 25%). Multidrug resistance involving all three anthelmintic classes was found in 5 herds (12%, CI 95, 5 to 25%). Based on the morphological features of stage 3 larvae the main resistant GIN turned out to be Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus spp. The use of BZ and frequency of anthelmintic treatments were significantly related to the presence of AR to BZ in Polish goat herds.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This cross-sectional study demonstrates the existence of AR to BZ, ML and LEV on Polish goat farms. Resistance to BZ and ML is widespread, while AR to LEV is currently at a low level. A considerable proportion of herds harbours multidrug resistant GIN, which requires further consideration. An effective anthelmintic treatment strategy, reasonable preventive measures and better understanding of the resistance-related management practices by farmers and veterinarians may delay further development of AR.
Project description:This article analyses the progress made in the UK with regard to tackling antibiotic "misuse and overuse" in food-producing animals. Moving beyond statistical realities, the paper examines how the UK's industry-led policy approach is shaping practice. Using a multi-sited ethnography situated in Actor Network Theory and Callon's sociology of markets, the UK dairy supply chain policies and practices were studied. Findings reveal that dairy industry policies only partially address the complex network of people, animals, and the environment in which dairy antibiotics circulate. Antibiotic "misuse and overuse" in agriculture is far from a behavioural matter, with solely farmers and veterinarians to blame. Instead, antibiotic use in food animals is embedded in complex economic networks that constrain radical changes in dairy husbandry management and antibiotic use on farms. More attention toward the needs of the dairy supply chain actors and wider environmental considerations is essential to reduce the dairy sector's dependency on antibiotics and support transition toward responsible farming in the UK.
Project description:Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global crisis with impacts on the future health and welfare of humans and animals. Determining key factors that influence veterinarians' antimicrobial prescribing behaviours can bridge the gap between prescribing guidelines and clinical usage. Veterinarians practicing in Australia were surveyed on their frequency in prescribing different antibiotics; factors influencing their antibiotic prescribing behaviours; and their perceptions of current drivers of AMR. Antibiotics were prescribed in a third of consultations with key differences in the frequency of use of specific antibiotics by small companion animal (SCA), equine and livestock veterinarians, which broadly aligned with antibiotic registration restrictions in Australia. SCA veterinarians reported prescribing broad-spectrum antibiotics of higher importance to human health more frequently than livestock veterinarians. Factors that were reported as 'strong' or 'moderate' barriers to appropriate antibiotic prescribing were the 1) cost of culture and susceptibility testing and 2) lack of access to rapid and affordable diagnostic tests. Fear of losing clients, colleague pressure, and lack of their own understanding about antibiotics were considered to be 'no' or 'somewhat' of a barrier to appropriate prescribing by respondents. SCA veterinarians placed greater importance on the contribution of antibiotic use in livestock to AMR, than antibiotic use in companion animals. Despite reporting use of fewer, mostly narrow spectrum antibiotics of lower importance to human and animal health, livestock veterinarians were generally more aware of their potential contribution to AMR. This study provides insights into the similarities and differences in SCA, equine and livestock veterinarians practicing in Australia and informs sector-specific strategies to improve antimicrobial stewardship.
Project description:Endometritis is a major cause for impaired fertility in mares. The objectives of this study were to collect information on diagnostic and treatment practices performed by veterinarians and to investigate possible effects of professional experience, caseload, and geographical location on the practitioners' management of endometritis cases. For this purpose, equine practitioners (n = 680) were asked to fill out an online survey (34 questions). The online survey yielded 117 responses by veterinarians practicing in all parts of Germany. Most respondents came from Lower Saxony and managed <20 mares per year. For the diagnosis of chronic infectious endometritis, uterine sampling for microbiological examination was performed manually with a swab by the majority of practitioners whereas only few used the speculum technique. The incidence of antibiotic resistant pathogens was reported to be <5% by almost all respondents. Most practitioners relied on systemic antibiotic treatment with trimethoprim-sulfadiazine. Only occasionally veterinarians used intrauterine antibiotic therapy. Uterine lavages were performed routinely by almost half of the respondents in case of positive uterine cultures, mostly with 0.9% saline solution. Irritant solutions (e.g., iodine, chlorhexidine, kerosene) were used less often. Collection of an endometrial culture after completion of the treatment was common practice. While only a very limited association of the geographical location of practitioner (e.g., on selection of mares for endometrial culture, p < 0.05) was observed, the number of managed mares affected the answers notably (e.g., for use of irritating intrauterine treatment, p < 0.05). The management of persistent breeding induced endometritis (PBIE) was influenced by the number of managed mares (e.g., for use of oxytocin, p < 0.05) and 29.6% of respondents administered antibiotics as part of their PBIE management. In summary, treatment strategies in the field vary considerably and include also non-evidence-based methods, but most German practitioners apply the recommended suitable treatments. Following the guidelines for antibiotic usage, most veterinarians administer antibiotics dependent on endometrial culture results but do not use cytology, low-volume lavage, or biopsy routinely. Antibiotic resistant uterine pathogens are reported to be isolated infrequently and equine practitioners prefer systemic to local antibiotic treatment of endometritis.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Certified Swiss farmers are allowed to disbud their goat kids using a standard intramuscularly administered anaesthetic mixture. This mixture, containing xylazine and ketamine, is officially distributed with the goal to provide a painless disbudding. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of analgesia and anaesthesia achieved during disbudding, when performed by Swiss farmers. To assess this, 174 goat kids at 31 different farms were observed and filmed during cautery disbudding.<h4>Results</h4>The standard anaesthetic mixture (0.05 mg/kg xylazine and 20 mg/kg ketamine) was used only in 71 goat kids. Fifty-eight goat kids were anaesthetised with different dosages of xylazine (median 0.18 mg/kg) and ketamine (median 10 mg/kg), 22 with xylazine only (median 0.61 mg/kg), 20 with xylazine (median 1.84 mg/kg) and perineural lidocaine (median 1.23 mg/kg), three with acepromazine (dosage unknown) and ketamine (10 mg/kg). Based on vocalisation, limb movement and head lifting during disbudding, a general reaction score was attributed to 168 goat kids (six were excluded due to firm restraint): 56.5% were scored zero (no limb movement, no vocalisation), 7.7% one, 17.3% two and 18.5% three (strong movements, vocalisation). Significant risk factors for higher reaction scores were the type of anaesthetic protocol and manipulation by the farmer during induction. Significant risk factors for longer recoveries were use of xylazine alone or xylazine in combination with perineural lidocaine, breed, younger age and recovery underneath heat lamp.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The present study indicates that anaesthesia and analgesia of goat kids disbudded by Swiss farmers is inadequate, as 35.8% of the animals showed moderate to strong behavioural reactions during the procedure. Unexpectedly, only 40.8% of the goat kids were anaesthetised with the standard anaesthetic mixture and several other protocols were used. A refinement of the recommended protocol is urgently needed to guarantee animal welfare.