Dynamics of phosphoinositide conversion in clathrin-mediated endocytic traffic.
ABSTRACT: Vesicular carriers transport proteins and lipids from one organelle to another, recognizing specific identifiers for the donor and acceptor membranes. Two important identifiers are phosphoinositides and GTP-bound GTPases, which provide well-defined but mutable labels. Phosphatidylinositol and its phosphorylated derivatives are present on the cytosolic faces of most cellular membranes. Reversible phosphorylation of its headgroup produces seven distinct phosphoinositides. In endocytic traffic, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-biphosphate marks the plasma membrane, and phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate mark distinct endosomal compartments. It is unknown what sequence of changes in lipid content confers on the vesicles their distinct identity at each intermediate step. Here we describe 'coincidence-detecting' sensors that selectively report the phosphoinositide composition of clathrin-associated structures, and the use of these sensors to follow the dynamics of phosphoinositide conversion during endocytosis. The membrane of an assembling coated pit, in equilibrium with the surrounding plasma membrane, contains phosphatidylinositol-4,5-biphosphate and a smaller amount of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate. Closure of the vesicle interrupts free exchange with the plasma membrane. A substantial burst of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate immediately after budding coincides with a burst of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate, distinct from any later encounter with the phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate pool in early endosomes; phosphatidylinositol-3,4-biphosphate and the GTPase Rab5 then appear and remain as the uncoating vesicles mature into Rab5-positive endocytic intermediates. Our observations show that a cascade of molecular conversions, made possible by the separation of a vesicle from its parent membrane, can label membrane-traffic intermediates and determine their destinations.
Project description:Generation and turnover of phosphoinositides (PIs) must be coordinated in a spatial- and temporal-restricted manner. The small GTPase Rab5 interacts with two PI 3-kinases, Vps34 and PI3Kbeta, suggesting that it regulates the production of 3-PIs at various stages of the early endocytic pathway. Here, we discovered that Rab5 also interacts directly with PI 5- and PI 4-phosphatases and stimulates their activity. Rab5 regulates the production of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdInsP) through a dual mechanism, by directly phosphorylating phosphatidylinositol via Vps34 and by a hierarchical enzymatic cascade of phosphoinositide-3-kinasebeta (PI3Kbeta), PI 5-, and PI 4-phosphatases. The functional importance of such an enzymatic pathway is demonstrated by the inhibition of transferrin uptake upon silencing of PI 4-phosphatase and studies in weeble mutant mice, where deficiency of PI 4-phosphatase causes an increase of PtdIns(3,4)P2 and a reduction in PtdIns(3)P. Activation of PI 3-kinase at the plasma membrane is accompanied by the recruitment of Rab5, PI 4-, and PI 5-phosphatases to the cell cortex. Our data provide the first evidence for a dual role of a Rab GTPase in regulating both generation and turnover of PIs via PI kinases and phosphatases to coordinate signaling functions with organelle homeostasis.
Project description:Phosphoinositides are signalling lipids that constitute a complex network regulating many cellular processes. We propose a computational model that accounts for all species of phosphoinositides in the plasma membrane of mammalian cells. The model replicates the steady-state of the pathway and most known dynamic phenomena. Sensitivity analysis demonstrates model robustness to alterations in the parameters. Model analysis suggest that the greatest contributor to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) production is a flux representing the direct transformation of PI into PI(4,5)P2, also responsible for the maintenance of this pool when phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI(4)P) is decreased. PI(5)P is also shown to be a significant source for PI(4,5)P2 production. The model was validated with siRNA screens that knocked down the expression of enzymes in the pathway. The screen monitored the activity of the epithelium sodium channel (ENaC), which is activated by PI(4,5)P2. While the model may deepen our understanding of other physiological processes involving phosphoinositides, we highlight therapeutic effects of ENaC modulation in Cystic Fibrosis (CF). The model suggests control strategies where the activities of the enzyme phosphoinositide 4-phosphate 5-kinase I (PIP5KI) or the PI4K?+?PIP5KI?+?DVL protein complex are decreased and cause an efficacious reduction in PI(4,5)P2 levels while avoiding undesirable alterations in other phosphoinositide pools.
Project description:UNLABELLED:Phosphoinositides and phosphoinositide binding proteins play a critical role in membrane and protein trafficking in eukaryotes. Their critical role in replication of cytoplasmic viruses has just begun to be understood. Poxviruses, a family of large cytoplasmic DNA viruses, rely on the intracellular membranes to develop their envelope, and poxvirus morphogenesis requires enzymes from the cellular phosphoinositide metabolic pathway. However, the role of phosphoinositides in poxvirus replication remains unclear, and no poxvirus proteins show any homology to eukaryotic phosphoinositide binding domains. Recently, a group of poxvirus proteins, termed viral membrane assembly proteins (VMAPs), were identified as essential for poxvirus membrane biogenesis. A key component of VMAPs is the H7 protein. Here we report the crystal structure of the H7 protein from vaccinia virus. The H7 structure displays a novel fold comprised of seven ?-helices and a highly curved three-stranded antiparallel ?-sheet. We identified a phosphoinositide binding site in H7, comprised of basic residues on a surface patch and the flexible C-terminal tail. These residues were found to be essential for viral replication and for binding of H7 to phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P) and phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P). Our studies suggest that phosphoinositide binding by H7 plays an essential role in poxvirus membrane biogenesis. IMPORTANCE:Poxvirus viral membrane assembly proteins (VMAPs) were recently shown to be essential for poxvirus membrane biogenesis. One of the key components of VMAPs is the H7 protein. However, no known structural motifs could be identified from its sequence, and there are no homologs of H7 outside the poxvirus family to suggest a biochemical function. We have determined the crystal structure of the vaccinia virus (VACV) H7 protein. The structure displays a novel fold with a distinct and positively charged surface. Our data demonstrate that H7 binds phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate and that the basic surface patch is indeed required for phosphoinositide binding. In addition, mutation of positively charged residues required for lipid binding disrupted VACV replication. Phosphoinositides and phosphoinositide binding proteins play critical roles in membrane and protein trafficking in eukaryotes. Our study demonstrates that VACV H7 displays a novel fold for phosphoinositide binding, which is essential for poxvirus replication.
Project description:Phosphoinositides are essential lipid regulators of trafficking and signaling pathways of all eukaryotic cells. Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) is an intermediate in the synthesis of several important phosphoinositide species but also serves as a regulatory molecule in its own right. Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases are most abundant in the Golgi but are also found in the plasma membrane and in endocytic compartments. To investigate the role of Golgi PtdIns4P in orchestrating trafficking events, we used a unique drug-inducible molecular approach to rapidly deplete PtdIns4P from Golgi membranes by a recruitable Sac1 phosphatase enzyme. The utility of the system was shown by the rapid loss of Golgi localization of PH domains known to bind PtdIns4P after Sac1 recruitment to the Golgi. Acute PtdIns4P depletion prevented the exit of cargo from the Golgi destined to both the plasma membrane and the late endosomes and led to the loss of some but not all clathrin adaptors from the Golgi membrane. Rapid PtdIns4P depletion in the Golgi also impaired but did not eliminate the replenishment of the plasma membrane PtdIns(4,5)P(2) during phospholipase C activation revealing a hitherto unrecognized contribution of Golgi PtdIns4P to this process. This unique approach will allow further studies on the role of phosphoinositides in endocytic compartments that have evaded detection using the conventional long-term manipulations of inositide kinase and phosphatase activities.
Project description:Rab5 regulates endocytic membrane traffic by specifically recruiting cytosolic effector proteins to their site of action on early endosomal membranes. We have characterized a new Rab5 effector complex involved in endosomal fusion events. This complex includes a novel protein, Rabenosyn-5, which, like the previously characterized Rab5 effector early endosome antigen 1 (EEA1), contains an FYVE finger domain and is recruited in a phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-dependent fashion to early endosomes. Rabenosyn-5 is complexed to the Sec1-like protein hVPS45. hVPS45 does not interact directly with Rab5, therefore Rabenosyn-5 serves as a molecular link between hVPS45 and the Rab5 GTPase. This property suggests that Rabenosyn-5 is a closer mammalian functional homologue of yeast Vac1p than EEA1. Furthermore, although both EEA1 and Rabenosyn-5 are required for early endosomal fusion, only overexpression of Rabenosyn-5 inhibits cathepsin D processing, suggesting that the two proteins play distinct roles in endosomal trafficking. We propose that Rab5-dependent formation of membrane domains enriched in phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate has evolved as a mechanism for the recruitment of multiple effector proteins to mammalian early endosomes, and that these domains are multifunctional, depending on the differing activities of the effector proteins recruited.
Project description:A limited set of phosphoinositide membrane lipids regulate diverse cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation, and migration. We developed two techniques based on rapamycin-induced protein dimerization to rapidly change the concentration of plasma membrane phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P(2)]. First, using a membrane-recruitable form of PI(4)P 5-kinase, we increased PI(4,5)P(2) synthesis from phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate [PI(4)P] and found that COS-7, HeLa, and human embryonic kidney 293 cells formed bundles of motile actin filaments known as actin comets. In contrast, a second technique that increased the concentration of PI(4,5)P(2) without consuming PI(4)P induced membrane ruffles. These distinct phenotypes were mediated by dynamin-mediated vesicular trafficking and mutually inhibitory crosstalk between the small guanosine triphosphatases Rac and RhoA. Our results indicate that the effect of PI(4,5)P(2) on actin reorganization depends on the abundance of other phosphoinositides, such as PI(4)P. Thus, combinatorial regulation of phosphoinositide concentrations may contribute to the diversity of phosphoinositide functions.
Project description:Macropinosomes are large endocytic vesicles that form in ruffling regions of plasma membrane. To analyze signal organization relative to ruffle closure into circular ruffles and cup closure into macropinosomes, this study used quantitative microscopy to measure 3' phosphoinositides and small-GTPase activities in a representative subset of forming macropinosomes. Macropinocytosis was stimulated by the addition of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) to macrophages expressing fluorescent reporter proteins. Ratiometric and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy determined that Rac1 activity and phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3)] levels increased transiently, peaking 26-30 seconds after ruffle closure. Three-dimensional reconstruction of cells labeled with the fluorescent dye FM4-64 showed that PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) was restricted to open, circular cups in the plasma membrane. Quantitative fluorescence microscopic methods determined the timing of cup closure, which followed 40-100 seconds after Rac1 and PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) deactivation and coincided with accumulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate and Rab5a. Thus, ruffle closure creates a circular domain of plasma membrane that localizes the activation and deactivation of Rac1 and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), followed by recruitment of Rab5a and the contractile activities of cup closure.
Project description:Phosphoinositides represent important lipid signals in the plant development and stress response. However, multiple isoforms of the phosphoinositide biosynthetic genes hamper our understanding of the pivotal enzymes in each step of the pathway as well as their roles in plant growth and development. Here, we report that phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C2 (AtPLC2) is the primary phospholipase in phosphoinositide metabolism and is involved in seedling growth and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Lipidomic profiling of multiple plc mutants showed that the plc2-1 mutant increased levels of its substrates phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, suggesting that the major phosphoinositide metabolic pathway is impaired. AtPLC2 displayed a distinct tissue expression pattern and localized at the plasma membrane in different cell types, where phosphoinositide signaling occurs. The seedlings of plc2-1 mutant showed growth defect that was complemented by heterologous expression of AtPLC2, suggesting that phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C activity borne by AtPLC2 is required for seedling growth. Moreover, the plc2-1 mutant showed hypersensitive response to ER stress as evidenced by changes in relevant phenotypes and gene expression profiles. Our results revealed the primary enzyme in phosphoinositide metabolism, its involvement in seedling growth and an emerging link between phosphoinositide and the ER stress response.
Project description:The present experiments were undertaken to investigate the role of the phosphoinositides phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns-4-P) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (PtdIns-4,5-P2) in the alpha 1-adrenergic stimulation of respiration in isolated hamster brown adipocytes. Exposure of isolated brown adipocytes to the alpha-adrenergic-receptor agonist phenylephrine provoked a breakdown of 30-50% of the PtdIns-4-P and PtdIns-4,5-P2 after prelabelling of the cells with [32P]Pi. Coincident with the breakdown of phosphoinositides was an accumulation of labelled phosphatidic acid, which continued for the duration of the cell incubation. The time course of phosphoinositide breakdown was defined more precisely by pulse-chase experiments. Under these conditions, phenylephrine caused radioactivity in phosphatidylinositol, PtdIns-4-P and PtdIns-4,5-P2 to fall by more than 50% within 30 s and to remain at the depressed value for the duration of the incubation (10 min). This phospholipid response to alpha-adrenergic stimulation was blocked by exposure of the cells to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA); likewise phenylephrine stimulation of respiration was prevented by PMA. beta-Adrenergic stimulation of respiration and inhibition of respiration by 2-chloroadenosine and insulin were, however, unaffected by treatment with PMA. On the assumption that PMA is acting in these cells as an activator of protein kinase C, these results suggest the selective interruption of alpha-adrenergic actions in brown adipocytes by activated protein kinase C. These findings suggest that breakdown of phosphoinositides is an early event in alpha-adrenergic stimulation of brown adipocytes which may be important for the subsequent stimulation of respiration. The results from the pulse-chase studies also suggest, however, that phenylephrine-stimulated breakdown of inositol phospholipids is a short-lived event which does not appear to persist for the entire period of exposure to the alpha 1-adrenergic ligand.
Project description:The formation of macropinosomes requires large-scale movements of membranes and the actin cytoskeleton. Over several minutes, actin-rich surface ruffles transform into 1-5?µm diameter circular ruffles, which close at their distal margins, creating endocytic vesicles. Previous studies using fluorescent reporters of phosphoinositides and Rho-family GTPases showed that signals generated by macrophages in response to the growth factor Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (M-CSF) appeared transiently in domains of plasma membrane circumscribed by circular ruffles. To address the question of how signaling molecules are coordinated in such large domains of plasma membrane, this study analyzed the relative timing of growth factor-dependent signals as ruffles transformed into macropinosomes. Fluorescent protein chimeras expressed in macrophages were imaged by microscopy and quantified relative to circular ruffle formation and cup closure. The large size of macropinocytic cups allowed temporal resolution of the transitions in phosphoinositides and associated enzyme activities that organize cup closure. Circular ruffles contained transient and sequential spikes of phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P(2)), phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP(3)), diacylglycerol, PI(3,4)P(2), PI(3)P and the activities of protein kinase C-?, Rac1, Ras and Rab5. The confinement of this signal cascade to circular ruffles indicated that diffusion barriers present in these transient structures focus feedback activation and deactivation of essential enzyme activities into restricted domains of plasma membrane.