Gombapyrones E and F, New ?-Pyrone Polyenes Produced by Streptomyces sp. KMC-002
ABSTRACT: Microorganism-derived polyene polyketides have been shown to display a variety of biological activities and have attracted great interest due to their structurally intriguing chemical diversity. Two new polyenes were isolated from a culture broth of Streptomyces sp. KMC-002 obtained from a soil sample in an abandoned mine. The structures of these compounds were determined to be ?-pyrone-containing polyene analogues through analyses of HRFABMS, UV and NMR data, and were named Gombapyrones E (1) and F (2). Gombapyrone E (1) showed antibacterial activity against Micrococcus luteus, Enterococcus hirae, Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA.
Project description:Through serial promoter exchanges, we isolated several novel polyenes, the aspernidgulenes, from Aspergillus nidulans and uncovered their succinct biosynthetic pathway involving only four enzymes. An enoyl reductase (ER)-less highly reducing polyketide synthase (HR-PKS) putatively produces a 5,6-dihydro-?-pyrone polyene, which undergoes bisepoxidation, epoxide ring opening, cyclization, and hydrolytic cleavage by three tailoring enzymes to generate aspernidgulene?A1 and A2. Our findings demonstrate the prowess of fungal-tailoring enzymes to transform a polyketide scaffold concisely and efficiently into complex structures. Moreover, comparison with citreoviridin and aurovertin biosynthesis suggests that methylation of the ?-pyrone hydroxy group by methyltransferase (CtvB or AurB) is the branching point at which the biosynthesis of these two classes of compounds diverge. Therefore, scanning for the presence or absence of the gatekeeping ?-pyrone methyltransferase gene in homologous clusters might be a potential way to classify the product bioinformatically as belonging to methylated ?-pyrone polyenes or polyenes containing rings derived from the cyclization of the unmethylated 5,6-dihydro-?-pyrone, such as 2,3-dimethyl-?-lactone and oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane.
Project description:Steady-state and ultrafast transient absorption spectra were obtained for a series of conformationally constrained, isomerically pure polyenes with 5-23 conjugated double bonds (N). These data and fluorescence spectra of the shorter polyenes reveal the N dependence of the energies of six (1)B(u)(+) and two (1)A(g)(-) excited states. The (1)B(u)(+) states converge to a common infinite polyene limit of 15,900 ± 100 cm(-1). The two excited (1)A(g)(-) states, however, exhibit a large (~9000 cm(-1)) energy difference in the infinite polyene limit, in contrast to the common value previously predicted by theory. EOM-CCSD ab initio and MNDO-PSDCI semiempirical MO theories account for the experimental transition energies and intensities. The complex, multistep dynamics of the 1(1)B(u)(+) ? 2(1)A(g)(-) ? 1(1)A(g)(-) excited state decay pathways as a function of N are compared with kinetic data from several natural and synthetic carotenoids. Distinctive transient absorption signals in the visible region, previously identified with S* states in carotenoids, also are observed for the longer polyenes. Analysis of the lifetimes of the 2(1)A(g)(-) states, using the energy gap law for nonradiative decay, reveals remarkable similarities in the N dependence of the 2(1)A(g)(-) decay kinetics of the carotenoid and polyene systems. These findings are important for understanding the mechanisms by which carotenoids carry out their roles as light-harvesting molecules and photoprotective agents in biological systems.
Project description:Topical application of antifungals does not have predictable or well-controlled release characteristics and requires reapplication to achieve therapeutic local concentration in a reasonable time period. In this article, the efficacy of five different US Food and Drug Administration-approved antifungal-loaded (amphotericin B, natamycin, terbinafine, fluconazole, and itraconazole) electrospun gelatin fiber mats were compared. Morphological studies show that incorporation of polyenes resulted in a two-fold increase in fiber diameter and the mats inhibit the growth of yeasts and filamentous fungal pathogens. Terbinafine-loaded mats were effective against three filamentous fungal species. Among the two azole antifungals compared, the itraconazole-loaded mat was potent against Aspergillus strains. However, activity loss was observed for fluconazole-loaded mats against all of the test organisms. The polyene-loaded mats displayed rapid candidacidal activities as well. Biophysical and rheological measurements indicate strong interactions between polyene antifungals and gelatin matrix. As a result, the polyenes stabilized the triple helical conformation of gelatin and the presence of gelatin decreased the hemolytic activity of polyenes. The polyene-loaded fiber mats were noncytotoxic to primary human corneal and sclera fibroblasts. The reduction of toxicity with complete retention of activity of the polyene antifungal-loaded gelatin fiber mats can provide new opportunities in the management of superficial skin infections.
Project description:On adsorption of some electron-acceptor molecules on the solid films of all-trans-beta-carotene, beta-apo-8'-carotenal, astacene and methylbixin a new absorption band appears on the longer-wavelength side of the spectrum in addition to the original bands. The position of this new band is dependent on the electron affinity (EA) of the acceptor molecules, and the intensity of this band increases with the amount of adsorbed acceptor molecules. A linear relationship between the vmax. of the new band and EA was observed. The value of the ionization potential of the polyenes estimated from such linear relationship agrees satisfactorily with the value obtained by other methods. It has been concluded that the polyenes behave as electron donor and first form molecular charge-transfer complexes (of type [polyene . I2] with iodine) with electron acceptors, these finally dissociating to yield ionic complexes (of type [polyene . I+] with iodine).
Project description:Detailed density functional theory (DFT) calculations on the structure and harmonic frequencies of model all-trans and all-cis polyenes were undertaken. For the first time, we report on the convergence of selected B3LYP/6-311++G** and BLYP/6-311++G** calculated structural parameters resulting from a systematic increase in polyene size (chains containing 2 to 14 C?=?C units). The limiting values of the structural parameters for very long chains were estimated using simple three-parameter empirical formulae. BLYP/6-311++G** calculated ?(C?=?C) and ?(C-C) frequencies for all-trans and all-cis polyenes containing up to 14 carbon-carbon double bonds were used to estimate these values for very long chains. Correction of raw, unscaled vibrational data was performed by comparing theoretical and experimental wavenumbers for polyenes chains containing 3 to 12 conjugated C?=?C units with both ends substituted by tert-butyl groups. The corrected ?(C?=?C) and ?(C-C) wavenumbers for all-trans molecules were used to estimate the presence of 9 - 12 C?=?C units in all-trans polyene pigment in red coral.
Project description:Skipped polyenes (that is, 1,4-dienes and higher homologues) are stereodefined components of a vast array of biologically important natural products, including polyunsaturated fatty acids. Although widespread in nature, these architectures are generally considered to represent significant barriers to efficient chemical synthesis. Partial reduction of skipped poly-ynes provides a pathway to a subset of such structures, but general chemical methods for the preparation of skipped polyenes that contain varied stereochemistries and substitution patterns are lacking. Here, we describe a metal-promoted reductive cross-coupling reaction between vinylcyclopropanes and alkynes (or vinylsilanes) that provides stereoselective access to a diverse array of skipped polyenes through a process that establishes one C-C bond, generates up to three stereodefined alkenes, and can be used to introduce stereogenic centres at the central positions of the skipped polyene motif. We also demonstrate the significance of the present bond construction by preparing substituted and stereodefined polyunsaturated synthetic fatty acids.
Project description:We introduce an oxidative Heck reaction for selective complex diene and polyene formation. The reaction proceeds via oxidative Pd(II)/sulfoxide catalysis that retards palladium-hydride isomerizations which previously limited the Heck manifold's capacity for furnishing stereodefined conjugated dienes. Limiting quantities of nonactivated terminal olefins (1 equiv) and slight excesses of vinyl boronic esters (1.5 equiv) that feature diverse functionality can be used to furnish complex dienes and polyenes in good yields and excellent selectivities (generally E:Z = >20:1; internal:terminal = >20:1). Because this reaction only requires prior activation of a single vinylic carbon, improvements in efficiency are observed for synthetic sequences relative to ones featuring reactions that require activation of both coupling partners.
Project description:The new secondary metabolites verrucosidinol (1) and its derivative verrucosidinol acetate (2), together with a potent neurotoxin verrucosidin (3), a congener norverrucosidin (4) and a mixture of two known phytotoxic metabolites terrestric acids (5 and 6), were isolated from the marine derived fungus Penicillium aurantiogriseum. Verrucosidinol has a ring-opened ethylene oxide moiety in the polyene ?-pyrone skeleton, and verrucosidinol acetate is its acetate derivative. The chemical structures were determined by comparing with literature data and a combination of spectroscopic techniques, including high resolution mass spectrum and two-dimentional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis.
Project description:The rise of drug-resistant fungal pathogens urges for the development of new tools for the discovery of novel antifungal compounds. Polyene antibiotics are potent agents against fungal infections in humans and animals. They inhibit the growth of fungal cells by binding to sterols in the cytoplasmic membrane that subsequently causes pore formation and eventually results in cell death. Many polyenes are produced by Streptomycetes and released into the soil environment, where they can then target fungal hyphae. While not antibacterial, these compounds could nevertheless be also perceived by bacteria sharing the same habitat and serve as signaling molecules. We therefore addressed the question of how polyenes such as amphotericin B are perceived by the soil bacterium, Bacillus subtilis. Global transcriptional profiling identified a very narrow and specific response, primarily resulting in strong upregulation of the lnrLMN operon, encoding an ABC transporter previously associated with linearmycin resistance. Its strong and specific induction prompted a detailed analysis of the lnrL promoter element and its regulation. We demonstrate that the amphotericin response strictly depends on the two-component system LnrJK and that the target of LnrK-dependent gene regulation, the lnrLMN operon, negatively affects LnrJK-dependent signal transduction. Based on this knowledge, we developed a novel whole-cell biosensor, based on a P lnrL -lux fusion reporter construct in a lnrLMN deletion mutant background. This highly sensitive and dynamic biosensor is ready to be applied for the discovery or characterization of novel amphotericin-like polyenes, hopefully helping to increase the repertoire of antimycotic and antiparasitic polyenes available to treat human and animal infections.
Project description:Little information is available about the molecular mechanisms responsible for polyene resistance in pathogenic yeasts. A clinical isolate of Candida glabrata with a poor susceptibility to polyenes, as determined by disk diffusion method and confirmed by determination of MIC, was recovered from a patient treated with amphotericin B. Quantitative analysis of sterols revealed a lack of ergosterol and an accumulation of late sterol intermediates, suggesting a defect in the final steps of the ergosterol pathway. Sequencing of CgERG11, CgERG6, CgERG5, and CgERG4 genes revealed exclusively a unique missense mutation in CgERG6 leading to the substitution of a cysteine by a phenylalanine in the corresponding protein. In addition, real-time reverse transcription-PCR demonstrated an overexpression of genes encoding enzymes involved in late steps of the ergosterol pathway. Moreover, this isolate exhibited a pseudohyphal growth whatever the culture medium used, and ultrastructural changes of the cell wall of blastoconidia were seen consisting in a thinner inner layer. Cell wall alterations were also suggested by the higher susceptibility of growing cells to Calcofluor white. Additionally, complementation of this isolate with a wild-type copy of the CgERG6 gene restored susceptibility to polyenes and a classical morphology. Together, these results demonstrated that mutation in the CgERG6 gene may lead to a reduced susceptibility to polyenes and to a pseudohyphal growth due to the subsequent changes in sterol content of the plasma membrane.