A long-term maternal diet intervention is necessary to avoid the obesogenic effect of maternal high-fat diet in the offspring.
ABSTRACT: Although a pre-pregnancy dietary intervention is believed to be able to prevent offspring obesity, research evidence is absent. We hypothesize that a long period of pre-pregnancy maternal diet transition from a high-fat (HF) diet to a normal-fat (NF) diet effectively prevents offspring obesity, and this preventive effect is independent of maternal body weight change. In our study, female mice were either continued on an NF diet (NF group) or an HF diet (HF group) until weaning, or switched from an HF to an NF for 1 week (H1N group), 5 weeks (H5N group) or 9 weeks (H9N group) before pregnancy. After weaning, the offspring were given the HF diet for 12 weeks to promote obesity. The mothers, regardless of which group, did not display maternal body weight change and glucose intolerance either before pregnancy or after weaning. Compared to the HF group, the H1N and H5N, but not the H9N, offspring developed glucose intolerance earlier, with more severely imbalanced glucose homeostasis. These offspring also displayed hepatocyte degeneration and significant adipocyte hypertrophy associated with higher expression of lipogenesis genes. The molecular mechanistic study showed blunted insulin signaling, overactivated adipocyte Akt signaling and hepatic AMPK signaling with enhanced lipogenesis genes in the H1N and H5N versus the NF offspring. However, maternal H9N diets normalized glucose and lipid metabolism of the offspring via resensitized insulin signaling and normalized Akt and AMPK signaling. In summary, we showed that a long-term maternal diet intervention effectively released the intergenerational obesogenic effect of maternal HF diet independent of maternal weight management.
Project description:BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:Recent findings have highlighted the detrimental influence of maternal overnutrition and obesity on fetal development and early life development. However, there are no evidence-based guidelines regarding the optimal strategy for dietary intervention before pregnancy. SUBJECTS/METHODS:We used a murine model to study whether switching from a high-fat (HF) diet to a normal-fat (NF) diet (H1N group) 1 week before pregnancy could lead to in utero reprogramming of female offspring obesity; comparator groups were offspring given a consistent maternal HF group or NF group until weaning. After weaning, all female offspring were given the HF diet for either 9 or 12 weeks before being killed humanely. RESULTS:H1N treatment did not result in maternal weight loss before pregnancy. NF offsprings were neither obese nor glucose intolerant during the entire experimental period. H1N offsprings were most obese after the 12-week postweaning HF diet and displayed glucose intolerance earlier than HF offsprings. Our mechanistic study showed reduced adipocyte insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and hepatic IRS2 expression and increased adipocyte p-Ser(636/639) and p-Ser(612) of H1N or HF offspring compared with that in the NF offspring. Among all groups, the H1N offspring had lowest level of IRS1 and the highest levels of p-Ser(636/639) and p-Ser(612) in gonadal adipocyte. In addition, the H1N offspring further reduced the expression of Glut4 and Glut2, vs those of the HF offspring, which was lower compared with the NF offspring. There were also enhanced expression of genes inhibiting glycogenesis and decreased hepatic glycogen in H1N vs HF or NF offspring. Furthermore, we showed extremely higher expression of lipogenesis and adipogenesis genes in gonadal adipocytes of H1N offspring compared with all other groups. CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that a transition from an HF diet to an NF diet shortly before pregnancy, without resulting in maternal weight loss, is not necessarily beneficial and may have deleterious effects on offspring.
Project description:Maternal obesity increases the risk of metabolic dysregulation in rodent offspring, especially when offspring are exposed to a high-fat (HF), obesogenic diet later in life. We previously demonstrated that maternal choline supplementation (MCS) in HF-fed mouse dams during gestation prevents fetal overgrowth and excess adiposity. In this study, we examined the long-term metabolic influence of MCS. C57BL/6J mice were fed a HF diet with or without choline supplementation prior to and during gestation. After weaning, their pups were exposed to either a HF or control diet for 6 weeks before measurements. Prenatal and post-weaning dietary treatments led to sexually dimorphic responses. In male offspring, while post-weaning HF led to impaired fasting glucose and worse glucose tolerance (p < 0.05), MCS in HF dams (HFCS) attenuated these changes. HFCS (versus maternal normal fat control) appeared to improve metabolic functioning of visceral adipose tissue during post-weaning HF feeding, preventing the elevation in leptin and increasing (p < 0.05) mRNA expression of insulin receptor substrate 1 (Irs1) that promotes peripheral insulin signaling in male offspring. In contrast, MCS had minimal effects on metabolic outcomes of female offspring. In conclusion, MCS during HF feeding in mice improves long-term blood glucose homeostasis in male offspring when they are faced with a postnatal obesogenic environment.
Project description:Skeletal muscle plays a relevant role in metabolic flexibility and fuel usage and the associated muscle metabolic inflexibility due to high-fat diets contributing to obesity and type 2 diabetes. Previous research from our group indicates that a high-fat and rapid-digesting carbohydrate diet during pregnancy promotes an excessive adipogenesis and also increases the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the offspring. This effect can be counteracted by diets containing carbohydrates with similar glycemic load but lower digestion rates. To address the role of the skeletal muscle in these experimental settings, pregnant rats were fed high-fat diets containing carbohydrates with similar glycemic load but different digestion rates, a high fat containing rapid-digesting carbohydrates diet (HF/RD diet) or a high fat containing slow-digesting carbohydrates diet (HF/SD diet). After weaning, male offspring were fed a standard diet for 3 weeks (weaning) or 10 weeks (adolescence) and the impact of the maternal HF/RD and HF/SD diets on the metabolism, signaling pathways and muscle transcriptome was analyzed. The HF/SD offspring displayed better muscle features compared with the HF/RD group, showing a higher muscle mass, myosin content and differentiation markers that translated into a greater grip strength. In the HF/SD group, metabolic changes such as a higher expression of fatty acids (FAT/CD36) and glucose (GLUT4) transporters, an enhanced glycogen content, as well as changes in regulatory enzymes such as muscle pyruvate kinase and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 were found, supporting an increased muscle metabolic flexibility and improved muscle performance. The analysis of signaling pathways was consistent with a better insulin sensitivity in the muscle of the HF/SD group. Furthermore, increased expression of genes involved in pathways leading to muscle differentiation, muscle mass regulation, extracellular matrix content and insulin sensitivity were detected in the HF/SD group when compared with HF/RD animals. In the HF/SD group, the upregulation of the ElaV1/HuR gene could be one of the main regulators in the positive effects of the diet in early programming on the offspring. The long-lasting programming effects of the HF/SD diet during pregnancy may depend on a coordinated gene regulation, modulation of signaling pathways and metabolic flexibility that lead to an improved muscle functionality. The dietary early programming associated to HF/SD diet has synergic and positive crosstalk effects in several tissues, mainly muscle, liver and adipose tissue, contributing to maintain the whole body homeostasis in the offspring.
Project description:Obesity and related disorders have increased concurrently with an increased consumption of saturated fatty acids. We examined whether post-weaning high fat (HF) diet would exacerbate offspring vulnerability to maternal HF-induced programmed hypertension and kidney disease sex-specifically, with a focus on the kidney. Next, we aimed to elucidate the gene-diet interactions that contribute to maternal HF-induced renal programming using the next generation RNA sequencing (NGS) technology. Female Sprague-Dawley rats received either a normal diet (ND) or HF diet (D12331, Research Diets) for five weeks before the delivery. The offspring of both sexes were put on either the ND or HF diet from weaning to six months of age, resulting in four groups of each sex (maternal diet/post-weaning diet; n = 5-7/group): ND/ND, ND/HF, HF/ND, and HF/HF. Post-weaning HF diet increased bodyweights of both ND/HF and HF/HF animals from three to six months only in males. Post-weaning HF diet increased systolic blood pressure in male and female offspring, irrespective of whether they were exposed to maternal HF or not. Male HF/HF offspring showed greater degrees of glomerular and tubular injury compared to the ND/ND group. Our NGS data showed that maternal HF diet significantly altered renal transcriptome with female offspring being more HF-sensitive. HF diet induced hypertension and renal injury are associated with oxidative stress, activation of renin-angiotensin system, and dysregulated sodium transporters and circadian clock. Post-weaning HF diet sex-specifically exacerbates the development of obesity, kidney injury, but not hypertension programmed by maternal HF intake. Better understanding of the sex-dependent mechanisms that underlie HF-induced renal programming will help develop a novel personalized dietary intervention to prevent obesity and related disorders.
Project description:We evaluate the impact of maternal and post-weaning high-fat (HF) diet on ovarian follicular population, steroidogenesis, and gene expression with a focus on the circadian clock system and insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2) in adult offspring ovaries, and to elucidate whether a maternal and post-weaning diet confers similar risks.Virgin Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with normal chow (C) diet or HF diet for 5 weeks before mating, during gestation, and lactation. Female offspring were fed with the C or HF diet from weaning to 6 months of age, resulting in four study groups (n = 6 per group): C/C, C/HF, HF/C, and HF/HF.Ovaries from offspring exposed to post-weaning HF diet (i.e., the C/HF and HF/HF groups) had a decrease in small follicle numbers, but with similar numbers of antral follicles and corpora lutea. Offspring from HF-fed dams (i.e., the HF/C and HF/HF groups) had increased plasma estradiol concentrations and decreased luteinizing hormone levels at 6 months of age. In addition, Igf2 and each of the circadian rhythm core genes Clock, Per1, Per2, and Per3 were increased in the ovaries of offspring exposed to maternal HF diet (both HF/C and HF/HF groups).Maternal and post-weaning HF diet programs the reproductive profile of the female offspring in adult life through different manners. Post-weaning HF intake resulted in the reduction of small follicles in adulthood, whereas maternal HF diet had long-term deleterious consequences on female offspring steroidogenesis and coincided with alteration of the upregulation of the imprinted gene Igf2 and changes in ovarian circadian rhythms.
Project description:Maternal undernutrition is linked with an elevated risk of diabetes mellitus in offspring regardless of the postnatal dietary status. This is also found in maternal micro-nutrition deficiency, especial chromium which is a key glucose regulator. We investigated whether maternal chromium restriction contributes to the development of diabetes in offspring by affecting DNA methylation status in liver tissue. After being mated with control males, female weanling 8-week-old C57BL mice were fed a control diet (CON, 1.19 mg chromium/kg diet) or a low chromium diet (LC, 0.14 mg chromium/kg diet) during pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, some offspring were shifted to the other diet (CON-LC, or LC-CON), while others remained on the same diet (CON-CON, or LC-LC) for 29 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, and oral glucose tolerance test was performed to evaluate the glucose metabolism condition. Methylation differences in liver from the LC-CON group and CON-CON groups were studied by using a DNA methylation array. Bisulfite sequencing was carried out to validate the results of the methylation array. Maternal chromium limitation diet increased the body weight, blood glucose, and serum insulin levels. Even when switched to the control diet after weaning, the offspring also showed impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. DNA methylation profiling of the offspring livers revealed 935 differentially methylated genes in livers of the maternal chromium restriction diet group. Pathway analysis identified the insulin signaling pathway was the main process affected by hypermethylated genes. Bisulfite sequencing confirmed that some genes in insulin signaling pathway were hypermethylated in livers of the LC-CON and LC-LC group. Accordingly, the expression of genes in insulin signaling pathway was downregulated. There findings suggest that maternal chromium restriction diet results in glucose intolerance in male offspring through alterations in DNA methylation which is associated with the insulin signaling pathway in the mice livers.
Project description:Prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) exposure and high-fat (HF) intake are linked to hypertension. We examined whether maternal melatonin therapy prevents programmed hypertension synergistically induced by prenatal DEX plus postnatal HF in adult offspring. We also examined whether DEX and melatonin causes renal programming using next-generation RNA sequencing (NGS) technology. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg) or vehicle from gestational day 16 to 22. In the melatonin-treatment groups (M), rats received 0.01% melatonin in drinking water during their entire pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring were assigned to five groups: control, DEX, HF, DEX+HF, and DEX+HF+M. Male offspring in the HF group were fed a HF diet from weaning to 4 months of age. Prenatal DEX and postnatal HF diet synergistically induced programmed hypertension in adult offspring, which melatonin prevented. Maternal melatonin treatment modified over 3000 renal transcripts in the developing offspring kidney. Our NGS data indicate that PPAR signaling and fatty acid metabolism are two significantly regulated pathways. In addition, maternal melatonin therapy elicits longstanding alterations on renal programming, including regulation of the melatonin signaling pathway and upregulation of Agtr1b and Mas1 expression in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), to protect male offspring against programmed hypertension. Postnatal HF aggravates prenatal DEX induced programmed hypertension in adult offspring, which melatonin prevented. The protective effects of melatonin on programmed hypertension is associated with regulation of the RAS and melatonin receptors. The long-term effects of maternal melatonin therapy on renal transcriptome require further clarification.
Project description:Maternal over-nutrition can lead to metabolic disorders in offspring, whereas maternal dietary genistein may have beneficial effects on the metabolic health of offspring. Our objective was to determine whether maternal dietary genistein could attenuate the detrimental effects of a maternal high-fat diet on their offspring's metabolism and to explore the role of the gut microbiota on their offspring's glucose and lipid metabolism. C57BL/6 female mice were fed either a high-fat diet without genistein (HF), high-fat diet with low-dose genistein (0.25 g/kg diet) (HF.LG), high-fat diet with high-dose genistein (0.6 g/kg diet) (HF.HG) or normal control diet (Control) for 3 weeks prior to breeding and throughout gestation and lactation. The female offspring in the HF group had lower birth weights and glucose intolerance and higher serum insulin, triacylglycerol (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) levels at weaning compared with the Control group. Offspring from HF.LG dams had increased birth weight, improved glucose tolerance, and decreased fasting insulin, whereas the serum TG and TC levels were decreased in HF.HG offspring in comparison with HF offspring. The significant enrichment of Bacteroides and Akkermansia in offspring from genistein-fed dams might play vital roles in improving glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity, and the significantly increased abundance of Rikenella and Rikenellaceae_RC9_ gut_group in the HF.HG group may be associated with the decreased serum levels of TG and TC. In conclusion, maternal dietary genistein negates the harmful effects of a maternal high-fat diet on glucose and lipid metabolism in female offspring, in which the altered gut microbiota plays crucial roles. The ability of maternal genistein intake to improve offspring metabolism is important since this intervention could fight the transmission of diabetes to subsequent generations.
Project description:Scope:As a prebiotic, inulin may have a protective effect on glucose metabolism. However, the mechanism of inulin treatment on glucose intolerance in offspring exposed to a maternal high-fat (HF) diet is still not clear. Here, we examined the hepatic DNA methylation profile to determine how maternal inulin supplementation modified glucose metabolism in offspring mice. Procedures:Female mice were fed a HF diet, control diet (CON), or a HF diet with inulin supplementation (HF-inulin) during gestation and lactation. Upon weaning, pup livers were obtained. A hepatic genome DNA methylation array was performed. Results:Pups exposed to a maternal HF diet exhibited glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Maternal inulin treatment moderated glucose metabolism. A DNA methylation array identified differentially methylated regions associated with 970 annotated genes from pups exposed to a HF diet in response to maternal inulin treatment. In particular, the wingless-type MMTV integration site family member 5A (Wnt5a) gene was hypermethylated, and the phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit type 2 alpha (Pik3c2a), phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit type 2 beta (Pik3c2b), and phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 2 (Pik3r2) genes were hypomethylated in inulin-treated pups. Consistently, hepatic Wnt5a gene expression was reduced and Pik3c2a, Pik3c2b, and Pik3r2 gene expression were increased in the inulin group. Conclusion:Maternal inulin treatment improved glucose intolerance by changing DNA methylation and gene expression of Wnt5a and Pi3k in mice exposed to a maternal HF diet.
Project description:To determine the impact of maternal and post-weaning consumption of a high fat diet on endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and redox regulation in adult male mouse offspring.Female C57BL6J mice were fed an obesogenic high fat diet (HF, 45% kcal fat) or standard chow (C, 21% kcal fat) pre-conception and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Post-weaning, male offspring were continued on the same diet as their mothers or placed on the alternative diet to give 4 dietary groups (C/C, HF/C, C/HF and HF/HF) which were studied at 15 or 30 weeks of age.There were significant effects of maternal diet on offspring body weight (p<0.004), systolic blood pressure (p = 0.026) and endothelium-dependent relaxation to ACh (p = 0.004) and NO production (p = 0.005) measured in the femoral artery. With control for maternal diet there was also an effect of offspring post-weaning dietary fat to increase systolic blood pressure (p<0.0001) and reduce endothelium-dependent relaxation (p = 0.022) and ACh-mediated NO production (p = 0.007). There was also a significant impact of age (p<0.005). Redox balance was perturbed, with altered regulation of vascular enzymes involved in ROS/NO signalling.Maternal consumption of a HF diet is associated with changes in vascular function and oxidative balance in the offspring of similar magnitude to those seen with consumption of a high fat diet post-weaning. Further, this disadvantageous vascular phenotype is exacerbated by age to influence the risk of developing obesity, raised blood pressure and endothelial dysfunction in adult life.