PLK1 stabilizes a MYC-dependent kinase network in aggressive B cell lymphomas.
ABSTRACT: Concordant activation of MYC and BCL-2 oncoproteins in double-hit lymphoma (DHL) results in aggressive disease that is refractory to treatment. By integrating activity-based proteomic profiling and drug screens, polo-like kinase-1 (PLK1) was identified as an essential regulator of the MYC-dependent kinome in DHL. Notably, PLK1 was expressed at high levels in DHL, correlated with MYC expression, and connoted poor outcome. Further, PLK1 signaling augmented MYC protein stability, and in turn, MYC directly induced PLK1 transcription, establishing a feed-forward MYC-PLK1 circuit in DHL. Finally, inhibition of PLK1 triggered degradation of MYC and of the antiapoptotic protein MCL-1, and PLK1 inhibitors showed synergy with BCL-2 antagonists in blocking DHL cell growth, survival, and tumorigenicity, supporting clinical targeting of PLK1 in DHL.
Project description:While MYC translocations in B-cell lymphoma (BCL) have been extensively studied, the significance of MYC amplification (MYC amp) is poorly understood. This study characterizes BCL showing MYC amp, defined as uncountable FISH signals. Retrospective analysis of all BCL FISH for MYC aberrations performed at our institution (1/2010-2/2018) identified 44/9715 (0.45%) cases with MYC amp. MYC amp probe signals appeared in a cloud-like distribution (70%) or in a single homogenous-staining-region (30%). In total 59% also had MYC separation by breakapart probe indicating concurrent MYC translocation. The most common morphology was large cell (82%) and diagnosis was diffuse large BCL (DLBCL, 50%). In total 88% were germinal center B-cell-like by Hans algorithm. In total 12/42 (29%) cases were "double-hit" by WHO criteria (DHL/THL) in addition to having MYC amp. The estimated 2-year overall survival (OS) of DLBCL cases with MYC amp was 80%. There was no significant difference in OS between DLBCL and DHL/THL among cases with MYC amp, suggesting a poor prognostic impact of MYC amp. However, when compared to a larger cohort of DLBCL and DHL/THL, MYC amp did not have prognostic significance. In summary, MYC amp in BCL is rare, most commonly occurs in DLBCL, and was not associated with survival in our cohort.
Project description:"Double-hit" lymphoma (DHL) is a high-grade B-cell lymphoma that harbors concurrent MYC and BCL2 or BCL6 rearrangements. Because cases of MYC/BCL6 DHL are uncommon, most reported conclusions have been based on cases of MYC/BCL2 DHL. Lack of experimental MYC/BCL6 DHL models continues to hinder the pathophysiologic and therapeutic investigations of this disorder. We herein describe a novel MYC/BCL6 DHL cell line, designated DH-My6, carrying both the MYC-IGH and BCL6-IGH fusion genes. Interruptions of MYC and BCL6 expressions using short interfering RNAs and chemical inhibitors led to significant attenuation of DH-My6 cell growth. Greater antitumor effects were found when the cells were treated with a combination of MYC and BCL6 inhibitors. Moreover, the PLK1 inhibitor volasertib and the HDAC inhibitor vorinostat synergized strongly when combined with the bromodomain inhibitor JQ1. DH-My6 is a new well-validated MYC/BCL6 DHL cell line that will provide a useful model for studies of the pathogenesis and therapeutics for the less common DHL tumor type. The rationale for approaches targeting both MYC and BCL6, and in combination with PLK1 or HDAC inhibitors for superior suppression of the aggressive MYC/BCL6 DHL warrants further in vivo testing in a preclinical model.
Project description:MYC-driven lymphomas, especially those with concurrent MYC and BCL2 dysregulation, are currently a challenge in clinical practice due to rapid disease progression, resistance to standard chemotherapy, and high risk of refractory disease. MYC plays a central role by coordinating hyperactive protein synthesis with upregulated transcription in order to support rapid proliferation of tumor cells. Translation initiation inhibitor rocaglates have been identified as the most potent drugs in MYC-driven lymphomas as they efficiently inhibit MYC expression and tumor cell viability. We found that this class of compounds can overcome eIF4A abundance by stabilizing target mRNA-eIF4A interaction that directly prevents translation. Proteome-wide quantification demonstrated selective repression of multiple critical oncoproteins in addition to MYC in B-cell lymphoma including NEK2, MCL1, AURKA, PLK1, and several transcription factors that are generally considered undruggable. Finally, (-)-SDS-1-021, the most promising synthetic rocaglate, was confirmed to be highly potent as a single agent, and displayed significant synergy with the BCL2 inhibitor ABT199 in inhibiting tumor growth and survival in primary lymphoma cells in vitro and in patient-derived xenograft mouse models. Overall, our findings support the strategy of using rocaglates to target oncoprotein synthesis in MYC-driven lymphomas.
Project description:Estrogen receptor (ER) ?-positive breast cancers initially respond to antiestrogens but eventually become estrogen independent and recur. ER(+) breast cancer cells resistant to long-term estrogen deprivation (LTED) exhibit hormone-independent ER transcriptional activity and growth. A kinome-wide siRNA screen using a library targeting 720 kinases identified Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) as one of the top genes whose downregulation resulted in inhibition of estrogen-independent ER transcriptional activity and growth of LTED cells. High PLK1 mRNA and protein correlated with a high Ki-67 score in primary ER(+) breast cancers after treatment with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. RNAi-mediated knockdown of PLK1 inhibited ER expression, estrogen-independent growth, and ER transcription in MCF7 and HCC1428 LTED cells. Pharmacologic inhibition of PLK1 with volasertib, a small-molecule ATP-competitive PLK1 inhibitor, decreased LTED cell growth, ER transcriptional activity, and ER expression. Volasertib in combination with the ER antagonist, fulvestrant, decreased MCF7 xenograft growth in ovariectomized mice more potently than each drug alone. JUNB, a component of the AP-1 complex, was expressed 16-fold higher in MCF7/LTED compared with parental MCF7 cells. Furthermore, JUNB and BCL2L1 (which encodes antiapoptotic BCL-xL) mRNA levels were markedly reduced upon volasertib treatment in MCF7/LTED cells, while they were increased in parental MCF7 cells. Finally, JUNB knockdown decreased ER expression and transcriptional activity in MCF7/LTED cells, suggesting that PLK1 drives ER expression and estrogen-independent growth via JUNB. These data support a critical role of PLK1 in acquired hormone-independent growth of ER(+) human breast cancer and is therefore a promising target in tumors that have escaped estrogen deprivation therapy.
Project description:MYC translocations are the biologic hallmark of Burkitt lymphomas but also occur in other mature B-cell lymphomas. If accompanied by chromosomal breaks targeting the BCL2 and/or BCL6 oncogenes, these MYC translocation-positive (MYC+) lymphomas are called double-hit lymphomas (DHLs); otherwise, the term single-hit lymphoma (SHL) is applied. In order to characterize the biologic features of these MYC+ lymphomas other than Burkitt lymphomas, we explored, after exclusion of molecular Burkitt lymphoma (mBL) as defined by gene expression profiling (GEP), the molecular, pathological and clinical aspects of 80 MYC translocation (MYC+) lymphomas (31 SHL, 26 BCL2+/MYC+, 14 BCL6+/MYC+, 6 BCL2+/BCL6+/MYC+ and 3 MYC+ lymphomas with unknown BCL6 status). Comparison of SHL and DHL revealed no difference in frequency of MYC partner (IG/non-IG), genomic complexity or MYC expression and no differences in GEP. DHL showed a more frequent GCB-like GEP and higher IGH and MYC mutation rates. GEP revealed 130 differentially expressed genes between BCL6+/MYC+ and BCL2+/MYC+ DHL. BCL2+/MYC+ DHL showed a more frequent GCB-like GEP. Analysis of all lymphomas according to MYC partner (IG/non-IG) revealed no substantial differences. In contrast to mBL and lymphomas without MYC break, SHL and DHL patients had similar poor outcome. Our data suggest that after excluding mBL, MYC+ lymphomas could be biologically widely lumped without further need for subclassification. 32 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma samples were hybridized to HG-U133A Affymetrix GeneChips. In addition, this study contains 30 already published samples, which contribute to GSE4475 (Hummel et al. 2006 (PMID 16760442)), as well as 18 already published samples from GSE22470 (Salaverria et al. 2011 (PMID 21487109)). No re-normalisation of the published samples was performed. The complete dataset representing: (1) the 32 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma Samples, (2) the 30 Samples from GSE4475 and (3) the 18 Samples from GSE22470, is linked below as a supplementary file
Project description:Polo-like kinase 1 (<i>PLK1</i>) is highly expressed in group 3 medulloblastoma (MB), and it has been preclinically validated as a cancer therapeutic target in medulloblastoma. Here, we demonstrate that PLK1 inhibition with PCM-075 or BI6727 significantly reduces the growth of MB cells and causes a decrease of <i>c-MYC</i> mRNA and protein levels. We show that MYC activates <i>PLK1</i> transcription, while the inhibition of PLK1 suppresses MB tumor development and causes a decrease in c-MYC protein level by suppressing FBXW7 auto poly-ubiquitination. FBXW7 physically interacts with PLK1 and c-MYC, facilitating their protein degradation by promoting ubiquitination. These results demonstrate a PLK1-FBXW7-MYC regulatory loop in MYC-driven medulloblastoma. Moreover, FBXW7 is significantly downregulated in group 3 patient samples. The overexpression of <i>FBXW7</i> induced apoptosis and suppressed proliferation in vitro and in vivo, while constitutive phosphorylation mutation attenuated its tumor suppressor function. Altogether, these findings demonstrated that PLK1 inhibition stabilizes FBXW7 in MYC-driven MB, thus revealing an important function of <i>FBXW7</i> in suppressing medulloblastoma progression.
Project description:Double/triple-hit lymphomas (DHL/THL) account for 5-10% of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with rearrangement of MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 resulting in MYC overexpression. Despite the poor prognosis of DHL, R-CHOP chemotherapy remains the treatment backbone and new targeted therapy is needed. We performed comprehensive cytogenetic studies/fluorescence in situ hybridization on DLBCL and Burkitt lymphoma cell lines (n = 11) to identify the DHL/THL DLBCL in vitro model. We identified MYC/IG in Raji and Ramos (single hit); MYC/IG-BCL2 (DHL) in DOHH2, OCI-LY1, SUDHL2, and OCI-LY10; MYC/IG-BCL2/BCL6 (THL) in VAL; and no MYC rearrangement in U2932 and HBL1 (WT-MYC). Targeting MYC in the DHL/THL DLBCLs through bromodomain extra-terminal inhibitors (BETi) (JQ1, I-BET, and OTX015) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced proliferation, similar to WT-MYC cells, accompanied by decreased MYC but not BCL2 protein. Moreover, BETi suppressed MYC transcription and decreased BRD4 binding to MYC promoter in DHL cells. CD47 and PD-L1 are immunoregulatory molecules often expressed on tumors and regulated by MYC. High levels of surface CD47 but not surface PD-L1 was observed in DHL/THL, which was reduced by JQ1 treatment. BETi in combination with Pan-HDAC inhibitor had a limited effect on survival of DHL/THL, while combination of BETi and BCL2 inhibitor (ABT-199) had a significant (p < 0.005) inhibitory effect on survival followed by BCL-XL inhibition. Overall, the data suggests that MYC-expressing DLBCLs are probably addicted to the MYC-oncogenic effect regardless of MYC rearrangements. In summary, we identified an in vitro model for DHL/THL DLBCLs and provide evidence for the therapeutic potential of BET inhibitor alone or in combination with BCL2 inhibitor.
Project description:High-grade B-cell lymphomas with recurrent chromosomal break points have been termed 'double hit lymphoma' (DHL). The most commonly seen DHL is diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with t(14;18) and t(8;14) or t(8;22) resulting in overexpression of BCL2 and MYC, respectively. The increased proliferation due to MYC overexpression, without the ability for an apoptotic brake as a result of BCL2 overexpression, results in 'the perfect storm of oncogenesis'. Thus this disease presents a number of diagnostic and therapeutic challenges for the hematologist. The first and foremost challenge is to recognize the DHL. As different morphological entities can be affected it is incumbent on pathologists and clinicians to maintain a high index of suspicion especially in disease that appears unusually aggressive or refractory to therapy. Diagnosis by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a sensitive and specific method for detection of the disease but is time-consuming and expensive. While detection by immunohistochemistry (IHC) is sensitive and correlates with survival, standardized methods for this are not widely agreed upon. The second and equally important challenge in DHL is optimizing clinical outcome in a group of patients for whom the prognosis is widely regarded as poor. While improvements have been achieved by dose escalating standard chemotherapeutic regimens, many patients continue to do badly. Furthermore as a disease of aging many patients are unsuitable for dose-intensive chemotherapy regimens. There are now multiple novel targeted agents in various stages of clinical development that offer hope for better outcomes without undue toxicity. Among the most exciting of these developments include specific inhibitors of both BCL2 and MYC.
Project description:Double hit lymphoma (DHL) and double protein-expressing (MYC, BCL2) lymphomas (DPL) fare poorly with R-CHOP (rituximab + cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisolone); consolidative autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) may improve outcomes. S9704, a phase III randomized study of CHOP +/-R with or without ASCT enabled evaluation of intensive consolidation. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) identified 27 of 198 patients (13·6%) with MYC overexpression; 20 (74%) harboured concurrent BCL2 overexpression. Four had DHL and 16 had DPL only. With median 127 months follow-up, there is a trend favouring outcomes after ASCT in DPL and MYC protein overexpressing patients, whereas all DHL patients have died irrespective of ASCT.
Project description:Myc oncoproteins are commonly upregulated in human cancers of different organ origins, stabilized by Aurora A, degraded through ubiquitin-proteasome pathway-mediated proteolysis, and exert oncogenic effects by modulating gene and protein expression. Histone deacetylases are emerging as targets for cancer therapy. Here we demonstrated that the class III histone deacetylase SIRT2 was upregulated by N-Myc in neuroblastoma cells and by c-Myc in pancreatic cancer cells, and that SIRT2 enhanced N-Myc and c-Myc protein stability and promoted cancer cell proliferation. Affymetrix gene array studies revealed that the gene most significantly repressed by SIRT2 was the ubiquitin-protein ligase NEDD4. Consistent with this finding, SIRT2 repressed NEDD4 gene expression by directly binding to the NEDD4 gene core promoter and deacetylating histone H4 lysine 16. Importantly, NEDD4 directly bound to Myc oncoproteins and targeted Myc oncoproteins for ubiquitination and degradation, and small-molecule SIRT2 inhibitors reactivated NEDD4 gene expression, reduced N-Myc and c-Myc protein expression, and suppressed neuroblastoma and pancreatic cancer cell proliferation. Additionally, SIRT2 upregulated and small-molecule SIRT2 inhibitors decreased Aurora A expression. Our data reveal a novel pathway critical for Myc oncoprotein stability, and provide important evidences for potential application of SIRT2 inhibitors for the prevention and therapy of Myc-induced malignancies.