First Insights into the Gut Microbiota of Mexican Patients with Celiac Disease and Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity.
ABSTRACT: Gluten-related disorders (GRDs) are common chronic enteropathies and increasing evidence suggests an involvement of the gut microbiota. We examined the gut microbiota in Mexican people afflicted with GRDs. Ultra-high-throughput 16S marker sequencing was used to deeply describe the duodenal and fecal microbiota of patients with celiac disease (CD, n = 6), non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS, n = 12), and healthy subjects (n = 12) from our local area. Additionally, we also investigated the changes in gut microbiota after four weeks on a gluten-free diet (GFD) in a subset of patients from whom paired samples were available. Despite a high inter-individual variability, significant differences in various microbial populations were identified. The linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size (LEfSe) method revealed that the genus Actinobacillus and the family Ruminococcaceae were higher in the duodenal and fecal microbiota of NCGS patients, respectively, while Novispirillum was higher in the duodenum of CD patients (p < 0.05, LDA score > 3.5). Interestingly, paired samples from NCGS patients showed a significant difference in duodenal Pseudomonas between the baseline period (median: 1.3%; min/max: 0.47?6.8%) and the period after four weeks on GFD (14.8%; 2.3?38.5%, p < 0.01, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). These results encourage more research on GRDs in México.
Project description:Background: There is evidence that digestive motor disorders are frequently present in untreated celiac disease (CD) patients. Similarly, non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) can be associated with gut motor disorders. In both cases, gut dysmotility can improve or be completely reversed with a gluten-free diet (GFD). Methods: A literature search for motility disorders in CD and NCGS patients was carried out using the online databases PubMed, Medline and Cochrane. Results: Esophageal, gastric, small bowel and gallbladder motor disorders are common in both children and adults with CD. Although the clinical consequences of these disorders are not clearly defined, gastric dysfunction could affect drug absorption and metabolism in the thyroid and neurological conditions associated with CD. The impact of a GFD on motility disorders is, however, controversial. No systematic studies are available on NCGS. NCGS frequently overlaps with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and similar pathophysiological mechanisms may be hypothesized. Conclusions: Mucosal damage may affect gut motility in untreated CD through perturbation of hormonal and neuro-immunomodulatory regulation. A persistent low-grade mucosal inflammation could explain the cases of persistent motor disorders despite a GFD. Further studies are needed to definitely assess the role of gut motor disorders in NCGS.
Project description:Refractory functional dyspepsia (RFD) is characterized by symptoms persistence in spite of medical treatment or H. pylori eradication. No study has yet investigated the presence of gluten-dependent RFD as a clinical presentation of Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity (NCGS). Patients with RFD, in whom celiac disease, wheat allergy and H. pylori infection had been ruled out, followed a six weeks long gluten-free diet (GFD). Symptoms were evaluated by means of visual analogue scales; patients with ?30% improvement in at least one of the reported symptoms after GFD underwent a double-blind placebo controlled gluten challenge. Subjects were randomly divided in two groups and symptoms were evaluated after the gluten/placebo challenge. GFD responders were further followed on for 3 months to evaluate the relationship between symptoms and gluten consumption. Out of 77 patients with RFD, 50 (65%) did not respond to GFD; 27 (35%) cases showed gastrointestinal symptoms improvement while on GFD; after blind gluten ingestion, symptoms recurred in 5 cases (6.4% of patients with RFD, 18% of GFD responders) suggesting the presence of NCGS. Furthermore, such extra-intestinal symptoms as fatigue and weakness (P?=?0.000), musculo-skeletal pain (P?=?0.000) and headache (P?=?0.002) improved in NCGS patients on GFD. Because of the high prevalence of NCGS among patients with RFD, a diagnostic/therapeutic roadmap evaluating the effect of GFD in patients with RFD seems a reasonable (and simple) approach.
Project description:A gluten-free diet may result in high fat and low fiber intake and thus lead to unbalanced microbiota. This study characterized fecal microbiota profiles by 16S MiSeq sequencing among oat-using healthy adult subjects (n = 14) or adult subjects with celiac disease (CeD) (n = 19) or non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) (n = 10). Selected microbial metabolites, self-reported 4d food diaries and perceived gut symptoms were compared. Subjects with NCGS experienced the highest amount of gut symptoms and received more energy from fat and less from carbohydrates than healthy and CeD subjects. Oat consumption resulted in reaching the lower limit of the recommended fiber intake. Frequent consumption of gluten-free pure oats did not result in microbiota dysbiosis in subjects with CeD or NCGS. Thus, the high number of gut symptoms in NCGS subjects was not linked to the microbiota. The proportion of fecal acetate was higher in healthy when compared to NCGS subjects, which may be linked to a higher abundance of Bifidobacterium in the control group compared to NCGS and CeD subjects. Propionate, butyrate and ammonia production and ?-glucuronidase activity were comparable among the study groups. The results suggest that pure oats have great potential as the basis of a gluten-free diet and warrant further studies in minor microbiota disorders.
Project description:The incidence of gluten-related disorders (GRDs) continues to increase and its global prevalence is estimated at approximately 5% of the population. Celiac disease (CD), dermatitis herpetiformis (DH), gluten ataxia (GA), wheat allergy (WA), and non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) are the five major GRDs that present with a wide range of clinical manifestations. The diagnosis of GRDs can be challenging because the typical and atypical clinical manifestations of the GRDs overlap. In this review, the current definitions of gluten-related disorders, focusing on their clinical features, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches are presented. We concluded that GRDs are usually diagnosed using a combination of clinical features, serological tests, and histopathological findings. Treatment usually involves dietary modification.
Project description:Background. To date, there is no reliable marker for the diagnosis of non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), which benefits from a gluten-free diet (GFD). This condition is characterized by functional gastrointestinal symptoms similar to those occurring in the course of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, IBS has a higher prevalence, and often benefits from the administration of a low fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAP) diet. The overlap of symptoms between these two pathologies has led to an overestimation of self-made diagnosis NCGS. Aims. To better identify NCGS in subjects with a previous diagnosis of IBS. Methods. All subjects received a low FODMAP diet that was also gluten-free (low FODMAP-GFD), and those presenting an improvement of symptoms were exposed to gluten or placebo (double-blind challenge with wash-out and crossover). The response to dietary treatments was evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS). Results. Of 30 patients (23 women, seven men, aged 42.2 ± 12.5 years, body mass index (BMI ) 24.7 ± 4.1 kg/m2), 26 benefited from the administration of low FODMAP-GFD and were exposed to the gluten/placebo challenge. After the challenge, using an increase of visual analogue scale VAS (?-VAS) ?30%, 46.1% of the patients were NCGS+. However, this percentage became only 19.2% using a different method (mean ?-VAS score plus two standard deviations). Conclusions. FODMAP intolerance could hide the response to a challenge test with gluten for the identification of NCGS in IBS patients. A low FODMAP-GFD followed by gluten/placebo challenge is able to identify patients with NCGS better. ClinicalTrials.gov registration number NCT04017585.
Project description:It is unclear whether patients with non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) can tolerate gluten. We have evaluated the changes of both gastrointestinal symptoms and quality of life for NCGS patients after the re-introduction of dietary gluten. Twenty-two NCGS patients reporting functional gastroenterological symptoms and on gluten-free diet (GFD) for the previous three weeks were exposed to incremental gluten-containing diets. Three groups were compared at baseline (immediately after 3-weeks on GFD) and immediately after the return of symptomatology: (i) a group tolerating a low-gluten diet (3.5 g gluten/day, week 1, n = 8), (ii) a group tolerating a mid-gluten diet (8 g gluten/day, week 2, n = 6), and (iii) a group tolerating a high-gluten diet (13 g gluten/day, week 3, n = 8). Their gastrointestinal symptoms and quality of life were assessed at baseline and post-intervention. The most common symptoms were: constipation (46%), abdominal pain (50%) and dyspepsia (38%). A decrease in several short form health survey (SF-36) sub-scores (all p < 0.03) after gluten re-introduction was only observed in the group tolerating the low-gluten diet; the same group showed a lower post-intervention role-emotional SF-36 score (p = 0.01). Most gastrointestinal symptoms remained similar after gluten re-introduction. However, a decrease in the general perception of well-being was only found after gluten re-introduction in the group tolerating a low-gluten diet (p = 0.01); the same was true when comparing the post-intervention general well-being perception among the three groups (p = 0.050). In conclusion, dissimilar responses from patients with NCGS were observed after the re-introduction of gluten, with gluten at a low dosage affecting the quality of life and general well-being of a group of patients, whereas others tolerate even higher doses of dietary gluten.
Project description:To date, the only available treatment for celiac disease (CD) patients is a life-lasting gluten-free diet (GFD). Lack of adherence to the GFD leads to a significant risk of adverse health consequences. Food cross-contamination, nutritional imbalances, and persistent gastrointestinal symptoms are the main concerns related to GFD. Moreover, despite rigid compliance to GFD, patients struggle in achieving a full restoring of the gut microbiota, which plays a role in the nutritive compounds processing, and absorption. Pivotal studies on the supplementation of GFD with probiotics, such as Bifidobacterium and Lactobacilli, reported a potential to restore gut microbiota composition and to pre-digest gluten in the intestinal lumen, reducing the inflammation associated with gluten intake, the intestinal permeability, and the cytokine and antibody production. These findings could explain an improvement in symptoms and quality of life in patients treated with GFD and probiotics. On the other hand, the inclusion of prebiotics in GFD could also be easy to administer and cost-effective as an adjunctive treatment for CD, having the power to stimulate the growth of potentially health-promoting bacteria strains. However, evidence regarding the use of prebiotics and probiotics in patients with CD is still insufficient to justify their use in clinical practice.
Project description:Previous studies suggest that the prevalence of wheat/gluten sensitivity and adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) are high in Latin population despite a poor diagnosis of celiac disease. However, these prevalence rates still remain unknown in most Latin American countries.A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in Santa Fe, Argentina.The estimated self-reported prevalence rates were (95% Confidence Interval [CI]): self-reported gluten sensitivity (SR-GS) 7.61% (6.2-9.2), SR-GS currently following a GFD 1.82% (1.2-2.7), celiac disease 0.58% (0.3-1.2), wheat allergy 0.33% (0.12-0.84), self-reported non-celiac gluten sensitivity (SR-NCGS) 6.28% (5.1-7.8), SR-NCGS currently following a GFD 0.91% (0.5-1.6), and adherence to a GFD 6.37% (5.1-7.9). SR-GS was more common in women (6.0%; p < 0.001) and associated with irritable bowel syndrome (p < 0.001). Among the GFD followers, 71.4% were doing it for reasons other than health-related benefits and 50.6% without medical/dietitian advice. In the non-SR-GS group, the main motivations for following a GFD were weight control and the perception that a GFD is healthier.In Argentina, gluten sensitivity is commonly reported and it seems that physicians/gastroenterologists are aware of celiac disease diagnosis. Trustable information about the benefits and potential consequences of following a GFD should be given to the general population.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Gluten challenge studies are instrumental in understanding the pathophysiology of celiac disease. Our aims in this study were to reveal early gluten-induced transcriptomic changes in duodenal biopsies and to find tools for clinics. METHODS:Duodenal biopsies were collected from 15 celiac disease patients on a strict long-term gluten-free diet (GFD) prior to and post a gluten challenge (PGC) and from 6 healthy control individuals (DC). Biopsy RNA was subjected to genome-wide 3' RNA-Seq. Sequencing data was used to determine the differences between the three groups and was compared to sequencing data from the public repositories. The biopsies underwent morphometric analyses. RESULTS:In DC vs. GFD group comparisons, 167 differentially expressed genes were identified with 117 genes downregulated and 50 genes upregulated. In PGC vs. GFD group comparisons, 417 differentially expressed genes were identified with 195 genes downregulated and 222 genes upregulated. Celiac disease patients on a GFD were not "healthy". In particular, genes encoding proteins for transporting small molecules were expressed less. In addition to the activation of immune response genes, a gluten challenge induced hyperactive intestinal wnt-signaling and consequent immature crypt gene expression resulting in less differentiated epithelium. Biopsy gene expression in response to a gluten challenge correlated with the extent of the histological damage. Regression models using only four gene transcripts described 97.2% of the mucosal morphology and 98.0% of the inflammatory changes observed. CONCLUSIONS:Our gluten challenge trial design provided an opportunity to study the transition from health to disease. The results show that even on a strict GFD, despite being deemed healthy, patients reveal patterns of ongoing disease. Here, a transcriptomic regression model estimating the extent of gluten-induced duodenal mucosal injury is presented.
Project description:The dermatological manifestations associated with intestinal diseases are becoming more frequent, especially now when new clinical entities, such as Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity (NCGS), are identified. The existence of this new entity is still debated. However, many patients with diagnosed NCGS that present intestinal manifestations have skin lesions that need appropriate characterization.We involved 17 patients affected by NCGS with non-specific cutaneous manifestations who got much better after a gluten free diet. For a histopathological and immunopathological evaluation, two skin samples from each patient and their clinical data were collected.The median age of the 17 enrolled patients affected by NCGS was 36 years and 76% of them were females. On the extensor surfaces of upper and lower limbs in particular, they all presented very itchy dermatological manifestations morphologically similar to eczema, psoriasis or dermatitis herpetiformis. This similarity was also confirmed histologically, but the immunopathological analysis showed the prevalence of deposits of C3 along the dermo-epidermal junction with a microgranular/granular pattern (82%).The exact characterization of new clinical entities such as Cutaneous Gluten Sensitivity and NCGS is an important objective both for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, since these are patients who actually benefit from a GFD (Gluten Free Diet) and who do not adopt it only for fashion.