Role of dexamethasone in the para-vertebral block for pediatric patients undergoing aortic coarctation repair. randomized, double-blinded controlled study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Surgery for aortic coarctation requires special care during anesthesia due to severe pain during the lateral thoracotomy incision, intraoperative hemodynamic instability and the need for large doses of intra- and postoperative analgesics and vasodilators. Additionally, the postoperative care of patients is very important. AIMS:We aimed to compare ultrasound-guided paravertebral block performed using bupivacaine alone and bupivacaine with dexamethasone in terms of the intra- and postoperative analgesic requirements and hemodynamics, postoperative complications and ICU stay. STUDY DESIGN:This was a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blinded study. METHODS:Fifty patients aged four to 12?months scheduled for aortic coarctation surgery were randomly divided into two equal groups (n?=?25). Patients in group D (dexamethasone) received 0.5?mg/kg bupivacaine 0.25% mixed with 0.1?mg/kg dexamethasone diluted with isotonic saline and those in group C (control) received 0.5?mg/kg bupivacaine 0.25% diluted with isotonic saline (total volume 15?ml in each group). Intraoperative fentanyl consumption and hemodynamics (heart rate, arterial blood pressure) at baseline, 1?min after induction, at skin incision, after 30?min, after clamping, after declamping and at the end of the surgery were recorded, along with the objective pain score (OPS) immediately postoperatively and at 4?h, 8?h, 12?h and 24?h postoperatively and the time to the first request for pethidine. The intra- and postoperative vasodilator doses, time to extubation, ICU stay duration and postoperative complications were also recorded. RESULTS:The postoperative OPS was significantly lower at 12 and 24?h in group D than in group C. The time to the first request for analgesia was significantly longer in group D than in group C (3.9?±?2.23 vs 8.6?±?0.69). Additionally, the time to extubation was significantly shorter in group D. CONCLUSION:The use of dexamethasone as an adjuvant in ultrasound-guided paravertebral block in paediatric patients undergoing surgery for aortic coarctation increased the duration of postoperative analgesia with a prolonged time to the first request for analgesics It was also associated with a decreased incidence of postoperative complications. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Trial registration number: NCT03074773 . (Prospectively registered). The initial registration date was 9/3/2017.
Project description:Background:Mastectomy is a common surgical procedure associated with intra and postoperative pain if untreated adequately will lead to chronic pain. Objectives:This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of serratus anterior plane block using bupivacaine/magnesium sulfate versus bupivacaine/ nalbuphine for mastectomy. Methods:40 ASA I and II female patients age 25 - 60 years underwent breast cancer surgery received the block before induction of general anesthesia were divided into two groups GBM (n = 20): (bupivacaine/magnesium sulphate): received bupivacaine 30 mL 0.25% and 500 mg magnesium sulphate, GBN (n = 20): (bupivacaine/nalbuphine): received bupivacaine 30 mL 0.25% and nalbuphine 0.2 mg/kg. The following parameters were recorded: The sensory block, motor block, postoperative heart rate, noninvasive mean blood pressure: at 1, 6, 12, 24 h, postoperative time to first request of analgesics (hours), VAS at rest and movement at 1, 6, 12, 24 h, postoperative analgesic requirements (pethidine mg/24 h). Results:The sensory block was statistically significantly lower in the GBM group than the GBN group at 24 hours postoperatively. The Medical Research Council scale was statistically significantly lower in the GBN group than the GBM group at 24 hours postoperatively. Postoperative time to first request of analgesics (hours) was statistically significantly longer in the GBN group than the GBM group, VAS at rest was statistically significantly lower in the GBN group than GBM group at 6th and 24th hours, VAS at movement showed no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Intraoperative fentanyl and postoperative analgesic requirements (pethidine mg/24 h) showed no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Conclusions:Serratus anterior plane block using bupivacaine/nalbuphine provided effective postoperative analgesia, reduced postoperative pain than bupivacaine/magnesium sulfate in a mastectomy.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>Injection of a topical anaesthetic has been proved to be helpful with reducing pain after laparoscopic herniorrhaphy. We aimed to assess the effect of bupivacaine lavage on postoperative pain and compare it with diclofenac suppository. In this randomized clinical trial, 60 patients-scheduled for laparoscopic herniorrhaphy-were enrolled and randomized into three groups of 20 each, including diclofenac suppository, bupivacaine lavage, and normal saline as a placebo.The patients were investigated for postoperative pain scores, vomiting, nausea, morphine request, and duration of hospitalization.<h4>Results</h4>In the bupivacaine group, pain levels in recovery room, 4, 8 and 12 h after surgery, were significantly lower than diclofenac group; at time points of 16, 20 and 24 h after surgery, difference between two groups was not significant. Regarding vomiting and nausea, at time points of 1 and 3 h after surgery, results show no significant difference between the groups. Incident of infection, 1 h and 1 week after the surgery, was not significantly different among the groups. Duration of hospitalization in the bupivacaine group was much lower than the diclofenac group. Based on our results, use of the bupivacaine lavage can reduce postoperative pain in patients undergoing laparoscopic herniorrhaphy. Trial Registration Randomized clinical trial IRCT20180522039782N2; date of registration:14/10/2018.
Project description:Objectives. To compare the analgesic efficacy of intrathecal clonidine and fentanyl added to bupivacaine after cesarean section. Methods. Ninety patients scheduled for cesarean section under spinal anesthesia were randomly allocated to one of the three following groups to receive bupivacaine 10?mg combined with 75?µg clonidine (group C), bupivacaine 10?mg combined with 0.5?mL fentanyl (group F), and bupivacaine 10?mg combined with 0.5?mL distilled water (group P), intrathecally. The time to first analgesic request, analgesic requirement in the first 24 hours after surgery, sensory and motor blockade onset time, duration of sensory and motor blockade, the incidence of hypotension, ephedrine requirements, bradycardia, and hypoxemia were recorded. Results. The duration of anesthesia in clonidine group (275.10 ± 96.09) was longer compared to the placebo (211.73 ± 74.80) and fentanyl (192.33 ± 30.36) groups. This difference between group C versus F (P = 0.006) and P groups (P < 0.001) was significant. Similarly, the mean time to first analgesic request was also longer in group C (519.44 ± 86.25) than in groups F (277.88 ± 94.25) and P (235.43 ± 22.35?min). This difference between group C versus F (P < 0.001) and P groups (P < 0.001) was significant. Conclusion. Intrathecal clonidine 75?µg with bupivacaine prolonged the time to first analgesic request compared to fentanyl; however, the total analgesic consumption within the first 24?h postoperative was similar in fentanyl and clonidine groups following cesarean section. This trial is registered with ACTRN12611000909921 and ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01425658.
Project description:Analgesic protocols used to treat pain after breast surgery vary significantly. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the available literature on this topic and develop recommendations for optimal pain management after oncological breast surgery. A systematic review using preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis guidance with procedure-specific postoperative pain management (PROSPECT) methodology was undertaken. Randomised controlled trials assessing postoperative pain using analgesic, anaesthetic or surgical interventions were identified. Seven hundred and forty-nine studies were found, of which 53 randomised controlled trials and nine meta-analyses met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Quantitative analysis suggests that dexamethasone and gabapentin reduced postoperative pain. The use of paravertebral blocks also reduced postoperative pain scores, analgesia consumption and the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Intra-operative opioid requirements were documented to be lower when a pectoral nerves block was performed, which also reduced postoperative pain scores and opioid consumption. We recommend basic analgesics (i.e. paracetamol and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) administered pre-operatively or intra-operatively and continued postoperatively. In addition, pre-operative gabapentin and dexamethasone are also recommended. In major breast surgery, a regional anaesthetic technique such as paravertebral block or pectoral nerves block and/or local anaesthetic wound infiltration may be considered for additional pain relief. Paravertebral block may be continued postoperatively using catheter techniques. Opioids should be reserved as rescue analgesics in the postoperative period. Research is needed to evaluate the role of novel regional analgesic techniques such as erector spinae plane or retrolaminar plane blocks combined with basic analgesics in an enhanced recovery setting.
Project description:Purpose:To compare dexamethasone (DA) to dexmedetomidine (DE) as adjuvants for bupivacaine during infraorbital nerve block (IONB) in a randomized clinical trial. Patients and Methods:One hundred patients were randomized into two equal groups. By the guidance of ultrasound, the IONB was performed bilaterally in all patients, using 1 mL of the solution on each side. In DA group, 1 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine was added to 0.1 mg.kg-1 DA and diluted to 2 mL in DE group; 1 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine was added to 0.5 ?g.kg-1 DE and diluted to 2 mL. The primary outcome was time to first rescue analgesic. The secondary outcomes included face legs activity cry consolability (FLACC) score rating during the first 24 h, hemodynamic variables, the incidence of postoperative vomiting, sedation score, and parent satisfaction. Results:During the first 24 h postoperatively, the DE group showed a significantly lower FLACC score and a longer time to first analgesic request compared to DA group. Sedation and parent satisfaction scores were significantly higher while heart rate and mean blood pressure were significantly lower in DE group compared to DA group. There were no differences in other secondary outcomes. Conclusion:The use of DE as an adjuvant to bupivacaine in IONB for cleft lip repair resulted in lower pain score and more prolonged duration of analgesia compared to DA.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the analgesic efficacy of dexamethasone added to local anesthetics in ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block for the patients after abdominal surgery. METHODS:PubMed, CENTRAL, EMBASE, Web of science were searched to identify eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared dexamethasone added to local anesthetics in ultrasound-guided TAP block with control for postoperative analgesia in adult patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Primary outcomes included postoperative pain intensity, the time to the first request for additional analgesics, and opioid consumption over 24 h after surgery. Secondary outcome was the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Analysis was performed by RevMan 5.3 software and the quality of evidence was rated using GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach. RESULTS:Nine RCTs involving 575 patients were included. Compared to the control, dexamethasone added to local anesthetics in ultrasound-guided TAP block significantly decreased visual analogue scale (VAS) scores at rest at 4h (mean difference [MD] = -1.01; 95% confidence intervals [CI], -1.29 to -0.73; P<0.00001; moderate quality of evidence), 6h (MD = -1.21; 95% CI, -1.74 to -0.69; P<0.00001; low quality of evidence), and 12h after surgery (MD = -0.79; 95% CI, -0.97 to -0.60; P<0.00001; moderate quality of evidence). No difference was found at 2h (MD = -0.64; 95% CI, -1.35 to 0.08; P = 0.08; low quality of evidence) and 24 h (MD = -0.41; 95% CI, -0.91 to 0.09; P = 0.11; moderate quality of evidence) in VAS scores. The time to the first request for additional analgesics was prolonged in the dexamethasone group (MD = 3.08; 95% CI, 2.37 to 3.78; P<0.00001; moderate quality of evidence). Opioid consumption over 24 h after surgery was also reduced (MD = -5.42; 95% CI, -8.20 to -2.63; P = 0.0001; low quality of evidence). Meanwhile, the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting was significantly decreased in the dexamethasone group (risk ratios [RR] = 0.40; 95% CI, 0.28 to 0.58; P<0.00001; high quality of evidence). No complications were reported in all the included studies. CONCLUSIONS:Dexamethasone added to local anesthetics in ultrasound-guided TAP block was a safe and effective strategy for postoperative analgesia in adult patients undergoing abdominal surgery.
Project description:Background:Postoperative pain management is important for the early recovery of the living donor patient. Patient-controlled opioid analgesia, epidural analgesia, or a combination of both is the preferred pain management after abdominal surgery although these approaches have serious side effects. The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block has been increasingly used for postoperative pain management and the addition of dexamethasone to local anesthetic can prolong the duration of action. Objectives:This study evaluated the efficacy of ultrasound-guided three-quadrant TAP block analgesia with the addition of dexamethasone, compared to the continuous epidural analgesia in postoperative cumulative opioid consumption and pain scale in the first 24 hours following transperitoneal laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy. Methods:A prospective randomized control study was conducted on 50 patients with ASA I-II, 18 - 65 years old, BMI 18 - 30, and undergoing transperitoneal laparoscopic donor nephrectomy under general anesthesia. The patients were randomly assigned into either a three-quadrant TAP block group (n = 25) with 20 mL of 0.25% bupivacaine plus dexamethasone 8 mg or a continuous epidural group (n = 25) using 0.125% bupivacaine postoperatively. The morphine consumption and the numerical rating scale (NRS) at rest and movement were evaluated at 2, 6, 12, and 24 hours postoperatively. The postoperative first-time mobilization and duration of urinary catheter usage were recorded. Results:Patients demographic characteristics were similar in the two groups. During 24 hours after the surgery, cumulative morphine consumption (P = 0.232), the NRS at rest and movement (P > 0.05), and the first-time mobilization (P = 0.075) were not significantly different between the groups, except that the NRS during movement at 12 hours was significantly lower in the TAP block group (P = 0.004). The duration of urinary catheterization was significantly longer as a side effect in the continuous epidural group (P < 0.001). Conclusions:The three-quadrant TAP block with the addition of dexamethasone showed comparable analgesic effects as the continuous epidural analgesia in cumulative opioid consumption and pain scale in the first 24 hours following transperitoneal laparoscopic donor nephrectomy.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Sciatic nerve block provides analgesia after foot and ankle surgery, but block duration may be insufficient. We hypothesized that perineural dexamethasone and buprenorphine would reduce pain scores at 24 hours. METHODS:Ninety patients received ultrasound-guided sciatic (25 mL 0.25% bupivacaine) and adductor canal (10 mL 0.25% bupivacaine) blockade, with random assignment into 3 groups (30 patients per group): control blocks + intravenous (IV) dexamethasone (4 mg) (control); control blocks + IV buprenorphine (150 ?g) + IV dexamethasone (IV buprenorphine); and nerve blocks containing buprenorphine + dexamethasone (perineural). Patients received mepivacaine neuraxial anesthesia and postoperative oxycodone/acetaminophen, meloxicam, pregabalin, and ondansetron. Patients and assessors were blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome was pain with movement at 24 hours. RESULTS:There was no difference in pain with movement at 24 hours (median score, 0). However, the perineural group had longer block duration versus control (45.6 vs 30.0 hours). Perineural patients had lower scores for "worst pain" versus control (median, 0 vs 2). Both IV buprenorphine and perineural groups were less likely to use opioids on the day after surgery versus control (28.6%, 28.6%, and 60.7%, respectively). Nausea after IV buprenorphine (but not perineural buprenorphine) was severe, frequent, and bothersome. CONCLUSIONS:Pain scores were very low at 24 hours after surgery in the context of multimodal analgesia and were not improved by additives. However, perineural buprenorphine and dexamethasone prolonged block duration, reduced the worst pain experienced, and reduced opioid use. Intravenous buprenorphine caused troubling nausea and vomiting. Future research is needed to confirm and extend these observations.
Project description:Background and Objective:Some patients who undergo laparoscopic hysterectomy request overnight admission for pain management, thus increasing costs for a surgery that is safe for same-day discharge. We wanted to evaluate whether a paracervical block of bupivacaine with epinephrine before laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy would decrease overnight admission rates, postoperative pain, and pain medication requirement. Methods:This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial (Canadian Task Force classification I) at an academic medical center. Patients undergoing laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy were randomized to a 20-mL paracervical injection of either 0.25% bupivacaine with epinephrine or 20 mL normal saline before skin incision. All providers, except the circulating nurse, were blinded. The primary outcome was overnight hospital admission rate. Secondary outcomes included postoperative pain medication use and pain scores. Analysis included t test, ?2, Wilcoxon, and ANOVA. Results:One hundred thirty-two patients were enrolled-68 in the treatment group and 64 in the placebo group. Demographics were similar between groups. The unplanned overnight admission rate was 34% for the treatment group and 27% for the placebo group (P = .25). After discharge, the treatment group used on average 8.5 tablets of narcotics, whereas the placebo group used 11.7 tablets (P = .07). The treatment group took 13.1 tablets of nonnarcotic analgesics compared to 11.2 in the placebo group (P = .57). Both groups reported similar pain scores. Conclusion:Paracervical block with bupivacaine and epinephrine before laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy did not decrease overnight admission rate or affect postoperative pain. Postoperative opiate use was minimally decreased.
Project description:Background:We aimed to assess the efficacy of ultrasound-guided bilateral erector spinae plane block (ESPB) compared to intrathecal morphine (ITM) for analgesia after elective cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia. Methods:In total, 140 parturients scheduled for elective cesarean section under spinal anesthesia were randomly allocated into two equal groups. The ESPB-group received 10 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine intrathecally through spinal anesthesia, followed by an ESPB at the ninth thoracic transverse process with 20 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine immediately after the operation. The ITM-group received 10 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine with 100 mcg morphine intrathecally through spinal anesthesia, followed by a sham block at the end of the surgery. The visual analogue scale (VAS) score for pain at several postoperative time points, total opioid consumption, and time to the first analgesic request were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed with the independent t-test and linear mixed-effects models. The Kaplan-Meier estimator and the log-rank test were used to compare the primary and secondary outcomes of the groups. Results:No significant differences were observed between the groups regarding patient characteristics; in the post-operative period (0-24 hrs), VAS scores (at rest) were, on average, 0.25 units higher in the ITM group. The total tramadol consumption in the first 24 hrs was significantly higher in the ITM group than in the ESPB group (101.71 ± 25.67 mg vs 44 ± 16.71 mg, respectively). The time to the first analgesic request was 4.93±0.82 hrs in the ITM group and 12±2.81 hrs in the ESPB group. Patient satisfaction did not differ significantly. Conclusion:ESPB has a successful postoperative analgesic effect and may limit opioid consumption in parturients undergoing elective caesarean delivery.