Engineered E. coli W enables efficient 2,3-butanediol production from glucose and sugar beet molasses using defined minimal medium as economic basis.
ABSTRACT: Efficient microbial production of chemicals is often hindered by the cytotoxicity of the products or by the pathogenicity of the host strains. Hence 2,3-butanediol, an important drop-in chemical, is an interesting alternative target molecule for microbial synthesis since it is non-cytotoxic. Metabolic engineering of non-pathogenic and industrially relevant microorganisms, such as Escherichia coli, have already yielded in promising 2,3-butanediol titers showing the potential of microbial synthesis of 2,3-butanediol. However, current microbial 2,3-butanediol production processes often rely on yeast extract as expensive additive, rendering these processes infeasible for industrial production. The aim of this study was to develop an efficient 2,3-butanediol production process with E. coli operating on the premise of using cost-effective medium without complex supplements, considering second generation feedstocks. Different gene donors and promoter fine-tuning allowed for construction of a potent E. coli strain for the production of 2,3-butanediol as important drop-in chemical. Pulsed fed-batch cultivations of E. coli W using microaerobic conditions showed high diol productivity of 4.5 g l-1 h-1. Optimizing oxygen supply and elimination of acetoin and by-product formation improved the 2,3-butanediol titer to 68 g l-1, 76% of the theoretical maximum yield, however, at the expense of productivity. Sugar beet molasses was tested as a potential substrate for industrial production of chemicals. Pulsed fed-batch cultivations produced 56 g l-1 2,3-butanediol, underlining the great potential of E. coli W as production organism for high value-added chemicals. A potent 2,3-butanediol producing E. coli strain was generated by considering promoter fine-tuning to balance cell fitness and production capacity. For the first time, 2,3-butanediol production was achieved with promising titer, rate and yield and no acetoin formation from glucose in pulsed fed-batch cultivations using chemically defined medium without complex hydrolysates. Furthermore, versatility of E. coli W as production host was demonstrated by efficiently converting sucrose from sugar beet molasses into 2,3-butanediol.
Project description:Background:Acetate is an abundant carbon source and its use as an alternative feedstock has great potential for the production of fuel and platform chemicals. Acetoin and 2,3-butanediol represent two of these potential platform chemicals. Results:The aim of this study was to produce 2,3-butanediol and acetoin from acetate in Escherichia coli W. The key strategies to achieve this goal were: strain engineering, in detail the deletion of mixed-acid fermentation pathways E. coli W ?ldhA ?adhE ?pta ?frdA 445_Ediss and the development of a new defined medium containing five amino acids and seven vitamins. Stepwise reduction of the media additives further revealed that diol production from acetate is mediated by the availability of aspartate. Other amino acids or TCA cycle intermediates did not enable growth on acetate. Cultivation under controlled conditions in batch and pulsed fed-batch experiments showed that aspartate was consumed before acetate, indicating that co-utilization is not a prerequisite for diol production. The addition of aspartate gave cultures a start-kick and was not required for feeding. Pulsed fed-batches resulted in the production of 1.43 g l-1 from aspartate and acetate and 1.16 g l-1 diols (2,3-butanediol and acetoin) from acetate alone. The yield reached 0.09 g diols per g acetate, which accounts for 26% of the theoretical maximum. Conclusion:This study for the first time showed acetoin and 2,3-butanediol production from acetate as well as the use of chemically defined medium for product formation from acetate in E. coli. Hereby, we provide a solid base for process intensification and the investigation of other potential products.
Project description:UNLABELLED: BACKGROUND:Acetoin is an important bio-based platform chemical. However, it is usually existed as a minor byproduct of 2,3-butanediol fermentation in bacteria. RESULTS:The present study reports introducing an exogenous NAD+ regeneration sysytem into a 2,3-butanediol producing strain Klebsiella pneumoniae to increse the accumulation of acetoin. Batch fermentation suggested that heterologous expression of the NADH oxidase in K. pneumoniae resulted in large decreases in the intracellular NADH concentration (1.4 fold) and NADH/NAD+ ratio (2.0 fold). Metabolic flux analysis revealed that fluxes to acetoin and acetic acid were enhanced, whereas, production of lactic acid and ethanol were decreased, with the accumualation of 2,3-butanediol nearly unaltered. By fed-batch culture of the recombinant, the highest reported acetoin production level (25.9 g/L) by Klebsiella species was obtained. CONCLUSIONS:The present study indicates that microbial production of acetoin could be improved by decreasing the intracellular NADH/NAD+ ratio in K. pneumoniae. It demonstrated that the cofactor engineering method, which is by manipulating the level of intracellular cofactors to redirect cellular metabolism, could be employed to achieve a high efficiency of producing the NAD+-dependent microbial metabolite.
Project description:The introduction of an NADH/NAD+ regeneration system can regulate the distribution between acetoin and 2,3-butanediol. NADH regeneration can also enhance butanol production in coculture fermentation. In this work, a novel artificial consortium of Paenibacillus polymyxa CJX518 and recombinant Escherichia coli LS02T that produces riboflavin (VB2) was used to regulate the NADH/NAD+ ratio and, consequently, the distribution of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol by P. polymyxa. Compared with a pure culture of P. polymyxa, the level of acetoin was increased 76.7% in the P. polymyxa and recombinant E. coli coculture. Meanwhile, the maximum production and yield of acetoin in an artificial consortium with fed-batch fermentation were 57.2 g/L and 0.4 g/g glucose, respectively. Additionally, the VB2 production of recombinant E. coli could maintain a relatively low NADH/NAD+ ratio by changing NADH dehydrogenase activity. It was also found that 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase activity was enhanced and improved acetoin production by the addition of exogenous VB2 or by being in the artificial consortium that produces VB2. These results illustrate that the coculture of P. polymyxa and recombinant E. coli has enormous potential to improve acetoin production. It was also a novel strategy to regulate the NADH/NAD+ ratio to improve the acetoin production of P. polymyxa.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>2,3-Butanediol is a platform and fuel biochemical that can be efficiently produced from biomass. However, a value-added process for this chemical has not yet been developed. To expand the utilization of 2,3-butanediol produced from biomass, an improved derivative process of 2,3-butanediol is desirable.<h4>Results</h4>In this study, a Gluconobacter oxydans strain DSM 2003 was found to have the ability to transform 2,3-butanediol into acetoin, a high value feedstock that can be widely used in dairy and cosmetic products, and chemical synthesis. All three stereoisomers, meso-2,3-butanediol, (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol, and (2S,3S)-2,3-butanediol, could be transformed into acetoin by the strain. After optimization of the bioconversion conditions, the optimum growth temperature for acetoin production by strain DSM 2003 was found to be 30°C and the medium pH was 6.0. With an initial 2,3-butanediol concentration of 40 g/L, acetoin at a high concentration of 89.2 g/L was obtained from 2,3-butanediol by fed-batch bioconversion with a high productivity (1.24 g/L?·?h) and high yield (0.912 mol/mol).<h4>Conclusions</h4>G. oxydans DSM 2003 is the first strain that can be used in the direct production of acetoin from 2,3-butanediol. The product concentration and yield of the novel process are both new records for acetoin production. The results demonstrate that the method developed in this study could provide a promising process for efficient acetoin production and industrially produced 2,3-butanediol utilization.
Project description:Acetoin reductase (ACR) catalyzes the conversion of acetoin to 2,3-butanediol. Under certain conditions, Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 (and strains derived from it) generates both d- and l-stereoisomers of acetoin, but because of the absence of an ACR enzyme, it does not produce 2,3-butanediol. A gene encoding ACR from Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 was functionally expressed in C. acetobutylicum under the control of two strong promoters, the constitutive thl promoter and the late exponential adc promoter. Both ACR-overproducing strains were grown in batch cultures, during which 89 to 90% of the natively produced acetoin was converted to 20 to 22 mM d-2,3-butanediol. The addition of a racemic mixture of acetoin led to the production of both d-2,3-butanediol and meso-2,3-butanediol. A metabolic network that is in agreement with the experimental data is proposed. Native 2,3-butanediol production is a first step toward a potential homofermentative 2-butanol-producing strain of C. acetobutylicum.
Project description:(3S)-Acetoin and (2S,3S)-2,3-butanediol are important platform chemicals widely applied in the asymmetric synthesis of valuable chiral chemicals. However, their production by fermentative methods is difficult to perform. This study aimed to develop a whole-cell biocatalysis strategy for the production of (3S)-acetoin and (2S,3S)-2,3-butanediol from meso-2,3-butanediol. First, E. coli co-expressing (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase, NADH oxidase and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin was developed for (3S)-acetoin production from meso-2,3-butanediol. Maximum (3S)-acetoin concentration of 72.38 g/L with the stereoisomeric purity of 94.65% was achieved at 24 h under optimal conditions. Subsequently, we developed another biocatalyst co-expressing (2S,3S)-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase for (2S,3S)-2,3-butanediol production from (3S)-acetoin. Synchronous catalysis together with two biocatalysts afforded 38.41 g/L of (2S,3S)-butanediol with stereoisomeric purity of 98.03% from 40 g/L meso-2,3-butanediol. These results exhibited the potential for (3S)-acetoin and (2S,3S)-butanediol production from meso-2,3-butanediol as a substrate via whole-cell biocatalysis.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Previously, a safe strain, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B10-127 was identified as an excellent candidate for industrial-scale microbial fermentation of 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD). However, B. amyloliquefaciens fermentation yields large quantities of acetoin, lactate and succinate as by-products, and the 2,3-BD yield remains prohibitively low for commercial production.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>In the 2,3-butanediol metabolic pathway, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) catalyzes the conversion of 3-phosphate glyceraldehyde to 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate, with concomitant reduction of NAD(+) to NADH. In the same pathway, 2,3-BD dehydrogenase (BDH) catalyzes the conversion of acetoin to 2,3-BD with concomitant oxidation of NADH to NAD(+). In this study, to improve 2,3-BD production, we first over-produced NAD(+)-dependent GAPDH and NADH-dependent BDH in B. amyloliquefaciens. Excess GAPDH reduced the fermentation time, increased the 2,3-BD yield by 12.7%, and decreased the acetoin titer by 44.3%. However, the process also enhanced lactate and succinate production. Excess BDH increased the 2,3-BD yield by 16.6% while decreasing acetoin, lactate and succinate production, but prolonged the fermentation time. When BDH and GAPDH were co-overproduced in B. amyloliquefaciens, the fermentation time was reduced. Furthermore, in the NADH-dependent pathways, the molar yield of 2,3-BD was increased by 22.7%, while those of acetoin, lactate and succinate were reduced by 80.8%, 33.3% and 39.5%, relative to the parent strain. In fed-batch fermentations, the 2,3-BD concentration was maximized at 132.9 g/l after 45 h, with a productivity of 2.95 g/l·h.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>Co-overexpression of bdh and gapA genes proved an effective method for enhancing 2,3-BD production and inhibiting the accumulation of unwanted by-products (acetoin, lactate and succinate). To our knowledge, we have attained the highest 2,3-BD fermentation yield thus far reported for safe microorganisms.
Project description:Microbial production of 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO) has been attracting increasing interest because of its high value and various industrial applications. In this study, high production of 2,3-BDO using a previously isolated bacterium Klebsiella oxytoca M1 was carried out by optimizing fermentation conditions and overexpressing acetoin reductase (AR). Supplying complex nitrogen sources and using NaOH as a neutralizing agent were found to enhance specific production and yield of 2,3-BDO. In fed-batch fermentations, 2,3-BDO production increased with the agitation speed (109.6 g/L at 300 rpm vs. 118.5 g/L at 400 rpm) along with significantly reduced formation of by-product, but the yield at 400 rpm was lower than that at 300 rpm (0.40 g/g vs. 0.34 g/g) due to acetoin accumulation at 400 rpm. Because AR catalyzing both acetoin reduction and 2,3-BDO oxidation in K. oxytoca M1 revealed more than 8-fold higher reduction activity than oxidation activity, the engineered K. oxytoca M1 overexpressing the budC encoding AR was used in fed-batch fermentation. Finally, acetoin accumulation was significantly reduced by 43% and enhancement of 2,3-BDO concentration (142.5 g/L), yield (0.42 g/g) and productivity (1.47 g/L/h) was achieved compared to performance with the parent strain. This is by far the highest titer of 2,3-BDO achieved by K. oxytoca strains. This notable result could be obtained by finding favorable fermentation conditions for 2,3-BDO production as well as by utilizing the distinct characteristic of AR in K. oxytoca M1 revealing the nature of reductase.
Project description:Acetoin is a potential platform compound for a variety of chemicals. Bacillus licheniformis MW3, a thermophilic and generally regarded as safe (GRAS) microorganism, can produce 2,3-butanediol with a high concentration, yield, and productivity. In this study, B. licheniformis MW3 was metabolic engineered for acetoin production. After deleting two 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenases encoding genes budC and gdh, an engineered strain B. licheniformis MW3 (?budC?gdh) was constructed. Using fed-batch fermentation of B. licheniformis MW3 (?budC?gdh), 64.2 g/L acetoin was produced at a productivity of 2.378 g/[L h] and a yield of 0.412 g/g from 156 g/L glucose in 27 h. The fermentation process exhibited rather high productivity and yield of acetoin, indicating that B. licheniformis MW3 (?budC?gdh) might be a promising acetoin producer.
Project description:Acetoin is widely used in food and cosmetic industry as taste and fragrance enhancer. For acetoin production in this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae JHY605 was used as a host strain, where the production of ethanol and glycerol was largely eliminated by deleting five alcohol dehydrogenase genes (ADH1, ADH2, ADH3, ADH4, and ADH5) and two glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes (GPD1 and GPD2). To improve acetoin production, acetoin biosynthetic genes from Bacillus subtilis encoding α-acetolactate synthase (AlsS) and α-acetolactate decarboxylase (AlsD) were overexpressed, and BDH1 encoding butanediol dehydrogenase, which converts acetoin to 2,3-butanediol, was deleted. Furthermore, by NAD(+) regeneration through overexpression of water-forming NADH oxidase (NoxE) from Lactococcus lactis, the cofactor imbalance generated during the acetoin production from glucose was successfully relieved. As a result, in fed-batch fermentation, the engineered strain JHY617-SDN produced 100.1 g/L acetoin with a yield of 0.44 g/g glucose.