Function and regulation of the Caenorhabditis elegans Rab32 family member GLO-1 in lysosome-related organelle biogenesis.
ABSTRACT: Cell type-specific modifications of conventional endosomal trafficking pathways lead to the formation of lysosome-related organelles (LROs). C. elegans gut granules are intestinally restricted LROs that coexist with conventional degradative lysosomes. The formation of gut granules requires the Rab32 family member GLO-1. We show that the loss of glo-1 leads to the mistrafficking of gut granule proteins but does not significantly alter conventional endolysosome biogenesis. GLO-3 directly binds to CCZ-1 and they both function to promote the gut granule association of GLO-1, strongly suggesting that together, GLO-3 and CCZ-1 activate GLO-1. We found that a point mutation in GLO-1 predicted to spontaneously activate, and function independently of it guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), localizes to gut granules and partially restores gut granule protein localization in ccz-1(-) and glo-3(-) mutants. CCZ-1 forms a heterodimeric complex with SAND-1(MON1), which does not function in gut granule formation, to activate RAB-7 in trafficking pathways to conventional lysosomes. Therefore, our data suggest a model whereby the function of a Rab GEF can be altered by subunit exchange. glo-3(-) mutants, which retain low levels of GLO-3 activity, generate gut granules that lack GLO-1 and improperly accumulate RAB-7 in a SAND-1 dependent process. We show that GLO-1 and GLO-3 restrict the distribution of RAB-7 to conventional endolysosomes, providing insights into the segregation of pathways leading to conventional lysosomes and LROs.
Project description:As early endosomes mature, the SAND-1/CCZ-1 complex acts as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for RAB-7 to promote the activity of its effector, HOPS, which facilitates late endosome-lysosome fusion and the consumption of AP-3-containing vesicles. We show that CCZ-1 and the HOPS complex are essential for the biogenesis of gut granules, cell type-specific, lysosome-related organelles (LROs) that coexist with conventional lysosomes in Caenorhabditis elegans intestinal cells. The HOPS subunit VPS-18 promotes the trafficking of gut granule proteins away from lysosomes and functions downstream of or in parallel to the AP-3 adaptor. CCZ-1 also acts independently of AP-3, and ccz-1 mutants mistraffic gut granule proteins. Our results indicate that SAND-1 does not participate in the formation of gut granules. In the absence of RAB-7 activity, gut granules are generated; however, their size and protein composition are subtly altered. These observations suggest that CCZ-1 acts in partnership with a protein other than SAND-1 as a GEF for an alternate Rab to promote gut granule biogenesis. Point mutations in GLO-1, a Rab32/38-related protein, predicted to increase spontaneous guanine nucleotide exchange, specifically suppress the loss of gut granules by ccz-1 and glo-3 mutants. GLO-3 is known to be required for gut granule formation and has homology to SAND-1/Mon1-related proteins, suggesting that CCZ-1 functions with GLO-3 upstream of the GLO-1 Rab, possibly as a GLO-1 GEF. These results support LRO formation occurring via processes similar to conventional lysosome biogenesis, albeit with key molecular differences.
Project description:The human disease Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome results from defective biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles (LROs) and can be caused by mutations in subunits of the BLOC-1 complex. Here we show that C. elegans glo-2 and snpn-1, despite relatively low levels of amino acid identity, encode Pallidin and Snapin BLOC-1 subunit homologues, respectively. BLOC-1 subunit interactions involving Pallidin and Snapin were conserved for GLO-2 and SNPN-1. Mutations in glo-2 and snpn-1,or RNAi targeting 5 other BLOC-1 subunit homologues in a genetic background sensitized for glo-2 function, led to defects in the biogenesis of lysosome-related gut granules. These results indicate that the BLOC-1 complex is conserved in C. elegans. To address the function of C. elegans BLOC-1, we assessed the intracellular sorting of CDF-2::GFP, LMP-1, and PGP-2 to gut granules. We validated their utility by analyzing their mislocalization in intestinal cells lacking the function of AP-3, which participates in an evolutionarily conserved sorting pathway to LROs. BLOC-1(-) intestinal cells missorted gut granule cargo to the plasma membrane and conventional lysosomes and did not have obviously altered function or morphology of organelles composing the conventional lysosome protein sorting pathway. Double mutant analysis and comparison of AP-3(-) and BLOC-1(-) phenotypes revealed that BLOC-1 has some functions independent of the AP-3 adaptor complex in trafficking to gut granules. We discuss similarities and differences of BLOC-1 activity in the biogenesis of gut granules as compared to mammalian melanosomes, where BLOC-1 has been most extensively studied for its role in sorting to LROs. Our work opens up the opportunity to address the function of this poorly understood complex in cell and organismal physiology using the genetic approaches available in C. elegans.
Project description:The intestinal cells of Caenorhabditis elegans embryos contain prominent, birefringent gut granules that we show are lysosome-related organelles. Gut granules are labeled by lysosomal markers, and their formation is disrupted in embryos depleted of AP-3 subunits, VPS-16, and VPS-41. We define a class of gut granule loss (glo) mutants that are defective in gut granule biogenesis. We show that the glo-1 gene encodes a predicted Rab GTPase that localizes to lysosome-related gut granules in the intestine and that glo-4 encodes a possible GLO-1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor. These and other glo genes are homologous to genes implicated in the biogenesis of specialized, lysosome-related organelles such as melanosomes in mammals and pigment granules in Drosophila. The glo mutants thus provide a simple model system for the analysis of lysosome-related organelle biogenesis in animal cells.
Project description:Gut granules are specialized lysosome-related organelles that act as sites of fat storage in Caenorhabditis elegans intestinal cells. We identified mutations in a gene, glo-3, that functions in the formation of embryonic gut granules. Some glo-3(-) alleles displayed a complete loss of embryonic gut granules, while other glo-3(-) alleles had reduced numbers of gut granules. A subset of glo-3 alleles led to mislocalization of gut granule contents into the intestinal lumen, consistent with a defect in intracellular trafficking. glo-3(-) embryos lacking gut granules developed into adults containing gut granules, indicating that glo-3(+) function may be differentially required during development. We find that glo-3(+) acts in parallel with or downstream of the AP-3 complex and the PGP-2 ABC transporter in gut granule biogenesis. glo-3 encodes a predicted membrane-associated protein that lacks obvious sequence homologs outside of nematodes. glo-3 expression initiates in embryonic intestinal precursors and persists almost exclusively in intestinal cells through adulthood. GLO-3GFP localizes to the gut granule membrane, suggesting it could play a direct role in the trafficking events at the gut granule. smg-1(-) suppression of glo-3(-) nonsense alleles indicates that the C-terminal half of GLO-3, predicted to be present in the cytoplasm, is not necessary for gut granule formation. Our studies identify GLO-3 as a novel player in the formation of lysosome-related organelles.
Project description:Lysosome-related organelles (LROs) are synthesized in specialized cell types where they largely coexist with conventional lysosomes. Most of the known cellular transport machinery involved in biogenesis are ubiquitously expressed and shared between lysosomes and LROs. Examples of common components are the adaptor protein complex-3 (AP-3) and biogenesis of lysosome-related organelle complex (BLOC)-2. These protein complexes control sorting and transport of newly synthesized integral membrane proteins from early endosomes to both lysosomes and LROs such as the melanosome. However, it is unknown what factors cooperate with the ubiquitous transport machinery to mediate transport to LROs in specialized cells. Focusing on the melanosome, we show that the ubiquitous machinery interacts with cell type-specific Rab proteins, Rab38 and Rab32, to facilitate transport to the maturing organelle. BLOC-2, AP-3, and AP-1 coimmunoprecipitated with Rab38 and Rab32 from MNT-1 melanocytic cell extracts. BLOC-2, AP-3, AP-1, and clathrin partially colocalized with Rab38 and Rab32 by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy in MNT-1 cells. Rab38- and Rab32-deficient MNT-1 cells displayed abnormal trafficking and steady state levels of known cargoes of the BLOC-2, AP-3, and AP-1 pathways, the melanin-synthesizing enzymes tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein-1. These observations support the idea that Rab38 and Rab32 are the specific factors that direct the ubiquitous machinery to mediate transport from early endosomes to maturing LROs. Additionally, analysis of tyrosinase-related protein-2 and total melanin production indicates that Rab32 has unique functions that cannot be carried out by Rab38 in melanosome biogenesis.
Project description:CUP-5 is a Transient Receptor Potential protein in C. elegans that is the orthologue of mammalian TRPML1. Loss of TRPML1 results in the lysosomal storage disorder Mucolipidosis type IV. Loss of CUP-5 results in embryonic lethality and the accumulation of enlarged yolk granules in developing intestinal cells. The embryonic lethality of cup-5 mutants is rescued by mutations in mrp-4, which is required for gut granule differentiation. Gut granules are intestine-specific lysosome-related organelles that accumulate birefringent material. This link between CUP-5 and gut granules led us to determine the roles of CUP-5 in lysosome and gut granule biogenesis in developing intestinal cells.We show that CUP-5 protein localizes to lysosomes, but not to gut granules, in developing intestinal cells. Loss of CUP-5 results in defects in endo-lysosomal transport in developing intestinal cells of C. elegans embryos. This ultimately leads to the appearance of enlarged terminal vacuoles that show defective lysosomal degradation and that have lysosomal and endosomal markers. In contrast, gut granule biogenesis is normal in the absence of CUP-5. Furthermore, loss of CUP-5 does not result in inappropriate fusion or mixing of content between lysosomes and gut granules.Using an in vivo model of MLIV, we show that there is a defect in lysosomal transport/biogenesis that is earlier than the presumed function of TRPML1 in terminal lysosomes. Our results indicate that CUP-5 is required for the biogenesis of lysosomes but not of gut granules. Thus, cellular phenotypes in Mucolipidosis type IV are likely not due to defects in lysosome-related organelle biogenesis, but due to progressive defects in lysosomal transport that lead to severe lysosomal dysfunction.
Project description:Natural killer (NK) lymphocytes contain lysosome-related organelles (LROs), known as lytic granules, which upon formation of immune synapse with the target cell, polarize toward the immune synapse to deliver their contents to the target cell membrane. Here, we identify a small GTP-binding protein, ADP-ribosylation factor-like 8b (Arl8b), as a critical factor required for NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Our findings indicate that Arl8b drives the polarization of lytic granules and microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs) toward the immune synapse between effector NK lymphocytes and target cells. Using a glutathione S-transferase pull-down approach, we identify kinesin family member 5B (KIF5B; the heavy chain of kinesin-1) as an interaction partner of Arl8b from NK cell lysates. Previous studies showed that interaction between kinesin-1 and Arl8b is mediated by SifA and kinesin-interacting protein (SKIP) and the tripartite complex drives the anterograde movement of lysosomes. Silencing of both KIF5B and SKIP in NK cells, similar to Arl8b, led to failure of MTOC-lytic granule polarization to the immune synapse, suggesting that Arl8b and kinesin-1 together control this critical step in NK cell cytotoxicity.
Project description:Long-distance RNA transport enables local protein synthesis at metabolically-active sites distant from the nucleus. This process ensures an appropriate spatial organization of proteins, vital to polarized cells such as neurons. Here, we present a mechanism for RNA transport in which RNA granules "hitchhike" on moving lysosomes. In vitro biophysical modeling, live-cell microscopy, and unbiased proximity labeling proteomics reveal that annexin A11 (ANXA11), an RNA granule-associated phosphoinositide-binding protein, acts as a molecular tether between RNA granules and lysosomes. ANXA11 possesses an N-terminal low complexity domain, facilitating its phase separation into membraneless RNA granules, and a C-terminal membrane binding domain, enabling interactions with lysosomes. RNA granule transport requires ANXA11, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-associated mutations in ANXA11 impair RNA granule transport by disrupting their interactions with lysosomes. Thus, ANXA11 mediates neuronal RNA transport by tethering RNA granules to actively-transported lysosomes, performing a critical cellular function that is disrupted in ALS.
Project description:The small rab-GTPase RAB-7 acts in endosome and endosome to lysosome traffic. We identified SAND-1 as a protein required for RAB-7 function based on similarities between SAND-1 and RAB-7 RNAi phenotypes. Although the initial uptake of yolk protein in oocytes, or of soluble secreted (ss) GFP in coelomocytes, appeared normal, further transport along the endocytic traffic route was delayed in the absence of SAND-1 function, and yolk proteins failed to reach yolk granules efficiently. Moreover, in coelomocytes, ssGFP and BSA-Texas-Red were endocytosed but not transported to lysosomes. We show that SAND-1 is essential for RAB-7 function at the transition from early to late endosomes, but not for RAB-7 function at lysosomes.
Project description:Caenorhabditis elegans gut granules are intestine specific lysosome-related organelles with birefringent and autofluorescent contents. We identified pgp-2, which encodes an ABC transporter, in screens for genes required for the proper formation of gut granules. pgp-2(-) embryos mislocalize birefringent material into the intestinal lumen and are lacking in acidified intestinal V-ATPase-containing compartments. Adults without pgp-2(+) function similarly lack organelles with gut granule characteristics. These cellular phenotypes indicate that pgp-2(-) animals are defective in gut granule biogenesis. Double mutant analysis suggests that pgp-2(+) functions in parallel with the AP-3 adaptor complex during gut granule formation. We find that pgp-2 is expressed in the intestine where it functions in gut granule biogenesis and that PGP-2 localizes to the gut granule membrane. These results support a direct role of an ABC transporter in regulating lysosome biogenesis. Previously, pgp-2(+) activity has been shown to be necessary for the accumulation of Nile Red-stained fat in C. elegans. We show that gut granules are sites of fat storage in C. elegans embryos and adults. Notably, levels of triacylglycerides are relatively normal in animals defective in the formation of gut granules. Our results provide an explanation for the loss of Nile Red-stained fat in pgp-2(-) animals as well as insight into the specialized function of this lysosome-related organelle.