Ischemic Heart Disease Mortality and Diesel Exhaust and Respirable Dust Exposure in the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study.
ABSTRACT: Diesel exhaust is a suggested risk factor for ischemic heart disease (IHD), but evidence from cohorts using quantitative exposure metrics is limited. We examined the impact of respirable elemental carbon (REC), a key surrogate for diesel exhaust, and respirable dust (RD) on IHD mortality, using data from the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study in the United States. Using data from a cohort of male workers followed from 1948-1968 until 1997, we fitted Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios for IHD mortality for cumulative and average intensity of exposure to REC and RD. Segmented linear regression models allowed for nonmonotonicity. Hazard ratios for cumulative and average REC exposure declined relative to the lowest exposure category before increasing to 0.79 and 1.25, respectively, in the highest category. Relative to the category containing the segmented regression change points, hazard ratios for the highest category were 1.69 and 1.54 for cumulative and average REC exposure, respectively. Hazard ratios for RD exposure increased across the full exposure range to 1.33 and 2.69 for cumulative and average RD exposure, respectively. Tests for trend were statistically significant for cumulative REC exposure (above the change point) and for average RD exposure. Our findings suggest excess risk of IHD mortality in relation to increased exposure to REC and RD.
Project description:The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS) (United States, 1947-1997) reported positive associations between diesel engine exhaust exposure, estimated as respirable elemental carbon (REC), and lung cancer mortality. This reanalysis of the DEMS cohort used an alternative estimate of REC exposure incorporating historical data on diesel equipment, engine horsepower, ventilation rates, and declines in particulate matter emissions per horsepower. Associations with cumulative REC and average REC intensity using the alternative REC estimate and other exposure estimates were generally attenuated compared with original DEMS REC estimates. Most findings were statistically nonsignificant; control for radon exposure substantially weakened associations with the original and alternative REC estimates. No association with original or alternative REC estimates was detected among miners who worked exclusively underground. Positive associations were detected among limestone workers, whereas no association with REC or radon was found among workers in the other 7 mines. The differences in results based on alternative exposure estimates, control for radon, and stratification by worker location or mine type highlight areas of uncertainty in the DEMS data.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Most studies of the association between diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer suggest a modest, but consistent, increased risk. However, to our knowledge, no study to date has had quantitative data on historical diesel exposure coupled with adequate sample size to evaluate the exposure-response relationship between diesel exhaust and lung cancer. Our purpose was to evaluate the relationship between quantitative estimates of exposure to diesel exhaust and lung cancer mortality after adjustment for smoking and other potential confounders.<h4>Methods</h4>We conducted a nested case-control study in a cohort of 12?315 workers in eight non-metal mining facilities, which included 198 lung cancer deaths and 562 incidence density-sampled control subjects. For each case subject, we selected up to four control subjects, individually matched on mining facility, sex, race/ethnicity, and birth year (within 5 years), from all workers who were alive before the day the case subject died. We estimated diesel exhaust exposure, represented by respirable elemental carbon (REC), by job and year, for each subject, based on an extensive retrospective exposure assessment at each mining facility. We conducted both categorical and continuous regression analyses adjusted for cigarette smoking and other potential confounding variables (eg, history of employment in high-risk occupations for lung cancer and a history of respiratory disease) to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Analyses were both unlagged and lagged to exclude recent exposure such as that occurring in the 15 years directly before the date of death (case subjects)/reference date (control subjects). All statistical tests were two-sided.<h4>Results</h4>We observed statistically significant increasing trends in lung cancer risk with increasing cumulative REC and average REC intensity. Cumulative REC, lagged 15 years, yielded a statistically significant positive gradient in lung cancer risk overall (P (trend) = .001); among heavily exposed workers (ie, above the median of the top quartile [REC ? 1005 ?g/m(3)-y]), risk was approximately three times greater (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 1.33 to 7.69) than that among workers in the lowest quartile of exposure. Among never smokers, odd ratios were 1.0, 1.47 (95% CI = 0.29 to 7.50), and 7.30 (95% CI = 1.46 to 36.57) for workers with 15-year lagged cumulative REC tertiles of less than 8, 8 to less than 304, and 304 ?g/m(3)-y or more, respectively. We also observed an interaction between smoking and 15-year lagged cumulative REC (P (interaction) = .086) such that the effect of each of these exposures was attenuated in the presence of high levels of the other.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our findings provide further evidence that diesel exhaust exposure may cause lung cancer in humans and may represent a potential public health burden.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Current information points to an association between diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer and other mortality outcomes, but uncertainties remain.<h4>Methods</h4>We undertook a cohort mortality study of 12?315 workers exposed to diesel exhaust at eight US non-metal mining facilities. Historical measurements and surrogate exposure data, along with study industrial hygiene measurements, were used to derive retrospective quantitative estimates of respirable elemental carbon (REC) exposure for each worker. Standardized mortality ratios and internally adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate REC exposure-associated risk. Analyses were both unlagged and lagged to exclude recent exposure such as that occurring in the 15 years directly before the date of death.<h4>Results</h4>Standardized mortality ratios for lung cancer (1.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09 to 1.44), esophageal cancer (1.83, 95% CI = 1.16 to 2.75), and pneumoconiosis (12.20, 95% CI = 6.82 to 20.12) were elevated in the complete cohort compared with state-based mortality rates, but all-cause, bladder cancer, heart disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality were not. Differences in risk by worker location (ever-underground vs surface only) initially obscured a positive diesel exhaust exposure-response relationship with lung cancer in the complete cohort, although it became apparent after adjustment for worker location. The hazard ratios (HRs) for lung cancer mortality increased with increasing 15-year lagged cumulative REC exposure for ever-underground workers with 5 or more years of tenure to a maximum in the 640 to less than 1280 ?g/m(3)-y category compared with the reference category (0 to <20 ?g/m(3)-y; 30 deaths compared with eight deaths of the total of 93; HR = 5.01, 95% CI = 1.97 to 12.76) but declined at higher exposures. Average REC intensity hazard ratios rose to a plateau around 32 ?g/m(3). Elevated hazard ratios and evidence of exposure-response were also seen for surface workers. The association between diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer risk remained after inclusion of other work-related potentially confounding exposures in the models and were robust to alternative approaches to exposure derivation.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The study findings provide further evidence that exposure to diesel exhaust increases risk of mortality from lung cancer and have important public health implications.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies diesel engine exhaust as carcinogenic to humans based on sufficient evidence for lung cancer. IARC noted, however, an increased risk of bladder cancer (based on limited evidence).<h4>Objective</h4>To evaluate the association between quantitative, lifetime occupational diesel exhaust exposure and risk of urothelial cell carcinoma of the bladder (UBC) overall and according to pathological subtypes.<h4>Methods</h4>Data from personal interviews with 1944 UBC cases, as well as formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue blocks, and 2135 controls were pooled from two case-control studies conducted in the U.S. and Spain. Lifetime occupational histories combined with exposure-oriented questions were used to estimate cumulative exposure to respirable elemental carbon (REC), a primary surrogate for diesel exhaust. Unconditional logistic regression and two-stage polytomous logistic regression were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for smoking and other risk factors.<h4>Results</h4>Exposure to cumulative REC was associated with an increased risk of UBC; workers with cumulative REC >396 μg/m<sup>3</sup>-years had an OR of 1.61 (95% CI, 1.08-2.40). At this level of cumulative exposure, similar results were observed in the U.S. and Spain, OR = 1.75 (95% CI, 0.97-3.15) and OR = 1.54 (95% CI, 0.89-2.68), respectively. In lagged analysis, we also observed a consistent increased risk among workers with cumulative REC >396 μg/m<sup>3</sup>-years (range of ORs = 1.52-1.93) for all lag intervals evaluated (5-40 years). When we accounted for tumor subtypes defined by stage and grade, a significant association between diesel exhaust exposure and UBC was apparent (global test for association p = 0.0019).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Combining data from two large epidemiologic studies, our results provide further evidence that diesel exhaust exposure increases the risk of UBC.
Project description:Hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO) is a renewable diesel fuel used to replace petroleum diesel. The organic compounds in HVO are poorly characterized; therefore, toxicological properties could be different from petroleum diesel exhaust. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure and effective biomarkers in 18 individuals after short-term (3 h) exposure to HVO exhaust and petroleum diesel exhaust fumes. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used to analyze urinary biomarkers. A proximity extension assay was used for the measurement of inflammatory proteins in plasma samples. Short-term (3 h) exposure to HVO exhaust (PM<sub>1</sub> ~1 µg/m<sup>3</sup> and ~90 µg/m<sup>3</sup> for vehicles with and without exhaust aftertreatment systems, respectively) did not increase any exposure biomarker, whereas petroleum diesel exhaust (PM<sub>1</sub> ~300 µg/m<sup>3</sup>) increased urinary 4-MHA, a biomarker for <i>p</i>-xylene. HVO exhaust from the vehicle without exhaust aftertreatment system increased urinary 4-HNE-MA, a biomarker for lipid peroxidation, from 64 ng/mL urine (before exposure) to 141 ng/mL (24 h after exposure, <i>p</i> < 0.001). There was no differential expression of plasma inflammatory proteins between the HVO exhaust and control exposure group. In conclusion, short-term exposure to low concentrations of HVO exhaust did not increase urinary exposure biomarkers, but caused a slight increase in lipid peroxidation associated with the particle fraction.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> Diesel exhaust is a complex mixture comprised of gases and particulate matter and is a contributor to ambient air pollution. To reduce health risks, recent changes in diesel engine technology have significantly altered the composition of diesel exhaust, primarily by lowering emissions of particulate matter. However, animal toxicological studies continue to report health effects following exposure to diesel exhaust from engines employing particulate filters. The cause of these effects remains unclear.<b>Objective and methods:</b> To gain an understanding of the role of both particle-filtered and whole diesel exhaust on specific health outcomes, we conducted a systematic review in which we examined animal toxicological and controlled human exposure studies that included a comparison between inhalation of particle-filtered and whole diesel exhaust on any health endpoint.<b>Results:</b> We identified 26 studies that met both the inclusion and study evaluation criteria. For most health outcomes, the particle filtration methods employed in the included studies did not appreciably attenuate the health effects associated with exposure to whole diesel exhaust. There were also several health endpoints for which significant effects were associated with exposure to either particle-filtered or whole diesel exhaust, but not to both.<b>Conclusions:</b> Overall, the results from this systematic review demonstrate that exposure to different components in diesel exhaust can have distinct and independent health effects. Thus, to better inform human health risk assessments, future studies aimed at elucidating the health effects from diesel exhaust should include exposure to both particle-filtered and whole diesel exhaust.
Project description:Diesel exhaust inhalation, which is the model traffic-related air pollutant exposure, is associated with vascular dysfunction.To determine whether healthy subjects exposed to diesel exhaust exhibit acute vasoconstriction and whether this effect could be modified by the use of antioxidants or by common variants in the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1) and other candidate genes.In a genotype-stratified, double-blind, four-way crossover study, 21 healthy adult subjects were exposed at rest in a randomized, balanced order to diesel exhaust (200 ?g/m(3) particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ? 2.5 ?m [PM2.5]) and filtered air, and to pretreatment with antioxidants (N-acetylcysteine and ascorbate) and placebo. Before and after each exposure, brachial artery diameter (BAd) was assessed using ultrasound. Changes in BAd were compared across pretreatment and exposure sessions. Gene-exposure interactions were evaluated in the AGTR1 A1166C polymorphism, on which recruitment was stratified, and other candidate genes, including TRPV1 and GSTM1.Compared with filtered air, exposure to diesel exhaust resulted in a significant reduction in BAd (mean, -0.09 mm, 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.01 to -0.17; P?=?0.03). Pretreatment with antioxidants augmented diesel exhaust-related vasoconstriction with a mean change in BAd of -0.18 mm (95% CI, -0.28 to -0.07 mm; P?=?0.001). Diesel exhaust-related vasoconstriction was primarily observed in the variant alleles of AGTR1 and TRPV1. No association was found between diesel exhaust inhalation and flow-mediated dilation.We confirmed that short-term exposure to diesel exhaust in healthy subjects is associated with acute vasoconstriction in a conductance artery and found suggestive evidence of involvement of nociception and renin-angiotensin systems in this effect. Pretreatment with an antioxidant regimen increased vasoconstriction.
Project description:Exposure to respirable elemental carbon (REC), a component of diesel exhaust (DE), was assessed for an epidemiologic study investigating the association between DE and mortality, particularly from lung cancer, among miners at eight mining facilities from the date of dieselization (1947-1967) through 1997. To provide insight into the quality of the estimates for use in the epidemiologic analyses, several approaches were taken to evaluate the exposure assessment process and the quality of the estimates. An analysis of variance was conducted to evaluate the variability of 1998-2001 REC measurements within and between exposure groups of underground jobs. Estimates for the surface exposure groups were evaluated to determine if the arithmetic means (AMs) of the REC measurements increased with increased proximity to, or use of, diesel-powered equipment, which was the basis on which the surface groups were formed. Estimates of carbon monoxide (CO) (another component of DE) air concentrations in 1976-1977, derived from models developed to predict estimated historical exposures, were compared to 1976-1977 CO measurement data that had not been used in the model development. Alternative sets of estimates were developed to investigate the robustness of various model assumptions. These estimates were based on prediction models using: (i) REC medians rather AMs, (ii) a different CO:REC proportionality than a 1:1 relation, and (iii) 5-year averages of historical CO measurements rather than modeled historical CO measurements and DE-related determinants. The analysis of variance found that in three of the facilities, most of the between-group variability in the underground measurements was explained by the use of job titles. There was relatively little between-group variability in the other facilities. The estimated REC AMs for the surface exposure groups rose overall from 1 to 5 ?g m(-3) as proximity to, and use of, diesel equipment increased. The alternative estimates overall were highly correlated (?0.9) with the primary set of estimates. The median of the relative differences between the 1976-1977 CO measurement means and the 1976-1977 estimates for six facilities was 29%. Comparison of estimated CO air concentrations from the facility-specific prediction models with historical CO measurement data found an overall agreement similar to that observed in other epidemiologic studies. Other evaluations of components of the exposure assessment process found moderate to excellent agreement. Thus, the overall evidence suggests that the estimates were likely accurate representations of historical personal exposure levels to DE and are useful for epidemiologic analyses.
Project description:Air pollution by diesel exhaust particles is associated with elevated mortality and increased hospital admissions in individuals with respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. During active inflammation monocytes are recruited to the airways and can replace resident alveolar macrophages. We therefore investigated whether chronic fourteen day exposure to low concentrations of diesel exhaust particles can alter the phenotype and function of monocytes from healthy individuals and those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Monocytes were purified from the blood of healthy individuals and people with a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Monocyte-derived macrophages were generated in the presence or absence of diesel exhaust particles and their phenotypes studied through investigation of their lifespan, cytokine generation in response to Toll like receptor agonists and heat killed bacteria, and expression of surface markers. Chronic fourteen day exposure of monocyte-derived macrophages to concentrations of diesel exhaust particles >10 µg/ml caused mitochondrial and lysosomal dysfunction, and a gradual loss of cells over time both in healthy and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease individuals. Chronic exposure to lower concentrations of diesel exhaust particles impaired CXCL8 cytokine responses to lipopolysaccharide and heat killed E. coli, and this phenotype was associated with a reduction in CD14 and CD11b expression. Chronic diesel exhaust particle exposure may therefore alter both numbers and function of lung macrophages differentiating from locally recruited monocytes in the lungs of healthy people and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Project description:Inhalation of diesel exhaust induces vascular effects including impaired endothelial function and increased atherosclerosis.To examine the in vivo effects of subchronic diesel exhaust exposure on endothelial cell transcriptional responses in the presence of hypercholesterolemia.ApoE (-/-) and ApoE (+/+) mice inhaled diesel exhaust diluted to particulate matter levels of 300 or 1000 ?g/m³ vs. filtered air. After 30 days, endothelial cells were harvested from dispersed aortic cells by fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS). Relative mRNA abundance was evaluated by microarray analysis to measure strain-specific transcriptional responses in mice exposed to dilute diesel exhaust vs. filtered air.Forty-nine transcripts were significantly dysregulated by >2.8-fold in the endothelium of ApoE (-/-) mice receiving diesel exhaust at 300 or 1000 ?g/m³. These included transcripts with roles in plasminogen activation, endothelial permeability, inflammation, genomic stability, and atherosclerosis; similar responses were not observed in ApoE (+/+) mice.The potentiation of diesel exhaust-related endothelial gene regulation by hypercholesterolemia helps to explain air pollution-induced vascular effects in animals and humans. The observed regulated transcripts implicate pathways important in the acceleration of atherosclerosis by air pollution.