Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is most often fatal and is affected by graft source, conditioning regimen toxicity, and engraftment kinetics.
ABSTRACT: Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a frequently fatal complication with no standard therapy. Although significant changes in supportive and intensive care measures for patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have been made over the past decades, the impact of these changes on the incidence and outcome of patients with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage has not been examined. We analyzed 1228 patients who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation between 2008-2015 at the University of Minnesota to study the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage developed in 5% of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, at a median of 30 days (range +3 to +168 days) after transplantation. The incidence of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage was significantly greater in recipients of umbilical cord blood than peripheral blood or bone marrow grafts (HR: 2.08, 95% CI: 1.16-3.74; P=0.01). In multivariate analysis, delayed neutrophil engraftment or primary graft failure was a risk factor for diffuse alveolar hemorrhage following peripheral blood or bone marrow hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HR: 5.51, 95% CI: 1.26-24; P=0.02) and delayed platelet engraftment was associated with significantly increased diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in umbilical cord blood transplant recipients (HR: 6.96, 95% CI: 2.39-20.29; P<0.05). Myeloablative regimens including total body irradiation were also risk factors for diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (HR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.03-3.13, P=0.05) in both peripheral blood or bone marrow and umbilical cord blood hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HR: 1.87, 95% CI: 0.95-3.71). Patients with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage had an inferior 6-month treatment-related mortality (HR: 6.09, 95% CI: 4.33-8.56, P<0.01) and 2-year overall survival (HR: 4.16, 95% CI: 3.06-5.64; P<0.01) using either graft source. The etiology of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is multifactorial, involving lung injury influenced by high-dose total body irradiation, graft source, and delayed engraftment or graft failure. The survival of patients with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation remains poor. Clinical interventions or experimental studies (e.g., cell expansion for umbilical cord blood transplants or thrombopoietin use) that modulate these risk factors may limit the incidence and improve the outcomes of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage.
Project description:Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is an important treatment option for fit patients with poor-risk hematological malignancies; nevertheless, the lack of available fully matched donors limits the extent of its use. Umbilical cord blood has emerged as an effective alternate source of hematopoietic stem cell support. Transplantation with cord blood allows for faster availability of frozen sample and avoids invasive procedures for donors. In addition, this procedure has demonstrated reduced relapse rates and similar overall survival when compared with unrelated allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The limited dose of CD34-positive stem cells available with single-unit cord transplantation has been addressed by the development of double-unit cord transplantation. In combination with improved conditioning regimens, double-unit cord transplantation has allowed for the treatment of larger children, as well as adult patients with hematological malignancies. Current excitement in the field revolves around the development of safer techniques to improve homing, engraftment, and immune reconstitution after cord blood transplantation. Here the authors review the past, present, and future of cord transplantation.
Project description:Umbilical cord blood is an established source of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation. It enjoys several advantages over bone marrow or peripheral blood, including increased tolerance for Human Leukocyte Antigen mismatches, decreased incidence of graft-versus-host disease, and easy availability. Unrelated cord blood does have limitations, however, especially in the treatment of adults. In the 24 years since the first umbilical cord blood transplant was performed, significant progress has been made, but delayed hematopoietic engraftment and increased treatment-related mortality remain obstacles to widespread use. Here we summarize the latest results of unrelated cord blood transplants, and review strategies under investigation to improve clinical outcomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Umbilical-cord blood has been used as the source of hematopoietic stem cells in an estimated 30,000 transplants. The limited number of hematopoietic cells in a single cord-blood unit prevents its use in recipients with larger body mass and results in delayed hematopoietic recovery and higher mortality. Therefore, we hypothesized that the greater numbers of hematopoietic cells in two units of cord blood would be associated with improved outcomes after transplantation. METHODS:Between December 1, 2006, and February 24, 2012, a total of 224 patients 1 to 21 years of age with hematologic cancer were randomly assigned to undergo double-unit (111 patients) or single-unit (113 patients) cord-blood transplantation after a uniform myeloablative conditioning regimen and immunoprophylaxis for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The primary end point was 1-year overall survival. RESULTS:Treatment groups were matched for age, sex, self-reported race (white vs. nonwhite), performance status, degree of donor-recipient HLA matching, and disease type and status at transplantation. The 1-year overall survival rate was 65% (95% confidence interval [CI], 56 to 74) and 73% (95% CI, 63 to 80) among recipients of double and single cord-blood units, respectively (P=0.17). Similar outcomes in the two groups were also observed with respect to the rates of disease-free survival, neutrophil recovery, transplantation-related death, relapse, infections, immunologic reconstitution, and grade II-IV acute GVHD. However, improved platelet recovery and lower incidences of grade III and IV acute and extensive chronic GVHD were observed among recipients of a single cord-blood unit. CONCLUSIONS:We found that among children and adolescents with hematologic cancer, survival rates were similar after single-unit and double-unit cord-blood transplantation; however, a single-unit cord-blood transplant was associated with better platelet recovery and a lower risk of GVHD. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the National Cancer Institute; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00412360.).
Project description:PURPOSE:Increasing the number of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells within an umbilical cord blood (UCB) graft shortens the time to hematopoietic recovery after UCB transplantation. In this study, we assessed the safety and efficacy of a UCB graft that was expanded ex vivo in the presence of nicotinamide and transplanted after myeloablative conditioning as a stand-alone hematopoietic stem-cell graft. METHODS:Thirty-six patients with hematologic malignancies underwent transplantation at 11 sites. RESULTS:The cumulative incidence of neutrophil engraftment at day 42 was 94%. Two patients experienced secondary graft failure attributable to viral infections. Hematopoietic recovery was compared with that observed in recipients of standard UCB transplantation as reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (n = 146). The median time to neutrophil recovery was 11.5 days (95% CI, 9 to 14 days) for recipients of nicotinamide-expanded UCB and 21 days (95% CI, 20 to 23 days) for the comparator ( P < .001). The median time to platelet recovery was 34 days (95% CI, 32 to 42 days) and 46 days (95% CI, 42 to 50 days) for the expanded and the comparator cohorts, respectively ( P < .001). The cumulative incidence of grade 2 to 4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) at day 100 was 44%, and grade 3 and 4 acute GVHD at day 100 was 11%. The cumulative incidence at 2 years of all chronic GVHD was 40%, and moderate/severe chronic GVHD was 10%. The 2-year cumulative incidences of nonrelapse mortality and relapse were 24% and 33%, respectively. The 2-year probabilities of overall and disease-free survival were 51% and 43%, respectively. CONCLUSION:UCB expanded ex vivo with nicotinamide shortens median neutrophil recovery by 9.5 days (95% CI, 7 to 12 days) and median platelet recovery by 12 days (95% CI, 3 to 16.5 days). This trial establishes feasibility, safety, and efficacy of an ex vivo expanded UCB unit as a stand-alone graft.
Project description:Transplantation of 1 or 2 umbilical cord blood products is a useful alternative stem cell source. However, the limited number of stem cells in each infusion results in slow engraftment. In mouse models, administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) is an effective way to enhance the ability of limited numbers of hematopoietic stem cells to support hematopoiesis. In this study, patients received either a myeloablative or a reduced-intensity double umbilical cord blood transplantation, followed by PTH at 100 ?g/day for 28 days. Thirteen patients (median age, 42 years) were enrolled. All patients engrafted; the median time to neutrophil and platelet engraftment of >20 × 10(9) cells/L was 30 days and 61 days, respectively. The incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD was 38.5% at day 100. Four deaths occurred before day 100, prompting early study closure. No patient who received a myeloablative regimen relapsed. Overall survival at 6 months after transplantation was 62%, and disease-free survival at 2 years was 39%. At the dose and schedule studied, there was no evidence that PTH influenced blood count recovery.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The standard for selecting unrelated umbilical cord blood units for transplantation for non-malignant diseases relies on antigen-level (lower resolution) HLA typing for HLA-A and HLA-B, and allele-level for HLA-DRB1. We aimed to study the effects of allele-level matching at a higher resolution-HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, and HLA-DRB1, which is the standard used for adult unrelated volunteer donor transplantation for non-malignant diseases-for umbilical cord blood transplantation. METHODS:We retrospectively studied 1199 paediatric donor-recipient pairs with allele-level HLA matching who received a single unit umbilical cord blood transplantation for non-malignant diseases reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research or Eurocord and European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplant. Transplantations occurred between Jan 1, 2000, and Dec 31, 2012. The primary outcome was overall survival. The effect of HLA matching on survival was studied using a Cox regression model. FINDINGS:Compared with HLA-matched transplantations, mortality was higher with transplantations mismatched at two (hazard ratio [HR] 1·55, 95% CI 1·08-2·21, p=0·018), three (2·04, 1·44-2·89, p=0·0001), and four or more alleles (3·15, 2·16-4·58, p<0·0001). There were no significant differences in mortality between transplantations that were matched and mismatched at one allele (HR 1·18, 95% CI 0·80-1·72, p=0·39). Other factors associated with higher mortality included recipient cytomegalovirus seropositivity (HR 1·40, 95% CI 1·13-1·74, p=0·0020), reduced intensity compared with myeloablative conditioning regimens (HR 1·36, 1·10-1·68, p=0·0041), transplantation of units with total nucleated cell dose of more than 21?×?107 cells per kg compared with 21?×?107 cells per kg or less (HR 1·47, 1·11-1·95, p=0·0076), and transplantations done in 2000-05 compared with those done in 2006-12 (HR 1·64, 1·31-2·04, p<0·0001). The 5-year overall survival adjusted for recipient cytomegalovirus serostatus, conditioning regimen intensity, total nucleated cell dose, and transplantation period was 79% (95% CI 74-85) after HLA matched, 76% (71-81) after one allele mismatched, 70% (65-75) after two alleles mismatched, 62% (57-68) after three alleles mismatched, and 49% (41-57) after four or more alleles mismatched transplantations. Graft failure was the predominant cause of mortality. INTERPRETATION:These data support a change from current practice in that selection of unrelated umbilical cord blood units for transplantation for non-malignant diseases should consider allele-level HLA matching at HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, and HLA-DRB1. FUNDING:National Cancer Institute; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases; US Department of Health and Human Services-Health Resources and Services Administration; and US Department of Navy.
Project description:Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome is a severe X-linked recessive immune deficiency disorder. A scoring system of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome severity (0.5-5) distinguishes two phenotypes: X-linked thrombocytopenia and classic Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. Hematopoietic cell transplantation is curative for Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome; however, the use of unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation has seldom been described. We analyzed umbilical cord blood transplantation outcomes for 90 patients. The median age at umbilical cord blood transplantation was 1.5 years. Patients were classified according to clinical scores [2 (23%), 3 (30%), 4 (23%) and 5 (19%)]. Most patients underwent HLA-mismatched umbilical cord blood transplantation and myeloablative conditioning with anti-thymocyte globulin. The cumulative incidence of neutrophil recovery at day 60 was 89% and that of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease at day 100 was 38%. The use of methotrexate for graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis delayed engraftment (P=0.02), but decreased acute graft-versus-host disease (P=0.03). At 5 years, overall survival and event-free survival rates were 75% and 70%, respectively. The estimated 5-year event-free survival rates were 83%, 73% and 55% for patients with a clinical score of 2, 4-5 and 3, respectively. In multivariate analysis, age <2 years at the time of the umbilical cord blood transplant and a clinical phenotype of X-linked thrombocytopenia were associated with improved event-free survival. Overall survival tended to be better in patients transplanted after 2007 (P=0.09). In conclusion, umbilical cord blood transplantation is a good alternative option for young children with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome lacking an HLA identical stem cell donor.
Project description:Mature immunocompetent cells from the stem cell graft as well as early robust immune reconstitution are essential for the graft-vs. -tumor (GVT) effect to eliminate residual malignant cells after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In this prospective study we characterized graft composition of T- and NK cell subsets in 88 recipients of peripheral blood stem cell grafts with multicolor flowcytometry. Our primary aim was to analyze the impact of graft composition on immune reconstitution and clinical outcomes after transplantation. Patients transplanted with graft NK cell doses above the median value of 27 × 106/kg had significantly increased relapse-free-survival compared to patients transplanted with lower doses, HR 2.12 (95% CI 1.01-4.45, p = 0.04) Peripheral blood concentrations of NK cells obtained from donors before G-CSF mobilization were significantly correlated to graft NK cell doses (Spearman's ? 0.53, p = 0.03). The dose of transplanted NK cells/kg correlated significantly with NK cell concentrations in patients early after transplantation (Spearman's ? 0.26, p = 0.02, and ? = 0.35, p = 0.001 for days 28 and 56, respectively). Early immune reconstitution above median values of NK cells was significantly associated with improved relapse-free survival (HR 2.84 [95% CI 1.29-6.28], p = 0.01, and HR 4.19 [95% CI 1.68-10.4], p = 0.002, for day 28 and 56, respectively). Early concentrations above the median value of the mature effector CD56dim NK cell subset were significantly associated with decreased relapse incidences at 1 year, 7% (95% CI 1.8-17) vs. 28% (95% CI 15-42), p = 0.04, and 7% (95% CI 1.8-18) vs. 26% (95% CI 14-40) %, p = 0.03, for days 28 and 56, respectively. The results suggest a protective effect of high doses of NK cells in grafts and during early immune reconstitution and support the perception of NK cells as innate effector cells with anti-tumor effects in the setting of allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
Project description:Transplantation of ex vivo expanded human umbilical cord blood cells (hCB) only partially enhances the hematopoietic recovery after myelosuppressive therapy. Incubation of hCB with optimal combinations of cytokines and niche cells, such as endothelial cells (ECs), could augment the efficiency of hCB expansion. We have devised an approach to cultivate primary human ECs (hECs) in serum-free culture conditions. We demonstrate that coculture of CD34(+) hCB in direct cellular contact with hECs and minimal concentrations of thrombopoietin/Kit-ligand/Flt3-ligand resulted in a 400-fold expansion of total hematopoietic cells, 150-fold expansion of CD45(+)CD34(+) progenitor cells, and 23-fold expansion of CD45(+) Lin(-)CD34(hi+)CD45RA(-)CD49f(+) stem and progenitor cells over a 12-day period. Compared with cytokines alone, coculture of hCB with hECs permitted greater expansion of cells capable of multilineage engraftment and serial transplantation, hallmarks of long-term repopulating hematopoietic stem cells. Therefore, hECs establish a cellular platform for expansion of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and treatment of hematologic disorders.
Project description:More than 90% of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) recipients receive red blood cell (RBC) or platelet transfusions in the peritransplantation period. We tested the hypothesis that transfusions are associated with the development of severe (grade III-IV) acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) or mortality after allo-HSCT in a retrospective study of 322 consecutive patients receiving an allogeneic bone marrow or granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized blood stem cell graft for a hematologic malignancy. Counting transfused RBC and platelet units between day -7 pretransplantation and day +27 post-transplantation, but excluding transfusions administered after a diagnosis of aGVHD, yielded medians of 5 RBC units and 2 platelet units transfused. Sixty-three patients (20%) developed a maximal grade III-IV aGVHD with onset up to day +150 post-transplantation (median aGVHD onset of 28 days). HLA mismatch (hazard ratio [HR], 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2 to 4.7; P?=?.01), and transfusion of more than the median number of RBC units (HR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1 to 3.7; P?=?.02) were independently associated with greater risk of grade III-IV aGVHD in a multivariable analysis model. Disease risk strata (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2 to 2.4 for high risk versus low risk; P?=?.005) and transfusion of?more than the median number of RBC units (HR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0 to 2.0; P?=?.054) were independently associated with inferior overall survival. These data support our hypothesis that peritransplantation RBC transfusions are associated with the risk of developing severe aGVHD and worse overall survival following allo-HSCT, and suggest that strategies to reduce routine RBC transfusion may favorably reduce the incidence and severity of GVHD.