Decolorization and detoxification of textile wastewaters by recombinant Myceliophthora thermophila and Trametes trogii laccases.
ABSTRACT: Laccases are multi-copper oxidoreductases with broad biotechnological applications. Here, we report detailed biochemical characterization of purified recombinant laccases originating from Myceliophthora thermophila (MtL) and Trametes trogii (TtL). We identified optimal conditions for decolorization of commercial dyes and textile wastewater samples. We also tested the toxicity of decolorized wastewater samples using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. MtL and TtL were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and secreted enzymes were purified by consecutive hydrophobic and gel chromatography. The molecular masses of TtL (~?65 kDa) and MtL (>?100 kDa) suggested glycosylation of the recombinant enzymes. Deglycosylation of MtL and TtL led to 25% and 10% decreases in activity, respectively. In a thermal stability assay, TtL retained 61% and MtL 86% of the initial activity at 40 °C. While TtL retained roughly 50% activity at 60 °C, MtL lost stability at temperatures higher than 40 °C. MtL and TtL preferred syringaldazine as a substrate, and the catalytic efficiencies for ABTS oxidation were 7.5 times lower than for syringaldazine oxidation. In the presence of the mediator HBT, purified TtL almost completely decolorized dyes within 30 min and substantially decolorized wastewater samples from a textile factory (up to 74%) within 20 h. However, products of TtL-catalyzed decolorization were more toxic than MtL-decolorized products, which were almost completely detoxified.
Project description:Wastewater released from textile and dye-based industries is one of the major concerns for human and aquatic beings. Biological decolorization using ligninolytic bacteria has been considered as an effective and alternative approach for the treatment of dyeing wastewater. This study aimed to assess the isolation, characterization and application of soil bacteria isolated from mangrove wetlands in Thailand. Four active bacteria were genetically identified and designated as Klebsiella pneumoniae strain RY10302, Enterobacter sp. strain RY10402, Enterobacter sp. strain RY11902 and Enterobacter sp. strain RY11903. They were observed for ligninolytic activity and decolorization of nine reactive dyes under experimental conditions. All bacteria exhibited strong decolorization efficiency within 72 h of incubation at 0.01% (w/v) of reactive dyes. The decolorization percentage varied from 20% (C.I. Reactive Red 195 decolorized by K. pneumoniae strain RY10302) to 92% (C.I. Reactive Blue 194 decolorized by Enterobacter sp. strain RY11902) in the case of bacterial monoculture, whereas the decolorization percentage for a mixed culture of four bacteria varied from 58% (C.I. Reactive Blue 19) to 94% (C.I. Reactive Black 1). These findings confer the possibility of using these bacteria for the biological decolorization of dyeing wastewater.
Project description:Laccases have been used for the decolorization and detoxification of synthetic dyes due to their ability to oxidize a wide variety of dyes with water as the sole byproduct. A putative laccase gene (LacTT) from Thermus thermophilus SG0.5JP17-16 was screened using the genome mining approach, and it was highly expressed in Pichia pastoris, yielding a high laccase activity of 6130 U/L in a 10-L fermentor. The LacTT open reading frame encoded a protein of 466 amino acid residues with four putative Cu-binding regions. The optimal pH of the recombinant LacTT was 4.5, 6.0, 7.5 and 8.0 with 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), syringaldazine (SGZ), guaiacol, and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (2,6-DMP) as the substrate, respectively. The optimal temperature of LacTT was 90°C with guaiacol as the substrate. LacTT was highly stable at pH 4.0-11.0 and thermostable at 40°C-90°C, confirming that it is a pH-stable and thermostable laccase. Furthermore, LacTT also exhibited high tolerance to halides such as NaCl, NaBr and NaF, and decolorized 100%, 94%, 94% and 73% of Congo Red, Reactive Black B and Reactive Black WNN, and Remazol Brilliant Blue R, respectively. Interestingly, addition of high concentration of NaCl increased the RBBR decolorization efficiency of LacTT. These results suggest that LacTT is a good candidate for industrial applications such as dyestuff processing and degradation of dyes in textile wastewaters.
Project description:A multicopper oxidase (IOX) produced by Iodidimonas sp. Q-1 has high catalytic efficiency for iodide (I-) oxidation to form molecular iodine (I2). In this study, the potential capacity of IOX for decolorization of recalcitrant dyes was determined. Although IOX did not decolorize any dyes in the absence of redox mediator, significant decolorization of Orange G, Indigo Carmine, Amido Black, and Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) was observed in the presence of iodide. Addition of 0.1?mM iodide was sufficient to decolorize a total of 3?mM Indigo Carmine, suggesting that iodide functions as a mediator. Such mediator-like function of iodide was not observed in commercially available fungal laccases. The IOX-iodide decolorization system showed much alkaline pH optima of 5.5-6.5 and stronger salt tolerance than fungal laccases did. In addition, actual wastewater discharged from a dyeing factory could be decolorized more than 50% by the system. Since iodide is naturally occurring, non-toxic, and cheaper than common synthetic mediators, the IOX-iodide system is potentially more advantageous than fungal laccase-mediator systems for decolorization of recalcitrant dyes.
Project description:A strain LN07 with high laccase yield was identified as basidiomycete fungus Lepista nuda from which a white laccase without type I copper was purified and characterized. The laccase was a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of 56 kDa. Its N-terminal amino acid sequence was AIGPAADLHIVNKDISPDGF. Besides, eight inner peptide sequences were determined and lac4, lac5 and lac6 sequences were in the Cu(2+) combination and conservation zones of laccases. HIV-1 reverse transcriptase was inhibited by the laccase with a half-inhibitory concentration of 0.65 ?M. Cu(2+) ions (1.5 mM) enhanced the laccase production and the optimal pH and temperature of the laccase were pH 3.0 and 50 °C, respectively. The Km and Vmax of the laccase using ABTS as substrate were respectively 0.19 mM and 195 ?M. Several dyes including laboratory dyes and textile dyes used in this study, such as Methyl red, Coomassie brilliant blue, Reactive brilliant blue and so on, were decolorized in different degrees by the purified laccase. By LC-MS analysis, Methyl red was structurally degraded by the laccase. Moreover, the laccase affected the absorbance at the maximum wavelength of many pesticides. Thus, the white laccase had potential commercial value for textile finishing and wastewater treatment.
Project description:The detail understanding of physiological/biochemical characteristics of individual laccase isoenzymes in fungi is necessary for fundamental and application purposes, but our knowledge is still limited for most of fungi due to difficult to express laccases heterologously. In this study, two novel laccase genes, named lac3 and lac4, encoding proteins of 547 and 532-amino acids preceded by 28 and 16-residue signal peptides, respectively, were cloned from the edible basidiomycete Coprinus comatus. They showed 70% identity but much lower homology with other fungal laccases at protein level (less than 58%). Two novel laccase isoenzymes were successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris by fusing an additional 10 amino acids (Thr-Pro-Phe-Pro-Pro-Phe-Asn-Thr-Asn-Ser) tag at N-terminus, and the volumetric activities could be dramatically enhanced from undetectable level to 689 and 1465 IU/l for Lac3 and Lac4, respectively. Both laccases possessed the lowest Km and highest kcat/Km value towards syringaldazine, followed by ABTS, guaiacol and 2,6-dimethylphenol similar as the low redox potential laccases from other microorganisms. Lac3 and Lac4 showed resistant to SDS, and retained 31.86% and 43.08% activity in the presence of 100 mM SDS, respectively. Lac3 exhibited higher decolorization efficiency than Lac4 for eleven out of thirteen different dyes, which may attribute to the relatively higher catalytic efficiency of Lac3 than Lac4 (in terms of kcat/Km) towards syringaldazine and ABTS. The mild synergistic decolorization by two laccases was observed for triphenylmethane dyes but not for anthraquinone and azo dyes.
Project description:Laccases (EC 126.96.36.199) are a class of multi-copper oxidases with important industrial values. A basidiomycete strain Cerrena sp. HYB07 with high laccase yield was identified. After cultivation in the shaking flask for 4 days, a maximal activity of 210.8 U mL(-1) was attained. A 58.6-kDa laccase (LacA) with 7.2% carbohydrate and a specific activity of 1952.4 U mg(-1) was purified. 2,2'-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) was the optimal substrate, with Km and kcat being 93.4 µM and 2468.0 s(-1), respectively. LacA was stable at 60°C, pH 5.0 and above, and in organic solvents. Metal ions Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Zn2+ enhanced LacA activity, while Fe2+ and Li+ inhibited LacA activity. LacA decolorized structurally different dyes and a real textile effluent. Its gene and cDNA sequences were obtained. Putative cis-acting transcriptional response elements were identified in the promoter region. The high production yield and activity, robustness and dye decolorizing capacity make LacA and Cerrena sp. HYB07 potentially useful for industrial and environmental applications such as textile finishing and wastewater treatment.
Project description:In the present study, Alcaligenes aquatilis was found to decolorize 82% Synazol red 6HBN after incubation of 4 days at 37 °C and pH 7. Maximum decolorization was found under static conditions by using saw dust and yeast extract as carbon and nitrogen source. It also showed promising potential to decolorize mixture of multiple dyes at a rate of more than 86% in 5 days. Decolorization of dye had positive influence on the growth of bacterium as growth rate was increased along with decolorization. The cleavage of azo bond was confirmed through TLC, HPLC and GC-MS analysis. The dye metabolites produced during bacterial treatment are linked to various pathways including ATP synthesis process. The absence of peaks of wavelength 1612/cm and 1532/cm in bacterially treated FTIR sample demonstrated the cleavage of azo bond. Microbial growth in decolorized dye wastewater shows that bacterially decolorized wastewater is unharmful for the growth of micro-flora. The high decolorization ability of A. aquatilis 3c to convert toxic azo dyes into useful end products may find potential applications in the environmental biotechnology.
Project description:Many dyes and pigments are used in textile and printing industries, and their wastewater has been classed as a top source of pollution. Biodegradation of dyes by fungal laccase has great potential. In this work, the influence of reaction time, pH, temperature, dye concentration, metal ions, and mediators on laccase-catalyzed Remazol Brilliant Blue R dye (RBBR) decolorization were investigated in vitro using crude laccase from the white-rot fungus Ganoderma lucidum. The optimal decolorization percentage (50.3%) was achieved at 35 °C, pH 4.0, and 200 ppm RBBR in 30 min. The mediator effects from syringaldehyde, 1-hydroxybenzotriazole, and vanillin were compared, and 0.1 mM vanillin was found to obviously increase the decolorization percentage of RBBR to 98.7%. Laccase-mediated decolorization percentages significantly increased in the presence of 5 mM Na+ and Cu2+, and decolorization percentages reached 62.4% and 62.2%, respectively. Real-time fluorescence-quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) and protein mass spectrometry results showed that among the 15 laccase isoenzyme genes, Glac1 was the main laccase-contributing gene, contributing the most to the laccase enzyme activity and decolorization process. These results also indicate that under optimal conditions, G. lucidum laccases, especially Glac1, have a strong potential to remove RBBR from reactive dye effluent.
Project description:An anaerobic sludge (AS), capable of decolorizing a variety of synthetic dyes, was acclimated and is reported here. The sludge presented a much better dye decolorizing ability than that of different individual strains. A broad spectrum of dyes could be decolorized by the sludge. Continuous decolorization tests showed that the sludge exhibited the ability to decolorize repeated additions of dye. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate of the dye wastewater reached 52% after 12 h of incubation. Polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) profiles revealed that the microbial community changed as a result of varying initial concentrations of dyes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that microbial populations in the sludge belonged to the phyla Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi and Proteobacteria. The degradation products of the three types of dye were identified. For azo dyes, the anaerobic sludge converted Methyl Orange to N,N-dimethylbenzene-1,4-diamine and 4-aminobenzenesulfonic acid; for triphenylmethane dyes, after Malachite Green was decolorized, the analyzed products were found to be a mixture of N,N-dimethylbenzenamine, 3-dimethyl-aminophenol and 4-dimethylaminobenzophenone; for anthraquinone dyes, two products (acetophenone and 2-methylbenzoic acid) were observed after Reactive Blue 19 decolorization. Together, these results suggest that the anaerobic sludge has promising potential for use in the treatment of industrial wastewater containing various types of dyes.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Synthetic dyes are recalcitrant to degradation and toxic to different organisms. Decolorization of textile wastewaters is one of the major concerns since last decades. Physical-chemical treatments are very expensive and frequently producing large amounts of toxic wastes. Biological treatments can be more convenient. In the present study, an attempt has been made for decolorization of azo dyes using microbial process. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Screening of microorganisms capable of azo dye decolorization was performed from activated sludge. The decolorization of various dyes (Reactive Black 5, Reactive Orange 16, Reactive Red 198, Direct Blue 71, Direct Yellow 12 and Direct Black 22) was determined by measuring the absorbance of culture supernatant at their ?max. Culture supernatants were also analyzed for UV-Vis absorption between 200-800 nm. The effect of aeration, temperature, different concentrations of glucose and NaCl was studied with an aim to determine the optimal conditions required for maximum decolorization. RESULTS:The yeast (strain JKS4) which had high ability to decolorize different azo dyes was isolated. Under aerobic condition, the yeast strain showed 85.7% of decolorization at 200 mg/l Reactive Black 5 (as a model azo dye), 1% (w/v) glucose concentration and 35°C after 24 h. All the examined dyes were extensively decolorized (53.35-97.9%) after 24 h. With elongated incubation period, complete decolorization was observed in presence of all dyes. From the physiological properties and phylogenetic analysis based on the 26S rDNA sequences, strain JKS4 was classified into Candida palmioleophila. CONCLUSIONS:Because of high decolorizing activity against various azo dyes commonly used in the textile industries, it is proposed that the isolated yeast may have a practical application in the biotransformation of various dye effluents.