Preparative separation of spirobisnaphthalenes from endophytic fungus Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12 by high-speed counter-current chromatography.
ABSTRACT: High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was applied for the first time for the preparative separation of spirobisnaphthalenes from a crude extract of the endophytic fungus Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12, associated with the medicinal plant Dioscorea zingiberensis. Six spirobisnaphthalenes were successfully separated by HSCCC with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-chloroform-methanol-water (1.5:3.0:2.5:2.0, v/v). About 18.0 mg of diepoxin ? (1), 245.7 mg of palmarumycin C13 (2), 42.4 mg of palmarumycin C16 (3), 42.2 mg of palmarumycin C15 (4), 32.6 mg of diepoxin ? (5), and 22.3 mg of diepoxin ? (6) with purities of 56.82, 71.39, 76.57, 75.86, 91.01 and 82.48%, respectively, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), were obtained from 500 mg of the crude extract in a one-step elution within 7 h of separation procedure by HSCCC. The purified spirobisnaphthalenes were further structurally characterized by means of physicochemical and spectrometric analysis.
Project description:The endophytic fungus Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12, isolated from Dioscorea zingiberensis, was found to produce palmarumycins C12 and C13 which possess a great variety of biological activities. Seven biocompatible water-immiscible organic solvents including n-dodecane, n-hexadecane, 1-hexadecene, liquid paraffin, dibutyl phthalate, butyl oleate and oleic acid were evaluated to improve palmarumycins C12 and C13 production in suspension culture of Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12. Among the chosen solvents both butyl oleate and liquid paraffin were the most effective to improve palmarumycins C12 and C13 production. The addition of dibutyl phthalate, butyl oleate and oleic acid to the cultures of Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12 significantly enhanced palmarumycin C12 production by adsorbing palmarumycin C12 into the organic phase. When butyl oleate was fed at 5% (v/v) in medium at the beginning of fermentation (day 0), the highest palmarumycin C12 yield (191.6 mg/L) was achieved, about a 34.87-fold increase in comparison with the control (5.3 mg/L). n-Dodecane, 1-hexadecene and liquid paraffin had a great influence on the production of palmarumycin C13. When liquid paraffin was added at 10% (v/v) in medium on day 3 of fermentation, the palmarumycin C13 yield reached a maximum value (134.1 mg/L), which was 4.35-fold that of the control (30.8 mg/L). Application of the aqueous-organic solvent system should be a simple and efficient process strategy for enhancing palmarumycin C12 and C13 production in liquid cultures of the endophytic fungus Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12.
Project description:Three crude oligosaccharides were respectively prepared by acid hydrolysis of three polysaccharides, which were water-extracted polysaccharide (WEP), sodium hydroxide-extracted polysaccharide (SEP) and acid-extracted polysaccharide (AEP) from the rhizomes of Dioscorea zingiberensis. Among the three oligosaccharides, the crude oligosaccharide prepared by acid hydrolysis of WEP was found to be the most efficient elicitor to enhance the production of palmarumycins C(12) and C(13) in liquid culture of endophytic fungus Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12. When OW was applied to the medium at 300 mg/L on day 3 of culture, the maximal yields of palmarumycin C(12) (87.96 mg/L) and palmarumycin C(13) (422.28 mg/L) were achieved on day 15 of culture, which were 9.83 and 3.24-fold in comparison with those (8.95 and 130.43 mg/L) of control, respectively. The results indicate that addition of the oligosaccharides from the host plant D. zingiberensis should be an effective strategy for enhancing production of palmarumycins C(12) and C(13) in liquid culture of endophytic fungus Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12.
Project description:The influences of eight metal ions (i.e., Na+, Ca2+, Ag+, Co2+, Cu2+, Al3+, Zn2+, and Mn4+) on mycelia growth and palmarumycins C(12) and C(13) production in liquid culture of the endophytic fungus Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12 were investigated. Three metal ions, Ca2+, Cu2+ and Al3+ were exhibited as the most effective to enhance mycelia growth and palmarumycin production. When calcium ion (Ca2+) was applied to the medium at 10.0 mmol/L on day 3, copper ion (Cu2+) to the medium at 1.0 mmol/L on day 3, aluminum ion (Al3+) to the medium at 2.0 mmol/L on day 6, the maximal yields of palmarumycins C(12) plus C(13) were obtained as 137.57 mg/L, 146.28 mg/L and 156.77 mg/L, which were 3.94-fold, 4.19-fold and 4.49-fold in comparison with that (34.91 mg/L) of the control, respectively. Al3+ favored palmarumycin C(12) production when its concentration was higher than 4 mmol/L. Ca2+ had an improving effect on mycelia growth of Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12. The combination effects of Ca2+, Cu2+ and Al3+ on palmarumycin C(13) production were further studied by employing a statistical method based on the central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM). By solving the quadratic regression equation between palmarumycin C(13) and three metal ions, the optimal concentrations of Ca2+, Cu2+ and Al3+ in medium for palmarumycin C(13) production were determined as 7.58, 1.36 and 2.05 mmol/L, respectively. Under the optimum conditions, the predicted maximum palmarumycin C(13) yield reached 208.49 mg/L. By optimizing the combination of Ca2+, Cu2+ and Al3+ in medium, palmarumycin C(13) yield was increased to 203.85 mg/L, which was 6.00-fold in comparison with that (33.98 mg/L) in the original basal medium. The results indicate that appropriate metal ions (i.e., Ca2+, Cu2+ and Al3+) could enhance palmarumycin production. Application of the metal ions should be an effective strategy for palmarumycin production in liquid culture of the endophytic fungus Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12.
Project description:Two spirobisnaphthalenes, namely palmarumycins C2 and C3, were isolated from cultures of the endophytic fungus Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12 after treatment with 1-hexadecene. After addition of 1-hexadecene at 10% to the medium on day 6 of culture, the maximal yields of palmarumycins C2 and C3 were obtained as 0.40 g/L and 1.19 g/L, which were 40.00 fold and 59.50 fold higher, respectively, in comparison with those of the control (0.01 g/L and 0.02 g/L). The results indicated that addition of 1-hexadecene can be an effective strategy for enhancing the production of palmarumycins C2 and C3 in liquid culture of endophytic fungus Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12. Palmarumycin C3 exhibited stronger antimicrobial and antioxidant activities than palmarumycin C2.
Project description:Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12, an endophytic fungus from Dioscorea zingiberensis, is a high producer of spirobisnaphthalenes with various bioactivities. The exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by this fungus also shows excellent antioxidant activity. In this study, the experimental designs based on statistics were employed to evaluate and optimize the medium for EPS production in liquid culture of Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12. For increasing EPS yield, the concentrations of glucose, peptone, KH(2)PO(4), MgSO(4)·7H(2)O and FeSO(4)·7H(2)O in medium were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Both the fractional factorial design (FFD) and central composite design (CCD) were applied to optimize the main factors which significantly affected EPS production. The concentrations of glucose, peptone and MgSO(4)·7H(2)O were found to be the main effective factors for EPS production by FFD experimental analysis. Based on the further CCD optimization and RSM analysis, a quadratic polynomial regression equation was derived from the EPS yield and three variables. Statistical analysis showed the polynomial regression model was in good agreement with the experimental results with the determination coefficient (adj-R(2)) as 0.9434. By solving the quadratic regression equation, the optimal concentrations of glucose, peptone and MgSO(4)·7H(2)O for EPS production were determined as 63.80, 20.76 and 2.74 g/L, respectively. Under the optimum conditions, the predicted EPS yield reached the maximum (13.22 g/L). Verification experiment confirmed the validity with the actual EPS yield as 13.97 g/L, which was 6.29-fold in comparison with that (2.22 g/L) in the original basal medium. The results provide the support data for EPS production in large scale and also speed up the application of Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12.
Project description:This study was to examine the effects of yeast extract (YE) and its fractions (YE1 and YE2) on the growth and diepoxin ζ (a spirobisnaphthalene with a diversity of bioactivities) production in liquid culture of Berkleasmium-like endophytic fungus Dzf12 from Dioscorea zingiberensis. When YE was applied to the liquid medium at 10 g/L on day 3 of culture, the diepoxin ζ production was most effectively enhanced 3.2-fold (378.70 mg/L versus 120.09 mg/L in control) after another 10 days culture. Feeding with 15 g/L of YE on day 9, the mycelia biomass reached 16.44 g/L, about 2.3-fold in comparison with the control (7.15 g/L). The polysaccharide fraction (YE1) was mainly responsible for stimulating diepoxin ζ accumulation, and the non-polysaccharide fraction (YE2) was mainly responsible for promoting mycelia growth. The results showed that the diepoxin ζ production in liquid culture of endophyte Dzf12 could be effectively enhanced by YE and its fractions.
Project description:Berkleasmium is a polyphyletic genus comprising 37 dematiaceous hyphomycetous species. In this study, independent collections of the type species, B. concinnum, were made from Eastern North America. Nuclear internal transcribed spacer rDNA (ITS) and partial nuc 28S large subunit rDNA (LSU) sequences obtained from collections and subsequent cultures showed that Berkleasmium concinnum is the asexual morph of Neoacanthostigma septoconstrictum (Tubeufiaceae, Tubeufiales). Phylogenies inferred from Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analyses of ITS-LSU sequence data confirmed this asexual-sexual morph connection and a re-examination of fungarium reference specimens also revealed the co-occurrence of N. septoconstrictum ascomata and B. concinnum sporodochia. Neoacanthostigma septoconstrictum is therefore synonymized under B. concinnum on the basis of priority. A specimen identified as N. septoconstrictum from Thailand is described as N. thailandicum sp. nov., based on morphological and genetic distinctiveness.
Project description:Ustilaginoidins are bis-naphtho-?-pyrone mycotoxins isolated from the rice false smut balls (FSBs) infected by the pathogen Villosiclava virens in rice spikelets on panicles. In order to obtain large amounts of pure ustilaginoidins to further evaluate their biological activities and functions, phytotoxicity on rice, security to human and animals as well as to accelerate their applications as pharmaceuticals, preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was successfully applied to the isolation and purification of seven bis-naphtho-?-pyrone mycotoxins, namely ustilaginoidins A (1), G (2), B (3), H (4), I (5), C (6), and J (7) from the ethyl acetate crude extract of rice FSBs. Both 1 and 2 were prepared by HSCCC from the low-polarity fraction of the crude extract using the two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water at the volume ratio of 6.5:3.5:5.0:5.0. Similarly, 3, 4 and 5 were prepared from the medium-polarity fraction using the system at the volume ratio of 4.0:5.0:5.0:6.0, and 6 and 7 were prepared from the higher-polarity fraction using the system at volume ratio of 3.0:5.0:4.0:6.7. A total of 6.2 mg of 1, 5.1 mg of 2, 3.9 mg of 3, 1.2 mg of 4, 5.7 mg of 5, 3.5 mg of 6, and 6.1 mg of 7 with purities of 88%, 82%, 91%, 80%, 92%, 81% and 83%, respectively, were yielded from total 62 mg fraction samples in three independent HSCCC runs. The structures of the purified ustilaginoidins were characterized by means of physicochemical and spectrometric analysis.
Project description:The typical compounds of Aurantii fructus (AF) reported in previous research were screened for their high antagonistic ability on the D? dopamine receptor (D?R) in silico, and then bioactivity-guided separation was undertaken on the potential D?R antagonists from AF using high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). Three flavanones, two polymethoxyflavonoids, and three coumarins were effectively isolated from ethanol extracts of Aurantii fructus (AF) by the use of a two-step HSCCC method, and their chemical structures were identified by mass spectrometry, ¹H-NMR, and 13C-NMR and compared with published data. Firstly, crude extract of 70% ethanol eluent (150 mg) was isolated by HSCCC using an n-hexane-ethyl acetate-n-butanol-methanol-0.05% acetic acid (1:3:1.8:1:5, v/v/v/v/v) solvent system, and compounds 1 (naringin, 28 mg), 2 (neohesperidin, 13 mg), 3 (meranzin, 5 mg) and 4 (poncirin, 3 mg) were successfully isolated with 98.5%, 95.1%, 97.7%, and 92.4% purity, respectively. Then, the crude extract of 95% ethanol eluent (120 mg) was isolated by n-hexane-n-butanol-ethanol (methanol)-0.05% acetic acid (2:0.6:1:3, v/v/v/v) solvent system and compounds 3 (meranzin, 3 mg), 5 (meranzin hydrate, 4 mg), 6 (isomeranzin, 6 mg), 7 (nobiletin, 10 mg), and 8 (tangeretin, 7 mg) were successfully isolated with 95.8%, 98.5%, 95.1%, 92.4%, and 97.7% purity, respectively. Naringenin, a parent structure of naringin with the excellent binding score of -9.3 kcal/mol, was completely in conjunction with the active site of D?R, indicating that it is critical for the treatment of gastrointestinal dysfunction. The results indicated that the bioactivity-guided method is practical for the effective separation of active compounds from natural resources.
Project description:An efficient strategy was developed for the rapid separation and enrichment of bafilomycin A1 (baf A1) from a crude extract of the marine microorganism Streptomyces lohii fermentation. This strategy comprises liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with a three-phase solvent system (n-hexane-ethyl acetate-acetonitrile-water = 7:3:5:5, v/v/v/v) followed by separation using high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The results showed that a 480.2-mg fraction of baf A1-enriched extract in the middle phase of the three-phase solvent system was prepared from 4.9 g of crude extract after two consecutive one-step operations. Over 99% of soybean oil, the main hydrophobic waste in the crude extract, and the majority of hydrophilic impurities were distributed in the upper and lower phase, respectively. HSCCC was used with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-acetonitrile-water (15:8:12, v/v/v) to isolate and purify baf A1 from the middle phase fraction, which yielded 77.4 mg of baf A1 with > 95% purity within 90 min. The overall recovery of baf A1 in the process was determined to be 95.7%. The use of a three-phase solvent system represents a novel strategy for the simultaneous removal of hydrophobic oil and hydrophilic impurities from a microbial fermentation extract.