Article expression, purification, and characterization of Cu/ZnSOD from Panax ginseng.
ABSTRACT: Superoxide dismutase (SOD) has a strong antioxidant effect, but the traditional SOD extraction method is not the most efficient method of SOD amplification. In this study, we report the cloning of the Cu/ZnSOD gene from Panax ginseng into a temperature-regulated expression plasmid, pBV220. Cu/ZnSOD inclusion bodies were expressed in E. coli at a high level. Then, the inclusion bodies were purified by ion-exchange chromatography and molecular sieve chromatography. Finally, we obtained stable SOD in the bacterial broth, with a protein content of 965 mg/L and enzyme specific activity of 9389.96 U/mg. These results provide a foundation for future studies on the antioxidant mechanisms of ginseng and the development and application of ginseng Cu/ZnSOD.
Project description:As the first defence for cells to counteract the toxicity of active oxygen, superoxide dismutase (SOD) plays an important role in the response of living organisms to stress and cell differentiation. One extracellular Cu-ZnSOD (ecCu-ZnSOD), and two MnSODs, were identified based on the Volvariella volvacea genome sequence. All three genes have complicated alternative splicing modes during transcription; only when the fourth intron is retained can the Vv_Cu-Znsod1 gene be translated into a protein sequence with SOD functional domains. The expression levels of the three sod genes in the pilei are higher than in the stipe. The Vv_Cu-Znsod1 and the Vv_Mnsod2 are co-expressed in different developmental stages of the fruiting body, with the highest level of expression in the pilei of the egg stage, and they show a significant, positive correlation with the efficiency of karyogamy, indicating the potential role of these two genes during karyogamy. The expression of the ecCu-Znsod and two Vv_Mnsod genes showed a significant up-regulated when treated by cold stress for one hour; however, the lack of the intracellular Cu-ZnSOD encoding gene (icCu-Znsod) and the special locus of the ecCu-Znsod gene initiation codon suggested a possible reason for the autolysis phenomenon of V. volvacea in cold conditions.
Project description:Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are key antioxidant enzymes that can detoxify the superoxide radicals generated by various stresses. Although various plant SODs have been suggested to improve stress tolerance, SODs in garlic, an economically important vegetable grown worldwide, remain relatively unknown. In this study, we found that heat stress strongly induced the activities of Cu/ZnSODs, FeSODs, and MnSODs in garlic leaves. In addition, we cloned four garlic <i>SODs</i> (<i>AsSODs</i>) and suggest that heat stress-increased SOD activity was reflected at least by the induction of these <i>AsSODs</i>. The results of the agro-infiltration assay suggested that the cloned <i>AsSODs</i> encoded functional SOD enzymes belonging to the Cu/ZnSOD and MnSOD families. As a first step toward understanding the enzymatic antioxidant system in garlic plants, our results provide a solid foundation for an in-depth analysis of the physiological functions of the AsSOD family.
Project description:Aflatoxin contamination of crops is a worldwide problem, and elucidation of the regulatory mechanism of aflatoxin production, for example relative to the oxidative?antioxidative system, is needed. Studies have shown that oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species promotes aflatoxin production. However, superoxide has been suggested to have the opposite effect. Here, we investigated the effects of the superoxide generator, paraquat, and externally added superoxide dismutase (SOD) on aflatoxin production in <i>Aspergillus flavus</i>. Paraquat with an IC<sub>50</sub> value of 54.9 µM inhibited aflatoxin production without affecting fungal growth. It increased cytosolic and mitochondrial superoxide levels and downregulated the transcription of aflatoxin biosynthetic cluster genes, including <i>aflR</i>, a key regulatory protein. The addition of bovine Cu/ZnSOD to the culture medium suppressed the paraquat-induced increase in superoxide levels, but it did not fully restore paraquat-inhibited aflatoxin production because bovine Cu/ZnSOD with an IC<sub>50</sub> value of 17.9 µg/mL itself inhibited aflatoxin production. Externally added bovine Cu/ZnSOD increased the SOD activity in fungal cell extracts and upregulated the transcription of genes encoding Cu/ZnSOD and alcohol dehydrogenase. These results suggest that intracellular accumulation of superoxide impairs aflatoxin production by downregulating <i>aflR</i> expression, and that externally added Cu/ZnSOD also suppresses aflatoxin production by a mechanism other than canonical superoxide elimination activity.
Project description:2-Mercaptobenzimidazole (MBI) is widely utilized as a corrosion inhibitor, copper-plating brightener and rubber accelerator. The residue of MBI in the environment is potentially harmful. In the present work, the toxic interaction of MBI with the important antioxidant enzyme copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD) was investigated using spectroscopic and molecular docking methods. MBI can interact with Cu/ZnSOD to form an MBI-Cu/ZnSOD complex. The binding constant, number of binding sites and thermodynamic parameters were measured, which indicated that MBI could spontaneously bind with Cu/ZnSOD with one binding site through hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces. MBI bound into the Cu/ZnSOD interface of two subdomains, which caused some microenvironmental and secondary structure changes of Cu/ZnSOD and further resulted in the inhibition of Cu/ZnSOD activity. This work provides direct evidence at a molecular level to show that exposure to MBI could induce changes in the structure and function of the enzyme Cu/ZnSOD. The estimated methods in this work may be applied to probe molecular interactions of biomacromolecules and other pollutants and drugs.
Project description:A genome-wide investigation of the anhydrobiotic cyanobacterium <i>Chroococcidiopsis</i> sp. CCMEE 029 identified three genes coding superoxide dismutases (SODs) annotated as MnSODs (SodA2.1 and SodA2.2) and Cu/ZnSOD (SodC) as suggested by the presence of metal-binding motifs and conserved sequences. Structural bioinformatics analysis of the retrieved sequences yielded modeled MnSODs and Cu/ZnSOD structures that were fully compatible with their functional role. A <i>signal</i>-<i>peptide bioinformatics</i> prediction identified a Tat signal peptide at the N-terminus of the SodA2.1 that highlighted its transport across the thylakoid/cytoplasmic membranes and release in the periplasm/thylakoid lumen. Homologs of the Tat transport system were identified in <i>Chroococcidiopsis</i> sp. CCMEE 029, and the molecular docking simulation confirmed the interaction between the signal peptide of the SodA2.1 and the modeled TatC receptor, thus supporting the SodA2.1 translocation across the thylakoid/cytoplasmic membranes. No signal peptide was predicted for the MnSOD (SodA2.2) and Cu/ZnSOD, thus suggesting their occurrence as cytoplasmic proteins. No FeSOD homologs were identified in <i>Chroococcidiopsis</i> sp. CCMEE 029, a feature that might contribute to its desiccation tolerance since iron produces hydroxyl radical <i>via</i> the Fenton reaction. The overall-overexpression in response to desiccation of the three identified SOD-coding genes highlighted the role of SODs in the antioxidant enzymatic defense of this anhydrobiotic cyanobacterium. The periplasmic MnSOD protected the cell envelope against oxidative damage, the MnSOD localized in the thylakoid lumen scavengered superoxide anion radical produced during the photosynthesis, while the cytoplasmic MnSOD and Cu/ZnSOD reinforced the defense against reactive oxygen species generated at the onset of desiccation. Results contribute to decipher the desiccation-tolerance mechanisms of this cyanobacterium and allow the investigation of its oxidative stress response during future space experiments in low Earth orbit and beyond.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The Copper/Zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD) gene, SOD gene, was isolated from a Deschampsia antarctica Desv. by cDNA library screening. The expression of SOD gene in the leaves of D. antarctica was determined by RT-PCR and its differential expression of gene transcripts in conditions of cold and UV radiation stresses was revealed by northern blot. FINDINGS: The molecular characterization shows that SOD cDNA is 709 bp in length, which translates an ORF of 152 amino acids that correspond to a protein of predicted molecular mass of 15 kDa. The assay shows that the expression of SOD gene increases when D. antarctica is acclimatised to 4 degrees C and exposed to UV radiation. These results indicate that the SOD gene of D. antarctica is involved in the antioxidative process triggered by oxidative stress induced by the conditions of environmental change in which they live. CONCLUSION: The present results allow us to know the characteristics of Cu/ZnSOD gene from D. antarctica and understand that its expression is regulated by cold and UV radiation.
Project description:The blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, which uses the copper-dependent protein haemocyanin for oxygen transport, lacks the ubiquitous cytosolic copper-dependent enzyme copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu,ZnSOD) as evidenced by undetectable levels of Cu,ZnSOD activity, protein and mRNA in the hepatopancreas (the site of haemocyanin synthesis) and gills. Instead, the crab has an unusual cytosolic manganese SOD (cytMnSOD), which is retained in the cytosol, because it lacks a mitochondrial transit peptide. A second familiar MnSOD is present in the mitochondria (mtMnSOD). This unique phenomenon occurs in all Crustacea that use haemocyanin for oxygen transport. Molecular phylogeny analysis suggests the MnSOD gene duplication is as old as the origin of the arthropod phylum. cytMnSOD activity in the hepatopancreas changes during the moulting cycle of the crab. Activity is high in intermoult crabs and non-detectable in postmoult papershell crabs. mtMnSOD is present in all stages of the moulting cycle. Despite the lack of cytCu,ZnSOD, crabs have an extracellular Cu,ZnSOD (ecCu,ZnSOD) that is produced by haemocytes, and is part of a large, approx. 160 kDa, covalently-linked protein complex. ecCu,ZnSOD is absent from the hepatopancreas of intermoult crabs, but appears in this tissue at premoult. However, no ecCu,ZnSOD mRNA can be detected, suggesting that the protein is recruited from the haemolymph. Screening of different taxa of the arthropod phylum for Cu,ZnSOD activity shows that those crustaceans that use haemoglobin for oxygen transport have retained cytCu,ZnSOD. It appears, therefore, that the replacement of cytCu,ZnSOD with cytMnSOD is part of an adaptive response to the dynamic, haemocyanin-linked, fluctuations in copper metabolism that occur during the moulting cycle of the crab.
Project description:The leader sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu,ZnSOD) contains a prokaryotic membrane lipoprotein attachment site. In the present study, we have found that the protein, which exhibits detectable SOD activity, is lipid-modified and associated with the bacterial membrane when expressed either in M. tuberculosis or in Escherichia coli. These results provide the first demonstration of lipid modification of a Cu,ZnSOD. An analysis of the sodC genes present in available databases indicates that the same signal for lipid modification is also present in the sodC gene products from other mycobacteria and Gram-positive bacteria and, uniquely, in two distinct sodC gene products from the Gram-negative bacterium Salmonella typhimurium. Evidence is also provided for an up-regulation of M. tuberculosis sodC in response to phagocytosis by human macrophages, suggesting that Cu,ZnSOD is involved in the mechanisms that facilitate mycobacterial intracellular growth.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Superoxide dismutases (SOD) are ubiquitous metalloenzymes that catalyze the disproportion of superoxide to peroxide and molecular oxygen through alternate oxidation and reduction of their metal ions. In general, SODs are classified into four forms by their catalytic metals namely; FeSOD, MnSOD, Cu/ZnSOD and NiSOD. In addition, a cambialistic form that uses Fe/Mn in its active site also exists. Cyanobacteria, the oxygen evolving photosynthetic prokaryotes, produce reactive oxygen species that can damage cellular components leading to cell death. Thus, the co-evolution of an antioxidant system was necessary for the survival of photosynthetic organisms with SOD as the initial enzyme evolved to alleviate the toxic effect. Cyanobacteria represent the first oxygenic photoautotrophs and their SOD sequences available in the databases lack clear annotation. Hence, the present study focuses on structure and sequence pattern of subsets of cyanobacterial superoxide dismutases. RESULT: The sequence conservation and structural analysis of Fe (Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP1) and MnSOD (Anabaena sp. PCC7120) reveal the sharing of N and C terminal domains. At the C terminal domain, the metal binding motif in cyanoprokaryotes is DVWEHAYY while it is D-X-[WF]-E-H-[STA]-[FY]-[FY] in other pro- and eukaryotes. The cyanobacterial FeSOD differs from MnSOD at least in three ways viz. (i) FeSOD has a metal specific signature F184X3A188Q189.......T280......F/Y303 while, in Mn it is R184X3G188G189......G280......W303, (ii) aspartate ligand forms a hydrogen bond from the active site with the outer sphere residue of W243 in Fe where as it is Q262 in MnSOD; and (iii) two unique lysine residues at positions 201 and 255 with a photosynthetic role, found only in FeSOD. Further, most of the cyanobacterial Mn metalloforms have a specific transmembrane hydrophobic pocket that distinguishes FeSOD from Mn isoform. Cyanobacterial Cu/ZnSOD has a copper domain and two different signatures G-F-H-[ILV]-H-x-[NGT]-[GPDA]-[SQK]-C and G-[GA]-G-G-[AEG]-R-[FIL]-[AG]-C-G, while Ni isoform has an nickel containing SOD domain containing a Ni-hook HCDGPCVYDPA. CONCLUSION: The present analysis unravels the ambiguity among cyanobacterial SOD isoforms. NiSOD is the only SOD found in lower forms; whereas, Fe and Mn occupy the higher orders of cyanobacteria. In conclusion, cyanobacteria harbor either Ni alone or a combination of Fe and Ni or Fe and Mn as their catalytic active metal while Cu/Zn is rare.
Project description:The discovery of superoxide dismutases (SODs), which convert superoxide radicals to molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide, has been termed the most important discovery of modern biology never to win a Nobel Prize. Here, we review the reasons this discovery has been underappreciated, as well as discuss the robust results supporting its premier biological importance and utility for current research. We highlight our understanding of SOD function gained through structural biology analyses, which reveal important hydrogen-bonding schemes and metal-binding motifs. These structural features create remarkable enzymes that promote catalysis at faster than diffusion-limited rates by using electrostatic guidance. These architectures additionally alter the redox potential of the active site metal center to a range suitable for the superoxide disproportionation reaction and protect against inhibition of catalysis by molecules such as phosphate. SOD structures may also control their enzymatic activity through product inhibition; manipulation of these product inhibition levels has the potential to generate therapeutic forms of SOD. Markedly, structural destabilization of the SOD architecture can lead to disease, as mutations in Cu,ZnSOD may result in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a relatively common, rapidly progressing and fatal neurodegenerative disorder. We describe our current understanding of how these Cu,ZnSOD mutations may lead to aggregation/fibril formation, as a detailed understanding of these mechanisms provides new avenues for the development of therapeutics against this so far untreatable neurodegenerative pathology.