Monoamine oxidase inhibitory constituents of propolis: kinetics and mechanism of inhibition of recombinant human MAO-A and MAO-B.
ABSTRACT: Propolis is the resinous material that bees gather from leaf buds, flowers and vegetables. Propolis extracts contain constituents with a broad spectra of pharmacological properties and are important ingredients of popular dietary supplements. Propolis extracts were evaluated in vitro for inhibition of recombinant human monoamine oxidase (MAO)-A and MAO-B. The dichloromethane extract of propolis showed potent inhibition of human MAO-A and MAO-B. Further fractionation identified the most active fractions as rich in flavonoids. Galangin and apigenin were identified as the principal MAO-inhibitory constituents. Inhibition of MAO-A by galangin was about 36 times more selective than MAO-B, while apigenin selectivity for MAO-A vs. MAO-B was about 1.7 fold. Apigenin inhibited MAO-B significantly more potently than galangin. Galangin and apigenin were further evaluated for kinetic characteristics and the mechanism for the enzymes' inhibition. Binding of galangin and apigenin with MAO-A and -B was not time-dependent and was reversible, as suggested by enzyme-inhibitor binding and dissociation-dialysis assay. The inhibition kinetics studies suggested that galangin and apigenin inhibited MAO-A and -B by a competitive mechanism. Presence of prominent MAO inhibitory constituents in propolis products suggests their potential for eliciting pharmacological effects that might be useful in depression or other neurological disorders. The results may also have important implications in drug-dietary supplement interactions.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Propolis is a resinous product accumulated from several plant sources that possess a wide range of therapeutic properties, including anti-cancer activities. However, the role of honeybee-produced propolis on head and neck squamous carcinoma (HNSCC) is not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of <i>Apis mellifera</i> propolis on apoptosis and invasiveness in HNSCC cell lines.<h4>Methods</h4>Ethyl acetate extract of propolis (EAEP) was prepared from <i>A. mellifera</i> beehives using liquid-liquid extraction. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS) was used to determine the flavonoids in EAEP. Isogenic HNSCC cell lines derived from primary (HN30 and HN4) and metastatic site (HN31 and HN12) were used in this study. The cytotoxicity, apoptosis, invasion, and MMP activity of EAEP on HNSCC cells were determined using an MTT assay, flow cytometry, Matrigel invasion assay, and gelatinase zymography, respectively.<h4>Results</h4>We found that EAEP exhibited cytotoxic activity and induced apoptosis in the HNSCC cell lines. Furthermore, EAEP significantly decreased HNSCC cell invasion by reducing MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity. Two flavonoids, galangin and apigenin, were identified in EAEP by HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS. The results suggest that EAEP promotes apoptosis and exerts anti-invasion potential by inhibiting MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in HNSCC cell lines. These inhibitory effects may be mediated by galangin and apigenin.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Propolis (bee glue) is a resinous honeybee product having a long history of application in many countries as a traditional remedy for treating wounds, burns, soar throat, stomach disorders, etc. It has been proved to possess beneficial biological effects, including antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, antiulcer, and many others. Bees gather propolis from diverse resinous plant parts and in different phytogeographic regions its chemical composition might vary significantly. In this article we report the results of the first study on the chemical profiles of propolis from Oman, its plant origin and antibacterial activity.<h4>Results</h4>The chemical profiles of Omani propolis extracts were obtained by GC-MS analysis after silylation. Over 50 individual compounds were identified in the samples, belonging to different compound types: sugars, polyols, hydroxy acids, fatty acids, cardanols and cardols, anacardic acids, flavan derivatives, triterpenes, prenylated flavanones and chalcones. The profiles were dissimilar from other known propolis types. They demonstrate that although Oman is not a large country, the plant sources of propolis vary significantly, even in the same apiary and the same season. Based on chemical profiles, and isolation and identification of major marker compounds (new propolis constituents), new plant sources of propolis were found: Azadiracta indica (neem tree) and Acacia spp. (most probably A. nilotica). The ethanol extracts of the studied propolis samples demonstrated activity against S. aureus (MIC?<?100 ?g. mL-1) and E. coli (MIC?<?380 ?g. mL-1).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Omani propolis is different form the known propolis types and demonstrates significant chemical diversity. Its most important plant source is the resin of Azadirachta indica, and as a result its typical components are ?5-prenyl flavanones. Other plant sources have been identified, too, playing some role in resin collection by bees in Oman: Acacia spp. (most probably A. nilotica) and Mangifera indica. The results demonstrate also the potential of Omani propolis as antimicrobial.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In the search for novel antidepressive drug candidates, bioguided fractionation of nonpolar constituents present in the oleoresin from ginger rhizomes (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae) was performed. This particular direction of the research was chosen due to the existing reports on the antidepressive properties of ginger total extract. The search for individual metabolites acting as MAO-A inhibitors, which correspond to the apparent effect of the total extract, is the subject of this work. METHODS:Hexane extracts from ginger rhizomes were fractionated by using column chromatography (including silica gel impregnated with silver nitrate) and semi-preparative high-performance chromatography. For the activity assessment, an in vitro monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) inhibition luminescence assay was performed on 10 purified terpenes: 1,8-cineole, α-citronellal, geraniol, β-sesquiphellandrene, γ-terpinen, geranyl acetate, isobornyl acetate, terpinen-4-ol, (E,E)-α-farnesene, and α-zingiberene. RESULTS:Geraniol and (-)-terpinen-4-ol were found to be the strongest enzyme inhibitors with inhibition of 44.1% and 42.5%, respectively, at a concentration of 125 µg/mL. No differences in the inhibition potential were observed for the different groups of terpenes: sesquiterpenes, monoterpenes, or sesquiterpene alcohols; however, the two most active compounds contained a hydroxyl moiety. CONCLUSIONS:Terpene constituents from ginger's extract were found to exhibit moderate inhibitory properties against the MAO-A enzyme in in vitro tests.
Project description:Propolis is a resinous substance generated by bees using materials from various plant sources. It has been known to exhibit diverse bioactivities including anti-oxidative, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer effects. However, the direct molecular target of propolis and its therapeutic potential against skin aging in humans is not fully understood. Herein, we investigated the effect of propolis on ultraviolet (UV)-mediated skin aging and its underlying molecular mechanism. Propolis suppressed UV-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 production in human dermal fibroblasts. More importantly, propolis treatment reduced UV-induced MMP-1 expression and blocked collagen degradation in human skin tissues, suggesting that the anti-skin-aging activity of propolis can be recapitulated in clinically relevant conditions. While propolis treatment did not display any noticeable effects against extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38, and c-jun <i>N</i>-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways, propolis exerted significant inhibitory activity specifically against phosphorylations of phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) and protein kinase B (Akt). Kinase assay results demonstrated that propolis can directly suppress phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity, with preferential selectivity towards PI3K with p110? and p110? catalytic subunits over other kinases. The content of active compounds was quantified, and among the compounds identified from the propolis extract, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, quercetin, and apigenin were shown to attenuate PI3K activity. These results demonstrate that propolis shows anti-skin-aging effects through direct inhibition of PI3K activity.
Project description:Propolis is a complex mixture of resinous and balsamic material collected from the exudates of plants, shoots, and leaves by bees. This study evaluated red propolis extracts obtained by conventional (ethanolic) extraction and ultrasound-assisted extraction of six samples from different regions of northeastern Brazil. The total phenolic compounds and flavonoids, in vitro antioxidant activity, concentration of formononetin and kaempferol and the cytotoxicity against four human tumor cell lines were determined for all twelve obtained extracts. Significant variations in the levels of the investigated compounds were identified in the red propolis extracts, confirming that the chemical composition varied according to the sampling region. The extraction method used also influenced the resulting propolis compounds. The highest concentration of the compounds of interest and the highest in vitro antioxidant activity were exhibited by the extracts obtained from samples from state of Alagoas. Formononetin and kaempferol were identified in all samples. The highest formononetin concentrations were identified in extracts obtained by ultrasound, thus indicating a greater selectivity for the extraction of this compound by this method. Regarding cytotoxic activity, for the HCT-116 line, all of the extracts showed an inhibition of greater than 90%, whereas for the HL-60 and PC3 lines, the minimum identified was 80%. In general, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the antiproliferative potential when comparing the extraction methods. The results showed that the composition of Brazilian red propolis varies significantly depending on the geographical origin and that the method used influences the resulting compounds that are present in propolis. However, regardless of the geographical origin and the extraction method used, all the red propolis samples studied presented great biological potential and high antioxidant activity. Furthermore, the ultrasound-assisted method can be efficiently applied to obtain extracts of red propolis more quickly and with high concentration of biomarkers of interest.
Project description:Propolis is a resinous vegetal exudate modified by bees, and is interesting as a preservative and potentially functional product. This work dealt with studying the common phenolic profiles and antioxidant capacities of 13 bee propolis from different geographical areas. Both hyaluronidase and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities were also assessed and related when possible with particular phenolic compounds. High performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) analysis showed that every propolis contained p-coumaric acid (1.2-12.2 mg/g) and ferulic acid (0.3-11.0 mg/g). Pinocembrin, catechin, and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) plus galangin were the main flavonoids. Antioxidant activities were higher than 280 µmol trolox/g for trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), 0.099 mmol uric acid/g for radical-scavenging effect on hydroxyl radicals, and 0.19 mg/mL for half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of antioxidant activity against superoxide anion radical. Working with solutions of 10 mg/mL propolis, hyaluronidase inhibitory activity ranged between 0% and 68.20%, being correlated to ferulic acid content. ACE inhibitory effect determined by HPLC was higher than 78%, being correlated with catechin and p-coumaric acid. Therefore, propolis could be useful for food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic companies, also helping to reduce risk factors for diseases related to oxidative damage, inflammatory processes, and hypertension. This research also highlights the necessity for harmonized analysis methods and the expression of results for propolis.
Project description:Ethanolic extracts of samples of temperate zone propolis, four from the UK and one from Poland, were tested against three <i>Trypanosoma brucei</i> strains and displayed EC<sub>50</sub> values < 20 µg/mL. The extracts were fractionated, from which 12 compounds and one two-component mixture were isolated, and characterized by NMR and high-resolution mass spectrometry, as 3-acetoxypinobanksin, tectochrysin, kaempferol, pinocembrin, 4'-methoxykaempferol, galangin, chrysin, apigenin, pinostrobin, cinnamic acid, coumaric acid, cinnamyl ester/coumaric acid benzyl ester (mixture), 4',7-dimethoxykaempferol, and naringenin 4',7-dimethyl ether. The isolated compounds were tested against drug-sensitive and drug-resistant strains of <i>T. brucei</i> and <i>Leishmania mexicana</i>, with the highest activities ≤ 15 µM. The most active compounds against <i>T. brucei</i> were naringenin 4',7 dimethyl ether and 4'methoxy kaempferol with activity of 15-20 µM against the three <i>T. brucei</i> strains. The most active compounds against <i>L. mexicana</i> were 4',7-dimethoxykaempferol and the coumaric acid ester mixture, with EC<sub>50</sub> values of 12.9 ± 3.7 µM and 13.1 ± 1.0 µM. No loss of activity was found with the diamidine- and arsenical-resistant or phenanthridine-resistant <i>T. brucei</i> strains, or the miltefosine-resistant <i>L. mexicana</i> strain; no clear structure activity relationship was observed for the isolated compounds. Temperate propolis yields multiple compounds with anti-kinetoplastid activity.
Project description:Although nicotine is the primary reinforcing constituent in cigarettes, there is evidence that other constituents in cigarette smoke may interact with nicotine to reinforce smoking behavior.The present experiments investigated whether a novel combination of these cigarette smoke constituents would increase nicotine self-administration in adult male rats. The constituents included five minor alkaloids (anabasine, nornicotine, cotinine, myosmine, and anatabine), two ?-carbolines (harman and norharman), and acetaldehyde. All doses were indexed to be proportional to concentrations in cigarette smoke given a standard dose of nicotine used in rodent self-administration, or ten times higher than this standard. To model MAO inhibition seen in chronic smokers, some groups received separate injections of tranylcypromine prior to each self-administration session.Tranylcypromine increased low-dose nicotine self-administration independent of other smoke constituents, which had no effect on self-administration behavior. The effect of tranylcypromine was confirmed across a large range of reinforcement schedules. The effect of tranylcypromine on low-dose nicotine self-administration was observed regardless of whether the injection was delivered 1-h or 23-h prior to the self-administration session, consistent with the interpretation that MAO inhibition was responsible for the increase in self-administration, instead of acute off-target effects.These data suggest that this cocktail of constituents does not significantly alter the primary reinforcing effects of nicotine, but constituents that inhibit MAO may increase the primary reinforcing effects of nicotine, especially at low doses.
Project description:Propolis is a natural bee product with various beneficial biological effects. The health-promoting properties of propolis depend on its chemical composition, particularly the presence of phenolic compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between extraction solvent (acetone 100%, ethanol 70% and 96%) and the antifungal, antioxidant, and cytoprotective activity of the extracts obtained from propolis. Concentrations of flavonoids and phenolic acids in the propolis extracts were determined using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography. The antioxidant potential of different extracts was assessed on the basis of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·) free-radical-scavenging activity, Fe3+-reducing power, and ferrous ion (Fe2+)-chelating activity assays. The ability of the extracts to protect human red blood cell membranes against free-radical-induced damage and their antifungal activity was also determined. The results showed that the concentration of flavonoids in the propolis extracts was dependent on the solvent used in the extraction process and pinocembrin, chrysin, galangin, and coumaric acid were the most abundant phenols. All extracts exhibited high antioxidant potential and significantly protected human erythrocytes against oxidative damage. On the other hand, the antifungal activity of the propolis extracts depended on the solvent used in extraction and the fungal strains tested. It needs to be stressed that, to the best of our knowledge, there is no study relating the effect of solvent used for extraction of Polish propolis to its phenolic profile, and its antifungal, antioxidant, and cytoprotective activity.
Project description:Inhibitors of MAO-A and MAO-B are in clinical use for the treatment of psychiatric and neurological disorders respectively. Elucidation of the molecular structure of the active sites of the enzymes has enabled a precise determination of the way in which substrates and inhibitor molecules are metabolized, or inhibit metabolism of substrates, respectively. Despite the knowledge of the strong antidepressant efficacy of irreversible MAO inhibitors, their clinical use has been limited by their side effect of potentiation of the cardiovascular effects of dietary amines ("cheese effect"). A number of reversible MAO-A inhibitors which are devoid of cheese effect have been described in the literature, but only one, moclobemide, is currently in clinical use. The irreversible inhibitors of MAO-B, selegiline and rasagiline, are used clinically in treatment of Parkinson's disease, and a recently introduced reversible MAO-B inhibitor, safinamide, has also been found efficacious. Modification of the pharmacokinetic characteristics of selegiline by transdermal administration has led to the development of a new drug form for treatment of depression. The clinical potential of MAO inhibitors together with detailed knowledge of the enzyme's binding site structure should lead to future developments with these drugs.