Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers for Cotinus coggygria Scop. (Anacardiaceae) by 454 pyrosequencing.
ABSTRACT: Cotinus coggygria Scop. (Anacardiaceae) is a deciduous shrub or small tree that is native to a large area covering from southern Europe, east across central Asia, and the Himalayas in northern China. Shotgun 454 pyrosequencing was used to develop microsatellite markers from the genome of C. coggygria. In this study, 349 microsatellite loci were identified from 40,074 individual sequence reads produced by one-sixteenth run, and primer pairs were designed for these loci. To test the primer amplification efficiency, 50 microsatellite primer pairs were tested across 12 individuals from two C. coggygria populations (Wuzhi Mountain: 36°30'N, 113°39'E; Tianlong Mountain: 37°42'N, 112°26'E). Among the 50 tested primer pairs, eight were found to be polymorphic. The average allele number of the microsatellites was 3.5 per locus, with a range from two to five. The inbreeding coefficient ranged from -0.478 to 0.222. The observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.167 to 0.750 and from 0.163 to 0.743, respectively. This set of markers is potentially useful for assessing the genetic diversity, as well as for understanding the population structure and phylogeographical and landscape genetic patterns, of C. coggygria.
Project description:The adaptive evolution of species response to environment are the key issues in molecular ecology and evolutionary biology. The direction of adaptive differentiation of species in regions lacking strong selection pressure is usually diverse. However, the driving mechanism of the diverse adaptive differentiation for regional species is still undetermined to date. In this study, we used landscape genomics modelling to infer the adaptive evolution of Cotinus coggygria in China's warm-temperate zone.Using fifteen natural populations and nine start codon targeted (SCoT) markers, a total of 1131 unambiguous loci were yielded. Our results showed two genetic groups existed in the fifteen natural populations of C. coggygria, which is due to the divergent selection driven by six environmental factors. Environmental association analyses revealed the environmental variables related to precipitation were associated with high numbers of environment-associated loci.Our results indicated that the ecological characters of C. coggygria, i.e. avoiding wetness and tolerating drought, determine its adaptive evolution. This study provides a reference that ecological character determines the adaptive evolution of species in regions lacking strong selection pressure.
Project description:Pantoea sp. strain CCBC3-3-1, having antagonistic activity against Verticillium dahlia, was isolated from Cotinus coggygria We report the complete genome sequence of this strain determined by PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) technology. The total genome size of CCBC3-3-1 is 5,159,767?bp, with a G+C content of 48.08%.
Project description:Phytochemical investigations of Cotinus coggygria Scop. wood, a medicinal and tinctorial plant used since antiquity, resulted in the isolation and structure elucidation of the novel C-3/C-3'' dimer of butin (3',4',7-trihydroxyflavanone) and other known compounds: gallic acid and its methyl ester; catechin; profisetinidins: fisetinidol-(4??8)-(+)-catechin and epifisetinidol-(4??8)-(+)-catechin; flavanonols: fustin and dihydroquercetagetin; flavanones: butin and eriodictyol; flavonols: fisetin and quercetin; the chalcone butein and the aurone sulfuretin. The isolated compounds were used for the development and validation of a HPLC-method which enables the determination of these bioactive substances in C. coggygria extracts. Separation was possible on an ether-linked phenyl column material, using as mobile phase mixtures of water, methanol, and acetonitrile with 0.02% trifluoroacetic acid. Sensitivity, selectivity, linearity, precision, accuracy, and repeatability of the method were verified and assured suitability for its intended use. LC-MS experiments performed in positive and negative electrospray ionization mode confirmed the identity of analytes and allowed unambiguous assignment of all peaks of interest. The analysis of different C. coggygria samples revealed that sulfuretin (0.38-0.69%) and fustin (0.33-0.59%) dominated, followed by dihydroquercetagetin (0.12-0.35%), a rare flavanonol derivative with a 5,6,7-trihydroxysubstituted A-ring. The new natural compound C-3/C-3'' flavanone dimer occurred in concentrations of 0.03-0.06%; the two latter compounds could represent valuable markers for the identification and quality control of C. coggygria wood.
Project description:The methanol extracts of the aerial part of four ethnomedicinal plants of Mediterranean region, two non-seed vascular plants, Equisetum hyemale L. and Phyllitis scolopendrium (L.) Newman, and two Spermatophyta, Juniperus communis L. (J. communis) and Cotinus coggygria Scop. (C. coggygria), were screened against four human cells lines (A549, MCF7, TK6 and U937). Only the extracts of J. communis and C. coggygria showed marked cytotoxic effects, affecting both cell morphology and growth. A dose-dependent effect of these two extracts was also observed on the cell cycle distribution. Incubation of all the cell lines in a medium containing J. communis extract determined a remarkable accumulation of cells in the G2/M phase, whereas the C. coggygria extract induced a significant increase in the percentage of G1 cells. The novelty of our findings stands on the observation that the two extracts, consistently, elicited coherent effects on the cell cycle in four cell lines, independently from their phenotype, as two of them have epithelial origin and grow adherent and two are lymphoblastoid and grow in suspension. Even the expression profiles of several proteins regulating cell cycle progression and cell death were affected by both extracts. LC-MS investigation of methanol extract of C. coggygria led to the identification of twelve flavonoids (compounds 1-11, 19) and eight polyphenols derivatives (12-18, 20), while in J. communis extract, eight flavonoids (21-28), a ?-ionone glycoside (29) and a lignin (30) were found. Although many of these compounds have interesting individual biological activities, their natural blends seem to exert specific effects on the proliferation of cell lines either growing adherent or in suspension, suggesting potential use in fighting cancer.
Project description:Microsatellite markers of Jasminum sambac (Oleaceae) were isolated to investigate wild germplasm resources and provide markers for breeding.Illumina sequencing was used to isolate microsatellite markers from the transcriptome of J. sambac. A total of 1322 microsatellites were identified from 49,772 assembled unigenes. One hundred primer pairs were randomly selected to verify primer amplification efficiency. Out of these tested primer pairs, 31 were successfully amplified: 18 primer pairs yielded a single allele, seven exhibited fixed heterozygosity with two alleles, and only six displayed polymorphisms.This study obtained the first set of microsatellite markers for J. sambac, which will be helpful for the assessment of wild germplasm resources and the development of molecular marker-assisted breeding.
Project description:Pinus albicaulis (whitebark pine) is a widely-distributed but rapidly declining high elevation western North American tree and a candidate for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Our objectives were to develop reliable nuclear microsatellite markers that can be used to assess within-population genetic diversity as well as seed and pollen migration dynamics, and to validate markers using two geographically proximal P. albicaulis populations. We identified 1,667 microsatellite-containing sequences from shotgun DNA libraries of P. albicaulis. Primer pairs were designed for 308 unique microsatellite-containing loci, and these were evaluated for PCR amplification success and segregation in a panel of diploid needle tissue. DNA was extracted with an SDS protocol, and primers were screened through gel electrophoresis. Microsatellites were genotyped through fluorescent primer fragment analysis. Ten novel and 13 transferred loci were found to be reproducible in analyses based on 20 foliage samples from each of two locations: Henderson Mountain, Custer Gallatin National Forest, Montana, and Mt. Washburn, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming (USA). Transferred loci had higher numbers of alleles and expected heterozygosities than novel loci, but also revealed evidence for a higher frequency of null alleles. Eight of the 13 transferred loci deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium, and showed large positive FIS values that were likely inflated by null alleles. Mantel's tests of transferred and novel markers showed no correlation between genetic and geographic distances within or among the two sampled populations. AMOVA suggests that 91% of genetic variability occurs within populations and 9% between the two populations. Studies assessing genetic diversity using these microsatellite loci can help guide future management and restoration activities for P. albicaulis.
Project description:Microsatellites are repeated small sequence motifs that are highly polymorphic and abundant in the genomes of eukaryotes. Often they are the molecular markers of choice. To aid the development of microsatellite markers we have developed a module that integrates a program for the detection of microsatellites (TROLL), with the sequence assembly and analysis software, the Staden Package. The module has easily adjustable parameters for microsatellite lengths and base pair quality control. Starting with large datasets of unassembled sequence data in the form of chromatograms and/or text data, it enables the creation of a compact database consisting of the processed and assembled microsatellite containing sequences. For the final phase of primer design, we developed a program that accepts the multi-sequence 'experiment file' format as input and produces a list of primer pairs for amplification of microsatellite markers. The program can take into account the quality values of consensus bases, improving success rate of primer pairs in PCR. The software is freely available and simple to install in both Windows and Unix-based operating systems. Here we demonstrate the software by developing primer pairs for 427 new candidate markers for peanut.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The lack of a sufficient number of molecular markers seriously limits the cognition of genetic relationships within and between populations of many species. Likewise, the genetic diversity of domestic goose (Anser anser domesticus), with a great number of breeds throughout the world, remains poorly understood at the molecular level. FINDINGS:Thirty-five goose, seventeen duck and eight chicken microsatellite primer pairs were screened for their utility in the cross-species amplification on DNA from 96 individuals of Zatorska breed of domestic geese. Twenty-seven of 42 amplifying primer pairs revealed length-polymorphic products, but three of them were difficult to score. Fifteen primer pairs amplifying the same length product across all individuals. One polymorphic microsatellite locus was assigned by genotyping of known sex individuals to the Z-chromosome. CONCLUSIONS:We present a set of 24 polymorphic microsatellite markers useful for population genetic studies of the domestic goose. Another 15 markers were classified as monomorphic, but they might also be suitable for the assessment of genetic diversity in geese.