The absolute configuration of salicortin, HCH-salicortin and tremulacin from Populus trichocarpa × deltoides Beaupre.
ABSTRACT: The absolute configuration of salicortin, HCH-salicortin and tremulacin, isolated from leaves of Populus trichocarpa × deltoides Beaupré, was determined by comparing spectroscopic data of these compounds with those of idescarpin, isolated from leaves of Idesia polycarpa. All compounds were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and circular dichroism spectroscopy. It was found that the hydroxy cyclohexenonoyl (HCH) moiety in all compounds is (S)-configured. In addition, it was shown that leaves of Idesia polycarpa contain high amounts of (-)-idescarpin (1.1%, based on dry weight).
Project description:Associations of salicylate-like phenolic glycosides (PGs) with biological activity have been reported in Salix and Populus trees, but only for a few compounds, and in relation to a limited number of herbivores. By considering the full diversity of PGs, we may improve our ability to recognize genotypes or chemotype groups and enhance our understanding of their ecological function. Here, we present a fast and efficient general method for salicylate determination in leaves of Eurasian aspen that uses ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI/TOFMS). The time required for the liquid chromatography separations was 13.5 min per sample, compared to around 60 min per sample for most HPLC protocols. In leaf samples from identical P. tremula genotypes with diverse propagation and treatment histories, we identified nine PGs. We found the compound-specific mass chromatograms to be more informative than the UV-visible chromatograms for compound identification and when quantitating samples with large variability in PG content. Signature compounds previously reported for P. tremoloides (tremulacin, tremuloidin, salicin, and salicortin) always were present, and five PGs (2'-O-cinnamoyl-salicortin, 2'-O-acetyl-salicortin, 2'-O-acetyl-salicin, acetyl-tremulacin, and salicyloyl-salicin) were detected for the first time in P. tremula. By using information about the formic acid adduct that appeared for PGs in the LTQ-Orbitrap MS environment, novel compounds like acetyl-tremulacin could be tentatively identified without the use of standards. The novel PGs were consistently either present in genotypes regardless of propagation and damage treatment or were not detectable. In some genotypes, concentrations of 2'-O-acetyl-salicortin and 2'-O-cinnamoyl-salicortin were similar to levels of biologically active PGs in other Salicaceous trees. Our study suggests that we may expect a wide variation in PG content in aspen populations which is of interest both for studies of interactions with herbivores and for mapping population structure.
Project description:High amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in vegetable oil are not desirable for biodiesel or food oil due to their lower oxidative stability. The oil from Idesia polycarpa fruit contains 65?80% (mol%) linoleic acid (C18:2). Therefore, development of Idesia polycarpa cultivars with low PUFAs is highly desirable for Idesia polycarpa oil quality. Fatty acid desaturase 2 (FAD2) is the key enzyme converting oleic acid (C18:1) to C18:2. We isolated four FAD2 homologs from the fruit of Idesia polycarpa. Yeast transformed with IpFAD2-1, IpFAD2-2 and IpFAD2-3 can generate appreciable amounts of hexadecadienoic acid (C16:2) and C18:2, which are not present in wild-type yeast cells, revealing that the proteins encoded by these genes have ?12 desaturase activity. Only trace amounts of C18:2 and little C16:2 were detected in yeast cells transformed with IpFAD2-4, suggesting IpFAD2-4 displays low activity. We also analyzed the activity of several FAD2 natural variants of Idesia polycarpa in yeast and found that a highly conserved Gly376 substitution caused the markedly reduced products catalyzed by IpFAD2-3. This glycine is also essential for the activity of IpFAD2-1 and IpFAD2-2, but its replacement in other plant FAD2 proteins displays different effects on the desaturase activity, suggesting its distinct roles across plant FAD2s proteins.
Project description:Genomic studies have been used to identify genes underlying many important plant secondary metabolic pathways. However, genes for salicinoid phenolic glycosides (SPGs)-ecologically important compounds with significant commercial, cultural, and medicinal applications-remain largely undescribed. We used a linkage map derived from a full-sib population of hybrid cottonwoods (Populus spp.) to search for quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the SPGs salicortin and HCH-salicortin. SSR markers and primer sequences were used to anchor the map to the V3.0 P. trichocarpa genome. We discovered 21 QTL for the two traits, including a major QTL for HCH-salicortin (R2 = .52) that colocated with a QTL for salicortin on chr12. Using the V3.0 Populus genome sequence, we identified 2,983 annotated genes and 1,480 genes of unknown function within our QTL intervals. We note ten candidate genes of interest, including a BAHD-type acyltransferase that has been potentially linked to Populus SPGs. Our results complement other recent studies in Populus with implications for gene discovery and the evolution of defensive chemistry in a model genus. To our knowledge, this is the first study to use a full-sib mapping population to identify QTL intervals and gene lists associated with SPGs.
Project description:Idesia polycarpa, is a valuable oilseed-producing tree of the Flacourtiaceae family that has the potential to fulfill edible oil production and is also a possible biofuel feedstock. The fruit is unique in that it contains both saturated and unsaturated lipids present in pericarp and seed, respectively. However, triglyceride synthesis and storage in tissues outside of the seeds has been poorly studied in previous researches. To gain insight into the unique properties of I. polycarpa fruit lipid synthesis, biochemical, and transcriptomic approaches were used to compare the lipid accumulation between pericarp and seed of the fruit. Lipid accumulation rates, final lipid content and composition were significantly different between two tissues. Furthermore, we described the annotated transcriptome assembly and differential gene expression analysis generated from the pericarp and seed tissues. The data allowed the identification of distinct candidate genes and reconstruction of lipid pathways, which may explain the differences of oil synthesis between the two tissues. The results may be useful for engineering alternative pathways for lipid production in non-seed or vegetative tissues.
Project description:Among sphingomonads, Sphingobium indicum B90A is widely investigated for its ability to degrade a manmade pesticide, ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH) and its isomers (?-, ?-, ?-, and ?-HCH). In this study, complete genome of strain B90A was constructed using Single Molecule Real Time Sequencing (SMRT) and Illumina platform. The complete genome revealed that strain B90A harbors four replicons: one chromosome (3,654,322?bp) and three plasmids designated as pSRL1 (139,218?bp), pSRL2 (108,430?bp) and pSRL3 (43,761?bp). The study determined the precise location of lin genes (genes associated with the degradation of HCH isomers), for example, linA2, linB, linDER, linF, linGHIJ, and linKLMN on the chromosome; linA1, linC, and linF on pSRL1 and linDEbR on pSRL3. Strain B90A contained 26 copies of IS6100 element and most of them (15 copies) was found to be associated with lin genes. Duplication of several lin genes including linA, linDER, linGHIJ, and linF along with two variants of linE, that is, linEa (hydroquinone 1,2-dioxygenase) and linEb (chlorohydroquinone/hydroquinone 1,2-dioxygenase) were identified. This suggests that strain B90A not only possess efficient machinery for upper and lower HCH degradation pathways but it can also act on both hydroquinone and chlorohydroquinone metabolites produced during ?-HCH degradation. Synteny analysis revealed the duplication and transposition of linA gene (HCH dehydrochlorinase) between the chromosome and pSRL1, possibly through homologous recombination between adjacent IS6100 elements. Further, in silico analysis and laboratory experiments revealed that incomplete tyrosine metabolism was responsible for the production of extracellular brown pigment which distinguished strain B90A from other HCH degrading sphingomonads. The precise localization of lin genes, and transposable elements (IS6100) on different replicons now opens up several experimental avenues to elucidate the functions and regulatory mechanism of lin genes acquisition and transfer that were not completely known among the bacterial population inhabiting the HCH contaminated environment.
Project description:Background:Enzymatic hydrolysis is a major step for cellulosic ethanol production. A thorough understanding of enzymatic hydrolysis is necessary to help design optimal conditions and economical systems. The original HCH-1 (Holtzapple-Caram-Humphrey-1) model is a generalized mechanistic model for enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis, but was previously applied only to the initial rates. In this study, the original HCH-1 model was modified to describe integrated enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis. The relationships between parameters in the HCH-1 model and substrate conversion were investigated. Literature models for long-term (> 48 h) enzymatic hydrolysis were summarized and compared to the modified HCH-1 model. Results:A modified HCH-1 model was developed for long-term (> 48 h) enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis. This modified HCH-1 model includes the following additional considerations: (1) relationships between coefficients and substrate conversion, and (2) enzyme stability. Parameter estimation was performed with 10-day experimental data using α-cellulose as substrate. The developed model satisfactorily describes integrated cellulose hydrolysis data taken with various reaction conditions (initial substrate concentration, initial product concentration, enzyme loading, time). Mechanistic (and semi-mechanistic) literature models for long-term enzymatic hydrolysis were compared with the modified HCH-1 model and evaluated by the corrected version of the Akaike information criterion. Comparison results show that the modified HCH-1 model provides the best fit for enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis. Conclusions:The HCH-1 model was modified to extend its application to integrated enzymatic hydrolysis; it performed well when predicting 10-day cellulose hydrolysis at various experimental conditions. Comparison with the literature models showed that the modified HCH-1 model provided the best fit.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Sphingobium spp. are efficient degraders of a wide range of chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons. In particular, strains which harbour the lin pathway genes mediating the degradation of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers are of interest due to the widespread persistence of this contaminant. Here, we examined the evolution and diversification of the lin pathway under the selective pressure of HCH, by comparing the draft genomes of six newly-sequenced Sphingobium spp. (strains LL03, DS20, IP26, HDIPO4, P25 and RL3) isolated from HCH dumpsites, with three existing genomes (S. indicum B90A, S. japonicum UT26S and Sphingobium sp. SYK6). RESULTS: Efficient HCH degraders phylogenetically clustered in a closely related group comprising of UT26S, B90A, HDIPO4 and IP26, where HDIPO4 and IP26 were classified as subspecies with ANI value >98%. Less than 10% of the total gene content was shared among all nine strains, but among the eight HCH-associated strains, that is all except SYK6, the shared gene content jumped to nearly 25%. Genes associated with nitrogen stress response and two-component systems were found to be enriched. The strains also housed many xenobiotic degradation pathways other than HCH, despite the absence of these xenobiotics from isolation sources. Additionally, these strains, although non-motile, but posses flagellar assembly genes. While strains HDIPO4 and IP26 contained the complete set of lin genes, DS20 was entirely devoid of lin genes (except linKLMN) whereas, LL03, P25 and RL3 were identified as lin deficient strains, as they housed incomplete lin pathways. Further, in HDIPO4, linA was found as a hybrid of two natural variants i.e., linA1 and linA2 known for their different enantioselectivity. CONCLUSION: The bacteria isolated from HCH dumpsites provide a natural testing ground to study variations in the lin system and their effects on degradation efficacy. Further, the diversity in the lin gene sequences and copy number, their arrangement with respect to IS6100 and evidence for potential plasmid content elucidate possible evolutionary acquisition mechanisms for this pathway. This study further opens the horizon for selection of bacterial strains for inclusion in an HCH bioremediation consortium and suggests that HDIPO4, IP26 and B90A would be appropriate candidates for inclusion.
Project description:Background:Fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) and amaranth (Amaranthus spp.) are common leafy vegetables produced and consumed in southwestern Nigeria. These vegetables attract insect pests which are controlled by pesticides that may have adverse impacts on human health. Objectives:To determine the levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) pesticide residues in the two vegetables and evaluate the potential health risks associated with their consumption. Methods:The pesticide residue levels were quantitatively and qualitatively determined using a gas chromatograph coupled with electron capture detector. Health risk assessment were performed using estimated average daily intake and hazard indices for two weight categories: children (16.7 kg) and adults (60 kg). Results:The results showed that delta-HCH, DDT and methoxychlor were predominantly detected in the two vegetables from both farms and markets. In amaranth, the mean concentration of methoxychlor, DDT and delta-HCH were 4.590 ± 2.774 mg/kg (dry weight (dw)), 0.757 ± 0.457 mg/kg (dw) and 0.577 ± 0.390 mg/kg (dw), respectively, while fluted pumpkin levels were 6.223 ± 2.489 mg/kg dw (methoxychlor), 0.504 ± 0.056 mg/kg dw (delta-HCH) and 0.486 ± 0.123 mg/kg dw (DDT). The levels of HCH and DDT residues were generally above the United Kingdom/European Commission maximum residue limit. The analysis of health risk estimates for non-carcinogenic risk revealed that for both vegetables, the hazard quotient for p, p' DDT and methoxychlor was >1 for both children and adults. The health risk estimates for carcinogenic risk revealed that hazard indices values were >1 for children for both vegetables and alpha-HCH had a hazard index >1 for adults for amaranth. This means the residue exceeds acceptable standard and present potential risk to consumers of these vegetables. Conclusions:The results obtained from the present study indicate that consumption of amaranth contaminated with alpha-HCH could pose a carcinogenic risk for adult consumers. The consumption of the two vegetables could pose both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks to children and adults. Therefore, there is need for strict enforcement of regulations on pesticide usage to minimize human health risks. Competing Interests:The authors declare no competing financial interests.
Project description:Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers constitute a group of persistent organic pollutants. Their mass production and treatment have led to a global environmental problem that continues to this day. The characterization of modes of degradation of HCH by isotope fractionation is a current challenge. Multi isotope fractionation analysis provides a concept to characterize the nature of enzymatic and chemical transformation reactions. The understanding of the kinetic isotope effects (KIE) on bond cleavage reaction contributes to analyses of the mechanism of chemical and enzymatic reactions. Herein, carbon, chlorine, and hydrogen kinetic isotope effects are measured and predicted for the dehydrochlorination reaction of ?-HCH promoted by the hydroxyl ion in aqueous solution. Quantum mechanical (QM) microsolvation with an implicit solvation model and path integral formalism in combination with free-energy perturbation and umbrella sampling (PI-FEP/UM) and quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical QM/MM potentials for including solvent effects as well as calculating isotope effects are used and analyzed with respect to their performance in reproducing measured values. Reaction characterization is discussed based on the magnitudes of obtained isotope effects. The comparative analysis between the chemical dehydrochlorination of ?-HCH in aqueous media and catalyzed reaction by dehydrochlorinase, LinA is presented and discussed. Based on the values of isotope effects, these two processes seem to occur via the same net mechanism.