High Milk-Clotting Activity Expressed by the Newly Isolated Paenibacillus spp. Strain BD3526.
ABSTRACT: Paenibacillus spp. BD3526, a bacterium exhibiting a protein hydrolysis circle surrounded with an obvious precipitation zone on skim milk agar, was isolated from raw yak (Bos grunniens) milk collected in Tibet, China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and whole genome sequence comparison indicated the isolate belong to the genus Paenibacillus. The strain BD3526 demonstrated strong ability to produce protease with milk clotting activity (MCA) in wheat bran broth. The protease with MCA was predominantly accumulated during the late-exponential phase of growth. The proteolytic activity (PA) of the BD3526 protease was 1.33-fold higher than that of the commercial R. miehei coagulant. A maximum MCA (6470 ± 281 SU mL(-1)) of the strain BD3526 was reached under optimal cultivation conditions. The protease with MCA was precipitated from the cultivated supernatant of wheat bran broth with ammonium sulfate and purified by anion-exchange chromatography. The molecular weight of the protease with MCA was determined as 35 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and gelatin zymography. The cleavage site of the BD3526 protease with MCA in ?-casein was located at the Met106-Ala107 bond, as determined by mass spectrometry analysis.
Project description:In order to achieve high yield of fungal protease in a very cost effective way and to meet its increased market demand, current study deals with the screening of various agro-wastes as carbon source for the production of protease from Rhizopus oryzae (SN5)/NCIM-1447 under solid state fermentation. Substrates and culture parameters such as wheat bran, soybean meal, black-gram husk, rice husk, mixture of wheat bran, soybean meal, nitrogen sources, pH, temperature and incubation time were first optimized with one factor at time strategy and then EVOP factorial and yield of alkaline protease was achieved 412.8 U/gds at 28 °C and pH?=?6 after 72 h of fermentation taking wheat bran and soybean as a substrate in 4:1 ratio. Further artificial neural networks (ANN), was trained with data of EVOP and yield of protease was enhanced up to 422.6 U/gds with wheat bran: soyabean in ratio of 70:30, pH 6.2 at 30 °C. The evolved process and Rhizopus oryzae (SN5)/NCIM-1447 strain would be promising for protease production at industrial scale at low cost.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Sporeformers in the order Bacillales are important contributors to spoilage of pasteurized milk. While only a few Bacillus and Viridibacillus strains can grow in milk at 6°C, the majority of Paenibacillus isolated from pasteurized fluid milk can grow under these conditions. To gain a better understanding of genomic features of these important spoilage organisms and to identify candidate genomic features that may facilitate cold growth in milk, we performed a comparative genomic analysis of selected dairy associated sporeformers representing isolates that can and cannot grow in milk at 6°C. RESULTS: The genomes for seven Paenibacillus spp., two Bacillus spp., and one Viridibacillus sp. isolates were sequenced. Across the genomes sequenced, we identified numerous genes encoding antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, bacteriocins, and pathways for synthesis of non-ribosomal peptide antibiotics. Phylogenetic analysis placed genomes representing Bacillus, Paenibacillus and Viridibacillus into three distinct well supported clades and further classified the Paenibacillus strains characterized here into three distinct clades, including (i) clade I, which contains one strain able to grow at 6°C in skim milk broth and one strain not able to grow under these conditions, (ii) clade II, which contains three strains able to grow at 6°C in skim milk broth, and (iii) clade III, which contains two strains unable to grow under these conditions. While all Paenibacillus genomes were found to include multiple copies of genes encoding ?-galactosidases, clade II strains showed significantly higher numbers of genes encoding these enzymes as compared to clade III strains. Genome comparison of strains able to grow at 6°C and strains unable to grow at this temperature identified numerous genes encoding features that might facilitate the growth of Paenibacillus in milk at 6°C, including peptidases with cold-adapted features (flexibility and disorder regions in the protein structure) and cold-adaptation related proteins (DEAD-box helicases, chaperone DnaJ). CONCLUSIONS: Through a comparative genomics approach we identified a number of genomic features that may relate to the ability of selected Paenibacillus strains to cause spoilage of refrigerated fluid milk. With additional experimental evidence, these data will facilitate identification of targets to detect and control Gram positive spore formers in fluid milk.
Project description:Paenibacillus is a spore-forming bacterial genus that is frequently isolated from fluid milk and is proposed to play a role in spoilage. To characterize the genetic and phenotypic diversity of Paenibacillus spp., we first used rpoB allelic typing data for a preexisting collection of 1,228 Paenibacillus species isolates collected from raw and processed milk, milk products, and dairy environmental sources. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and average nucleotide identity by BLAST (ANIb) analyses performed for a subset of 58 isolates representing unique and overrepresented rpoB allelic types in the collection revealed that these isolates represent 21 different Paenibacillus spp., with P. odorifer being the predominant species. Further genomic characterization of P. odorifer isolates identified two distinct phylogenetic clades, clades A and B, which showed significant overrepresentation of 172 and 164 ortholog clusters and 94 and 52 gene ontology (GO) terms, respectively. While nitrogen fixation genes were found in both clades, multiple genes associated with nitrate and nitrite reduction were overrepresented in clade A isolates; additional phenotypic testing demonstrated that nitrate reduction is specific to isolates in clade A. Hidden Markov models detected 9 to 10 different classes of cold shock-associated genetic elements in all P. odorifer isolates. Phenotypic testing revealed that all isolates tested here can grow in skim milk broth at 6°C, suggesting that psychrotolerance is conserved in P. odorifer Overall, our data suggest that Paenibacillus spp. isolated from milk in the United States represent broad genetic diversity, which may provide challenges for targeted-control strategies aimed at reducing fluid milk spoilage.IMPORTANCE Although Paenibacillus species isolates are frequently isolated from pasteurized fluid milk, the link between the genetic diversity and phenotypic characteristics of these isolates was not well understood, especially as some Bacillales isolated from milk are unable to grow at refrigeration temperatures. Our data demonstrate that Paenibacillus spp. isolated from fluid milk represent tremendous interspecies diversity, with P. odorifer being the predominant Paenibacillus sp. isolated. Furthermore, genetic and phenotypic data support that P. odorifer is well suited to transition from a soil-dwelling environment, where nitrogen fixation (and other nitrate/nitrite reduction pathways present only in clade A) may facilitate growth, to fluid milk, where its multiple cold shock-associated adaptations enable it to grow at refrigeration temperatures throughout the storage of milk. Therefore, efforts to reduce bacterial contamination of milk will require a systematic approach to reduce P. odorifer contamination of raw milk.
Project description:Psychrotolerant spore-forming bacteria represent a major challenge to the goal of extending the shelf life of pasteurized dairy products. The objective of this study was to identify prominent phylogenetic groups of dairy-associated aerobic sporeformers and to characterize representative isolates for phenotypes relevant to growth in milk. Analysis of sequence data for a 632-nucleotide fragment of rpoB showed that 1,288 dairy-associated isolates (obtained from raw and pasteurized milk and from dairy farm environments) clustered into two major divisions representing (i) the genus Paenibacillus (737 isolates, including the species Paenibacillus odorifer, Paenibacillus graminis, and Paenibacillus amylolyticus sensu lato) and (ii) Bacillus (n = 467) (e.g., Bacillus licheniformis sensu lato, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus weihenstephanensis) and genera formerly classified as Bacillus (n = 84) (e.g., Viridibacillus spp.). When isolates representing the most common rpoB allelic types (ATs) were tested for growth in skim milk broth at 6°C, 6/9 Paenibacillus isolates, but only 2/8 isolates representing Bacillus subtypes, grew >5 log CFU/ml over 21 days. In addition, 38/40 Paenibacillus isolates but only 3/47 Bacillus isolates tested were positive for ?-galactosidase activity (including some isolates representing Bacillus licheniformis sensu lato, a common dairy-associated clade). Our study confirms that Paenibacillus spp. are the predominant psychrotolerant sporeformers in fluid milk and provides 16S rRNA gene and rpoB subtype data and phenotypic characteristics facilitating the identification of aerobic spore-forming spoilage organisms of concern. These data will be critical for the development of detection methods and control strategies that will reduce the introduction of psychrotolerant sporeformers and extend the shelf life of dairy products.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Proteases can hydrolyze peptides in aqueous environments. This property has made proteases the most important industrial enzymes by taking up about 60% of the total enzyme market. Microorganisms are the main sources for industrial protease production due to their high yield and a wide range of biochemical properties. Several Aspergilli have the ability to produce a variety of proteases, but no comprehensive comparative study has been carried out on protease productivity in this genus so far. RESULTS: We have performed a combined analysis of comparative genomics, proteomics and enzymology tests on seven Aspergillus species grown on wheat bran and sugar beet pulp. Putative proteases were identified by homology search and Pfam domains. These genes were then clusters based on orthology and extracellular proteases were identified by protein subcellular localization prediction. Proteomics was used to identify the secreted enzymes in the cultures, while protease essays with and without inhibitors were performed to determine the overall protease activity per protease class. All this data was then integrated to compare the protease productivities in Aspergilli. CONCLUSIONS: Genomes of Aspergillus species contain a similar proportion of protease encoding genes. According to comparative genomics, proteomics and enzymatic experiments serine proteases make up the largest group in the protease spectrum across the species. In general wheat bran gives higher induction of proteases than sugar beet pulp. Interesting differences of protease activity, extracellular enzyme spectrum composition, protein occurrence and abundance were identified for species. By combining in silico and wet-lab experiments, we present the intriguing variety of protease productivity in Aspergilli.
Project description:In the present study, a variety of agro-industrial wastes have been utilized for meaningful purpose to produce valuable biocatalyst. All wastes used were low cost and easily accessible while, some available throughout the year. A number of bacterial strains isolated from rotten fruits and vegetables were screened for the production of industrially important polygalacturonase (PGase) using pectin present in these agro-industrial wastes. The strain producing maximum PGase was identified as Bacillus licheniformis KIBE-IB3 on the basis of taxonomic studies and 16S rDNA analysis. Among different agro-industrial wastes studied, high yield of PGase was achieved from fermentation broth having wheat bran (1.0%) as a substrate in to the medium supplemented with nitrogen sources in combination of NaNO3 and yeast extract while KH2PO4 was selected as suitable micronutrient. After optimizing fermentation parameters it was noticed that Bacillus licheniformis KIBE-IB3 was capable of producing maximum PGase at 37 °C, pH 7.0 and after 48 h of incubation time. From the current research, wheat bran was proven as a cheap and easily available source throughout the year for hyper production of pectinase. The utilization of the waste will also help to minimize the concerned environmental issues.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Low fat and wheat bran interventions significantly reduced the growth of small to large adenomas and modestly suppressed rectal epithelial cell proliferation in the Australian Polyp Prevention Project. AIM: To study the effect of unprocessed wheat bran, unprocessed oat bran and processed wheat bran (Kellogg's All Bran) on rectal epithelial cell proliferation. PATIENTS: Twenty subjects with recent adenomas and a high fat background diet were recruited. METHODS: Rectal biopsy specimens were taken at entry and at the end of three six-week periods of oat bran (64 g/day), wheat bran (25 g/day) and All Bran (38 g/day), all in association with a diet < 25% energy as fat, in a randomised cross-over trial. Each of the bran supplements had a total of 11 g dietary fibre. The biopsy specimens were fixed in methacarn and stained immunohistochemically for presence of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The kinetics used to measure proliferation were labelling index, whole distribution of labelled cells, and labelled cells in the top two-fifths of crypts using analysis of variance. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in mean labelling indexes between the four diets or in the percentage of labelled cells in the top two-fifths (p = 0.59), but activity in the top two-fifths of crypts was lowest with wheat bran. The mean (SD) labelling indexes were 2.23 (0.11)% for control, 2.13 (0.08)% for wheat bran, 2.19 (0.09)% for oat bran, and 2.12 (0.08)% for All Bran. The proportion in the top two-fifths of the crypts was 2.6 (0.6)% for control, 2.15 (0.5)% for wheat bran, 3.3 (0.9)% for oat bran, and 3.1 (0.9)% for All Bran. On analysis of whole distribution, there was no significant overall effect of diets but there was a difference between subjects. Analysis including total fibre intake also did not identify effects on proliferation. CONCLUSION: In this study of high risk subjects with initial high fat diets, dietary fibre in association with a low fat diet had no effect on rectal epithelial cell proliferation, although wheat bran had the greatest effect on percentage of labelled cells in the top two-fifths of crypts.
Project description:Production of fibrinolytic enzyme by a newly isolated Paenibacillus sp. IND8 was optimized using wheat bran in solid state fermentation. A 2(5) full factorial design (first-order model) was applied to elucidate the key factors as moisture, pH, sucrose, yeast extract, and sodium dihydrogen phosphate. Statistical analysis of the results has shown that moisture, sucrose, and sodium dihydrogen phosphate have the most significant effects on fibrinolytic enzymes production (P < 0.05). Central composite design (CCD) was used to determine the optimal concentrations of these three components and the experimental results were fitted with a second-order polynomial model at 95% level (P < 0.05). Overall, 4.5-fold increase in fibrinolytic enzyme production was achieved in the optimized medium as compared with the unoptimized medium.
Project description:Psychrotolerant sporeformers, specifically Paenibacillus spp., are important spoilage bacteria for pasteurized, refrigerated foods such as fluid milk. While Paenibacillus spp. have been isolated from farm environments, raw milk, processing plant environments, and pasteurized fluid milk, no information on the number of Paenibacillus spp. that need to be present in raw milk to cause pasteurized milk spoilage was available. A real-time PCR assay targeting the 16S rRNA gene was designed to detect Paenibacillus spp. in fluid milk and to discriminate between Paenibacillus and other closely related spore-forming bacteria. Specificity was confirmed using 16 Paenibacillus and 17 Bacillus isolates. All 16 Paenibacillus isolates were detected with a mean cycle threshold (C(T)) of 19.14 ± 0.54. While 14/17 Bacillus isolates showed no signal (C(T) > 40), 3 Bacillus isolates showed very weak positive signals (C(T) = 38.66 ± 0.65). The assay provided a detection limit of approximately 3.25 × 10(1) CFU/ml using total genomic DNA extracted from raw milk samples inoculated with Paenibacillus. Application of the TaqMan PCR to colony lysates obtained from heat-treated and enriched raw milk provided fast and accurate detection of Paenibacillus. Heat-treated milk samples where Paenibacillus (?1 CFU/ml) was detected by this colony TaqMan PCR showed high bacterial counts (>4.30 log CFU/ml) after refrigerated storage (6°C) for 21 days. We thus developed a tool for rapid detection of Paenibacillus that has the potential to identify raw milk with microbial spoilage potential as a pasteurized product.
Project description:House fly larvae provide a prolific and sustainable source of proteins used in poultry and fish feed. Wheat bran is a superior diet for house fly larvae and has been widely investigated to exploit its potential in the food and feed area. Using Illumina MiSeq 16S rDNA sequencing, this study investigated the gut microbiota of house fly larvae feeding on wheat bran and the bacterial community in the wheat bran. The bacterial communities in the house fly larvae were dominated by the phyla Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Enterobacteriaceae and Providencia were the predominant bacteria at the family and genus levels, respectively. Some bacteria in the phyla Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes may be transferred from the gut of house flies to the wheat bran during feeding and may be involved in degrading and utilizing polysaccharides in the cell wall of wheat bran. The significance of the gut microbiota of house fly larvae, their transferring and roles in degradation of wheat bran is discussed. These findings regarding the gut microbiota of house fly larvae will provide opportunities for research on the impact of microbial communities on poultry and fish.