Enhanced Stilbene Production and Excretion in Vitis vinifera cv Pinot Noir Hairy Root Cultures.
ABSTRACT: Stilbenes are defense molecules produced by grapevine in response to stresses including various elicitors and signal molecules. Together with their prominent role in planta, stilbenes have been the center of much attention in recent decades due to their pharmaceutical properties. With the aim of setting up a cost-effective and high purity production of resveratrol derivatives, hairy root lines were established from Vitis vinifera cv Pinot Noir 40024 to study the organ-specific production of various stilbenes. Biomass increase and stilbene production by roots were monitored during flask experiments. Although there was a constitutive production of stilbenes in roots, an induction of stilbene synthesis by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) after 18 days of growth led to further accumulation of ?-viniferin, ?-viniferin, resveratrol and piceid. The use of 100 µM MeJA after 18 days of culture in the presence of methyl-?-cyclodextrins (MCDs) improved production levels, which reached 1034µg/g fresh weight (FW) in roots and 165 mg/L in the extracellular medium, corresponding to five-and 570-foldincrease in comparison to control. Whereas a low level of stilbene excretion was measured in controls, addition of MeJA induced excretion of up to 37% of total stilbenes. The use of MCDs increased the excretion phenomenon even more, reaching up to 98%. Our results demonstrate the ability of grapevine hairy roots to produce various stilbenes. This production was significantly improved in response to elicitation by methyl jasmonate and/or MCDs. This supports the interest of using hairy roots as a potentially valuable system for producing resveratrol derivatives.
Project description:Stilbenes are plant defense compounds known to rapidly accumulate in grapevine and some other plant species in response to microbial infection and several abiotic stresses. Stilbenes have attracted considerable attention due to valuable biological effects with multi-spectrum therapeutic application. However, there is a lack of information on natural signaling pathways and transcription factors regulating stilbene biosynthesis. It has been previously shown that MYB R2R3 transcription factor genes <i>VaMyb40</i> and <i>VaMyb60</i> were up-regulated in cell cultures of wild-growing grapevine <i>Vitis amurensis</i> Rupr. in response to UV irradiation. In this study, the effects of <i>VaMyb40</i> or <i>VaMyb60</i> overexpression in cell cultures of <i>V. amurensis</i> on their capability to produce stilbenes were investigated. Overexpression of the <i>VaMyb60</i> gene led to a considerable increase in the content of stilbenes in three independently transformed transgenic lines in 5.9-13.9 times, while overexpression of the <i>VaMyb40</i> gene also increased the content of stilbenes, although to a lesser extent (in 3.4-4.0 times) in comparison with stilbene levels in the empty vector-transformed calli. Stilbene content and stilbene production in the <i>VaMyb60</i>-transgenic calli reached 18.8 mg/g of dry weight (DW) and 150.8 mg/L, respectively. Using HPLC analysis, we detected eight individual stilbenes: <i>t</i>-resveratrol diglucoside, <i>t</i>-piceid, <i>t</i>-resveratrol, ε-viniferin, δ-viniferin, <i>cis</i>-resveratrol, <i>cis</i>-piceid, <i>t</i>-piceatannol. <i>T</i>-resveratrol prevailed over other stilbenoid compounds (53.1-89.5% of all stilbenes) in the <i>VaMyb</i>-overexpressing cell cultures. Moreover, the <i>VaMyb40-</i> and <i>VaMyb60</i>-transformed calli were capable of producing anthocyanins up to 0.035 mg/g DW, while the control calli did not produce anthocyanins. These findings show that the <i>VaMyb40</i> and <i>VaMyb60</i> genes positively regulate the stilbene biosynthesis as strong positive transcription regulators and can be used in biotechnological applications for stilbene production or high-quality viticulture and winemaking.
Project description:Stilbenes are a major grapevine class of phenolic compounds, known for their biological activities, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant, but never studied in combination. We aimed to evaluate the effect of trans-resveratrol + ε-viniferin as an antioxidant mixture and its role in inflammatory development an in vivo model of severe acute liver failure induced with TAA. Trans-resveratrol + trans-ε-viniferin (5 mg/kg each) was administered to Wistar rats. Resveratrol + ε-viniferin significantly decreased TBARS and SOD activity and restored CAT and GST activities in the treated group. This stilbene combination reduced the expression of TNFα, iNOS, and COX-2, and inhibited MMP-9. The combination of resveratrol + ε-viniferin had a hepatoprotective effect, reducing DNA damage, exhibiting a protective role on the antioxidant pathway by altering SOD, CAT, and GST activities; by downregulating TNFα, COX-2, and iNOS; and upregulating IL-10. Our results suggested that adding viniferin to resveratrol may be more effective in hepatoprotection than resveratrol alone, opening a new perspective on using this stilbene combination in functional diets.
Project description:Stilbenes, as important secondary metabolites of grapevine, represent central phytoalexins and therefore constitute an important element of basal immunity. In this study, potential genetic variation in Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris, the ancestor of cultivated grapevine, was sought with respect to their output of stilbenes and potential use for resistance breeding. Considerable variation in stilbene inducibility was identified in V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris. Genotypic differences in abundance and profiles of stilbenes that are induced in response to a UV-C pulse are shown. Two clusters of stilbene 'chemovars' emerged: one cluster showed quick and strong accumulation of stilbenes, almost exclusively in the form of non-glycosylated resveratrol and viniferin, while the second cluster accumulated fewer stilbenes and relatively high proportions of piceatannol and the glycosylated piceid. For all 86 genotypes, a time dependence of the stilbene pattern was observed: piceid, resveratrol, and piceatannol accumulated earlier, whereas the viniferins were found later. It was further observed that the genotypic differences in stilbene accumulation were preceded by differential accumulation of the transcripts for chalcone synthase (CHS) and stilbene-related genes: phenylalanine ammonium lyase (PAL), stilbene synthase (StSy), and resveratrol synthase (RS). A screen of the population with respect to susceptibility to downy mildew of grapevine (Plasmopara viticola) revealed considerable variability. The subpopulation of genotypes with high stilbene inducibility was significantly less susceptible as compared with low-stilbene genotypes, and for representative genotypes it could be shown that the inducibility of stilbene synthase by UV correlated with the inducibility by the pathogen.
Project description:Resveratrol and its oligomers are biologically active compounds. This work brings new insights for the bioproduction of trans-resveratrol with three dimers, pallidol, trans-?-viniferin, and trans-?-viniferin, in cell suspension of Vitis labrusca. Conditions of elicitation by methyl jasmonate were optimized for the production of stilbenes using statistical design of experiment. Bio-production of stilbenes was scaled-up to 5 L and in these conditions, trans-resveratrol concentrations reached 237 mg/L, and for pallidol 114 mg/L. The comparison of different elicitation modes (different elicitors, combination with cyclodextrins or adsorbent resin) allowed to reach particularly high concentrations of target molecules: Resveratrol 6.14 g/L, pallidol 0.90 g/L, ?-viniferin 0.54 g/L, and ?-viniferin 0.50 g/L. Scale-up to 20 L-stirring-bioreactor gave similar growth rates to those observed in shake flask culture, with a high production of resveratrol (4.23 g/L) and ?-viniferin (0.76 g/L). This work provides new strategies for the production of stilbenes in plant cell suspension for biological and commercial evaluation.
Project description:Grapevine stilbenes are a family of polyphenols which derive from trans-resveratrol having antifungal and antimicrobial properties, thus being considered as phytoalexins. In addition to their diverse bioactive properties in animal models, they highlight a strong potential in human health maintenance and promotion. Due to this relevance, highly-specific qualitative and quantitative methods of analysis are necessary to accurately analyze stilbenes in different matrices derived from grapevine. Here, we developed a rapid, sensitive, and specific analysis method using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqQ) in MRM mode to detect and quantify five grapevine stilbenes, trans-resveratrol, trans-piceid, trans-piceatannol, trans-pterostilbene, and trans-?-viniferin, whose interest in relation to human health is continuously growing. The method was optimized to minimize in-source fragmentation of piceid and to avoid co-elution of cis-piceid and trans-resveratrol, as both are detected with resveratrol transitions. The applicability of the developed method of stilbene analysis was tested successfully in different complex matrices including cellular extracts of Vitis vinifera cell cultures, reaction media of biotransformation assays, and red wine.
Project description:It is currently possible to transfer a biosynthetic pathway from a plant to another organism. This system has been exploited to transfer the metabolic richness of certain plant species to other plants or even to more simple metabolic organisms such as yeast or bacteria for the production of high added value plant compounds. Another application is to bioconvert substrates into scarcer or biologically more interesting compounds, such as piceatannol and pterostilbene. These two resveratrol-derived stilbenes, which have very promising pharmacological activities, are found in plants only in small amounts. By transferring the human cytochrome P450 hydroxylase 1B1 (HsCYP1B1) gene to tobacco hairy roots and cell cultures, we developed a system able to bioconvert exogenous t-resveratrol into piceatannol in quantities near to mg L-1. Similarly, after heterologous expression of resveratrol O-methyltransferase from Vitis vinifera (VvROMT) in tobacco hairy roots, the exogenous t-resveratrol was bioconverted into pterostilbene. We also observed that both bioconversions can take place in tobacco wild type hairy roots (pRiA4, without any transgene), showing that unspecific tobacco P450 hydroxylases and methyltransferases can perform the bioconversion of t-resveratrol to give the target compounds, albeit at a lower rate than transgenic roots.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Plant cell cultures have been shown as feasible systems for the production of secondary metabolites, being the elicitation with biotic or abiotic stimuli the most efficient strategy to increase the production of those metabolites. Vitaceae phytoalexins constitute a group of molecules belonging to the stilbene family which are derivatives of the trans-resveratrol structure and are produced by plants and cell cultures as a response to biotic and abiotic stresses. The potential benefits of resveratrol on human health have made it one of the most thoroughly studied phytochemical molecules. The aim of this study was to evaluate the elicitor effect of both cyclodextrin (CD) and methyljasmonate (MeJA) on grapevine cell cultures by carrying out a quantitative analysis of their role on resveratrol production and on the expression of stilbene biosynthetic genes in Vitis vinifera cv Monastrell albino cell suspension cultures. FINDINGS: MeJA and CD significantly but transiently induced the expression of stilbene biosynthetic genes when independently used to treat grapevine cells. This expression correlated with resveratrol production in CD-treated cells but not in MeJA-treated cells, which growth was drastically affected. In the combined treatment of CD and MeJA cell growth was similarly affected, however resveratrol production was almost one order of magnitude higher, in correlation with maximum expression values for stilbene biosynthetic genes. CONCLUSION: The effect of MeJA on cell division combined with a true and strong elicitor like CD could be responsible for the observed synergistic effect of both compounds on resveratrol production and on the expression of genes in the stilbene pathway.
Project description:Large amounts of Morus alba L. (MA) roots are needed as the source of active stilbenes in the industrial production of traditional medicines and cosmeceuticals. A recent investigation demonstrated resveratrol and its derivatives to be promising anti-COVID-19 agents. However, conventional cultivation of MA does not meet the demand for its stilbenes, and root quality usually varies between crops. This study established the in vitro non-GMO root culture of MA and optimized the root density, precursor feeding, and elicitors for stilbene productivity. A root culture with optimal inoculum density (3 g/flask of 30 mL medium) accumulated mulberroside A, oxyresveratrol, and resveratrol at 18.7?±?1.00 mg/g, 136?±?5.05 µg/g, and 41.6?±?5.84 µg/g dry weight (DW), respectively. The feeding of L-tyrosine shortened the time required to reach the stilbene productive stage. Root cultures co-treated with 200 µM methyl jasmonate and 2 mg/mL yeast extract accumulated the highest contents of mulberroside A (30.3?±?2.68 mg/g DW), oxyresveratrol (68.6?±?3.53 µg/g DW), and resveratrol (10.2?±?0.53 µg/g DW). In summary, root culture is a promising and sustainable source of stilbenes for the development of health products and agents for further investigation as potential anti-COVID-19 agents.
Project description:Solid by-products generated in the winemaking process, can comprise valuable bioactive substances such as resveratrol and viniferin, which can be used in whole range of sectors including medicine, pharmacy, cosmetic industry etc. The changes in content of those stilbenes in extracts obtained by maceration and Soxhlet extraction were monitored using newly modified and validated high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method which was proved to be accurate, reproducible, and efficient for their determination. The yields of individual bioactive compounds isolated from winery by-products are crucially dependent on the conditions of used extraction techniques. From this point of view, stability testing including light exposure, elevated temperature, and storage for longer time periods in the solution, represents the basis for optimizing conditions of extraction methods of resveratrol and trans-?-viniferin. High temperature is beneficial for better release of thermally more stable stilbenes such as trans-resveratrol and trans-?-viniferin but its application for prolonged time periods can be destructive. Light stress conditions cause the formation of otherwise unavailable cis-?-viniferin by dimerization and photoisomerization of trans- stilbenes.
Project description:In this study, the effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on the phytomass and triterpenoid production of diploid and tetraploid Centella asiatica hairy roots were investigated. Hairy root cultures were obtained from diploid and induced tetraploid plants of C. asiatica infected by Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain ATCC 43057. MeJA triggered triterpenoid production in both ploidy hairy roots, whereas triterpenoids were not produced in the untreated hairy roots. Among the treatments, the 50?µM MeJA treatment yielded the maximum triterpenoid production in diploid hairy roots of 27.25?±?0.27?µg/mg Dry weight (DW) total triterpenoid at day 21. For the tetraploid hairy root cultures, the 28th-day hairy root culture produced a maximum amount of triterpenoids of 16.29?±?6.32?µg/mg DW in response to the 50?µM MeJA treatment, whereas the 100?µM MeJA treatment produced a similar triterpenoid amount (16.31?±?9.24?µg/mg DW) at day 14. Moreover, in response to 50?µM MeJA, we obtained different ratios of aglycone to glycoside, i.e., 1:7 and 1:2, between the diploid and tetraploid hairy root cultures. Asiaticoside was the dominant phytochemical, followed by asiatic acid and madecassic acid. This study provides valuable information for producing triterpenoids for C. asiatica commercial products and preparations by using hairy root cultures.