Developing HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors through Stereospecific Reactions in Protein Crystals.
ABSTRACT: Protease inhibitors are key components in the chemotherapy of HIV infection. However, the appearance of viral mutants routinely compromises their clinical efficacy, creating a constant need for new and more potent inhibitors. Recently, a new class of epoxide-based inhibitors of HIV-1 protease was investigated and the configuration of the epoxide carbons was demonstrated to play a crucial role in determining the binding affinity. Here we report the comparison between three crystal structures at near-atomic resolution of HIV-1 protease in complex with the epoxide-based inhibitor, revealing an in-situ epoxide ring opening triggered by a pH change in the mother solution of the crystal. Increased pH in the crystal allows a stereospecific nucleophile attack of an ammonia molecule onto an epoxide carbon, with formation of a new inhibitor containing amino-alcohol functions. The described experiments open a pathway for the development of new stereospecific protease inhibitors from a reactive lead compound.
Project description:A new pseudopeptide epoxide inhibitor, designed for irreversible binding to HIV protease (HIV-PR), has been synthesized and characterized in solution and in the solid state. However, the crystal structure of the complex obtained by inhibitor-enzyme cocrystallization revealed that a minor isomer, with inverted configuration of the epoxide carbons, has been selected by HIV-PR during crystallization. The structural characterization of the well-ordered pseudopeptide, inserted in the catalytic channel with its epoxide group intact, provides deeper insights into inhibitor binding and HIV-PR stereoselectivity, which aids development of future epoxide-based HIV inhibitors.
Project description:In an effort to identify a new class of druglike HIV-1 protease inhibitors, four different stereopure ?-hydroxy ?-lactam-containing inhibitors have been synthesized, biologically evaluated, and cocrystallized. The impact of the tether length of the central spacer (two or three carbons) was also investigated. A compound with a shorter tether and (3R,4S) absolute configuration exhibited high activity with a K(i) of 2.1 nM and an EC(50) of 0.64 ?M. Further optimization by decoration of the P1' side chain furnished an even more potent HIV-1 protease inhibitor (K(i) = 0.8 nM, EC(50) = 0.04 ?M). According to X-ray analysis, the new class of inhibitors did not fully succeed in forming two symmetric hydrogen bonds to the catalytic aspartates. The crystal structures of the complexes further explain the difference in potency between the shorter inhibitors (two-carbon spacer) and the longer inhibitors (three-carbon spacer).
Project description:A series of novel HIV-1 protease inhibitors based on two pseudosymmetric dipeptide isosteres have been synthesized and evaluated. The inhibitors were designed by incorporating N-phenyloxazolidinone-5-carboxamides into the hydroxyethylene and (hydroxyethyl)hydrazine dipeptide isosteres as P2 and P2' ligands. Compounds with (S)-phenyloxazolidinones attached at a position proximal to the central hydroxyl group showed low nM inhibitory activities against wild-type HIV-1 protease. Selected compounds were further evaluated for their inhibitory activities against a panel of multidrug-resistant protease variants and for their antiviral potencies in MT-4 cells. The crystal structures of lopinavir (LPV) and two new inhibitors containing phenyloxazolidinone-based ligands in complex with wild-type HIV-1 protease have been determined. A comparison of the inhibitor-protease structures with the LPV-protease structure provides valuable insight into the binding mode of the new inhibitors to the protease enzyme. Based on the crystal structures and knowledge of structure-activity relationships, new inhibitors can be designed with enhanced enzyme inhibitory and antiviral potencies.
Project description:Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease has been continuously evolving and developing resistance to all of the protease inhibitors. This requires the development of new inhibitors that bind to the protease in a novel fashion. Most of the inhibitors that are on the market are peptidomimetics, where a conserved water molecule mediates hydrogen bonding interactions between the inhibitors and the flaps of the protease. Recently a new class of inhibitors, lysine sulfonamides, was developed to combat the resistant variants of HIV protease. Here we report the crystal structure of a lysine sulfonamide. This inhibitor binds to the active site of HIV-1 protease in a novel manner, displacing the conserved water and making extensive hydrogen bonds with every region of the active site.
Project description:Chiral acyclic tertiary allylic alcohols are very important synthetic building blocks, but their enantioselective synthesis is often challenging. A major limitation in catalytic asymmetric 1,2-addition approaches to ketones is the enantioface differentiation by steric distinction of both ketone residues. Herein we report the development of a catalytic asymmetric Meisenheimer rearrangement to overcome this problem, as it proceeds in a stereospecific manner. This allows for high enantioselectivity also for the formation of products in which the residues at the generated tetrasubstituted stereocenter display a similar steric demand. Low catalyst loadings were found to be sufficient and the reaction conditions were mild enough to tolerate even highly reactive functional groups, such as an enolizable aldehyde, a primary tosylate, or an epoxide. Our investigations suggest an intramolecular rearrangement pathway.
Project description:HIV-1 protease inhibitors are effective in HIV/AIDS therapy, although drug resistance is a severe problem. This study examines the effects of four investigational inhibitors against HIV-1 protease with drug resistant mutations of V32I, I47V and V82I (PRTri) that model the inhibitor-binding site of HIV-2 protease. These inhibitors contain diverse chemical modifications on the darunavir scaffold and form new interactions with wild type protease, however, the measured inhibition constants for PRTri mutant range from 17 to 40?nM or significantly worse than picomolar values reported for wild type enzyme. The X-ray crystal structure of PRTri mutant in complex with inhibitor 1?at 1.5?Å resolution shows minor changes in interactions with inhibitor compared with the corresponding wild type PR complex. Instead, the basic amine at P2 of inhibitor together with mutation V82I induces two alternate conformations for the side chain of Arg8 with new interactions with inhibitor and Leu10. Hence, inhibition is influenced by small coordinated changes in hydrophobic interactions.
Project description:A series of new HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PIs) were designed using a general strategy that combines computational structure-based design with substrate-envelope constraints. The PIs incorporate various alcohol-derived P2 carbamates with acyclic and cyclic heteroatomic functionalities into the (R)-hydroxyethylamine isostere. Most of the new PIs show potent binding affinities against wild-type HIV-1 protease and three multidrug resistant (MDR) variants. In particular, inhibitors containing the 2,2-dichloroacetamide, pyrrolidinone, imidazolidinone, and oxazolidinone moieties at P2 are the most potent with K(i) values in the picomolar range. Several new PIs exhibit nanomolar antiviral potencies against patient-derived wild-type viruses from HIV-1 clades A, B, and C and two MDR variants. Crystal structure analyses of four potent inhibitors revealed that carbonyl groups of the new P2 moieties promote extensive hydrogen bond interactions with the invariant Asp29 residue of the protease. These structure-activity relationship findings can be utilized to design new PIs with enhanced enzyme inhibitory and antiviral potencies.
Project description:Crystal structures of inactive variants of HIV-1 protease bound to peptides have revealed how the enzyme recognizes its endogenous substrates. The best of the known substrates is, however, a nonnatural substrate that was identified by directed evolution. The crystal structure of the complex between this substrate and the D25N variant of the protease is reported at a resolution of 1.1 Å. The structure has several unprecedented features, especially the formation of additional hydrogen bonds between the enzyme and the substrate. This work expands the understanding of molecular recognition by HIV-1 protease and informs the design of new substrates and inhibitors.
Project description:We have designed, synthesized, and evaluated a new class of potent HIV-1 protease inhibitors with novel bicyclic oxazolidinone derivatives as the P2 ligand. We have developed an enantioselective synthesis of these bicyclic oxazolidinones utilizing a key o-iodoxybenzoic acid mediated cyclization. Several inhibitors displayed good to excellent activity toward HIV-1 protease and significant antiviral activity in MT-4 cells. Compound 4k has shown an enzyme Ki of 40 pM and antiviral IC50 of 31 nM. Inhibitors 4k and 4l were evaluated against a panel of highly resistant multidrug-resistant HIV-1 variants, and their fold-changes in antiviral activity were similar to those observed with darunavir. Additionally, two X-ray crystal structures of the related inhibitors 4a and 4e bound to HIV-1 protease were determined at 1.22 and 1.30 Å resolution, respectively, and revealed important interactions in the active site that have not yet been explored.